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Courbet realism essay

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Bad Interview and Resume Blunders: Tales from the courbet realism essay, Trenches. In today's competitive job market, small errors, omissions, and lapses in sound judgment can cost a job seeker an interview or a job offer. I turned to ip address assignment, hiring managers, recruiters, and HR professionals to courbet realism, hear about the bad interview and spanish resume mistakes some candidates make when searching for realism, employment. Blunder: A highly qualified recent graduate walked into an interview for a job she really wanted and tried to overcome her nervousness by going too far in the other direction. She sat back in her chair, arms crossed, legs crossed, swinging her top leg, and teaching argumentative essay esl basically signaling I'm bored. How long is this going to take?

She sunk herself immediately. -- Nadine Mockler, President, The Launching Pad and Flexible Resources, Inc. Tip: Hiring managers often decide whether or not they want to hire you in the first five minutes. Your body language is important. Lean forward rather than back to show engagement and interest in the conversation. Keep arms uncrossed (crossing them may suggest you are not open to what the courbet essay, other person is saying). Don't fidget and remember to smile. Esl. (See What Your Body Language Says About You .) Blunder: A candidate interviewing for a high-level engineering position was invited back for a final interview with his peers. While the engineers were making small talk, the candidate walked down the dangerous path of getting too pal-sy with the other engineers.

He made several inappropriate comments and cracked a Rogaine joke with one of the balding engineers. Courbet Realism Essay. -- Jenny Foss, Recruiter, Ladder Recruiting. Tip: No matter how comfortable or casual the interview setting, you are still on an interview. Professionalism is required. Blunder: I run regional operations across several states and spanish school I often conduct interviews in areas where we don't have an office nearby so I meet applicants in coffee houses, restaurants, and courbet realism hotels. An advantage of exotic essays wharton conducting interviews in public places is that I get to realism essay, see how candidates interact with others.

Recently when conducting an ip address interview in a local coffeehouse, the person I was interviewing was politely interrupted by a waitress who inquired if he would like a refill on his beverage. Courbet Essay. His terse dismissal of if I need something I'll let you know, OK? pretty much ended the interview for me. If a candidate can't conduct themselves in a polite and professional manner throughout an interview, what can I expect when they are hired? -- Jim Wyatt, Operations Manager. Tip: Treat everyone whom you encounter during an 2-chunk essay interview with respect. Many hiring managers ask the receptionist how the candidate acted in courbet essay, the reception area or ask more junior team members their opinion of the candidate. If you are invited to a lunch interview, don't order anything exceptionally messy or overly expensive. Pass on the hard liquor and be polite to the wait-staff. Blunder: I was at a job fair and a job seeker told me she was planning to be very careful about interviewing the hiring company.

I told her that was wise and I agreed that every interview goes both ways. Then she showed me her resume. It included an objective at the top -- which is now outdated on resumes -- that stated that she respected her mental and physical health too much to get involved with any company looking to hire someone to teaching argumentative esl, fit into a dysfunctional team. -- Debra Yergen, Author, Creating Job Security Resource Guide. Courbet Realism Essay. Tip: Start your resume off with a professional summary that quickly showcases your professional identity and value to reasoning, the company rather than an courbet realism essay objective. An objective tells the employer what you want and the employer doesn't really care about what you want but rather if you can solve their business problems. Wretched Wharton. And some of the courbet essay, things you may want in 2-chunk essay, your next job are better off left unsaid. You find out the subtleties of the corporate culture through the interview process. Realism. If it turns out the company is not a good fit, you can always walk away from the interview process. Coursework School. Better to get your foot in courbet realism essay, the door first than have the door slammed in your face because you disclosed something on the resume that makes your intentions look questionable. (See Resume Objective: Nobody Cares .) Blunder: A candidate with 25 years of 2-chunk essay experience told me he heard our company had a partnership with a high-end fitness club with a pool and that the attendees iron your clothes when you work out so you can be fresh when you go back to work. His question was, is that true? -- Renee Brown, CEO Career Transformation Specialist, Your Career My Advice.

Tip: Before you have a job offer, all the questions you ask the employer should be about the job and the company, not the benefits. When you ask about the benefits package before there is a job offer, you may come across as someone who is only interested in your needs and not the company's needs. Blunder: An attorney interviewing with a top-rate law firm listed his spelling bee awards on his resume. Not only were they outdated (from his high school years) but he spelled one of the courbet essay, entries Speling Bee Champion. -- Amy K Savage, Esq. Dramatic Duchess. Attorney Recruiter and Director, Lateral Link Group. Realism. Tip: Use spell check and proof read your resume several times before submitting. Try reading the document backwards. This strategy will force you to slow down and examine each word closely.

Another tip is to ask a few other people to proofread the resume to essay esl, catch mistakes you may have missed. Blunder: I was the hiring attorney at a law firm for six years. One new lawyer sent an courbet essay application that included a cover letter with a couple of ip address assignment misused big words. Since her qualifications were excellent, I brought her in to interview with our attorneys anyway. In every interview she used several big words and realism got every one of them wrong.

It was like she had studied vocabulary flashcards and dramatic monologue my last duchess essay mixed up which words went with which meanings. Realism. -- Piper Hoffman, Rock the monologue essay, Boat blog. Tip: Don't try to appear smarter than you are or be something you are not. Concentrate on showcasing how your skills, knowledge, and past successes can be leveraged to help a future employer. Realism. Blunder: An applicant brought urine to an interview thinking he might have to take a drug test. Reasoning. Urine tested as not human. -- Michael Hayes, Owner, Momentum Specialized Staffing. Blunder: The candidate completed her application using a pink highlighter. Disqualified! -- Brandy Nagel, Brandy's Atlanta Events and courbet essay Scoop.

Tip: Every document you submit to a potential employer is a reflection of you and your personal brand. Inductive Reasoning Essay. Make sure everything you present to an employer is professional. Courbet. (See Make Your Job Application Stand Out: Tips from HR Guru Brian Philips .) Blunder: A candidate listed taxidermy and charcuterie as hobbies on his resume. Teaching. Tip: List hobbies if they are relevant to your job target. And if they are just plain weird, leave them off!

Blunder: A candidate was coached to wear her best clothes to the interview. Turns out the candidate took the essay, advice to heart and wore her wedding dress. Wretched. -- Catherine Byers Breet, Chief Stripe Changer, Arbez. Tip: Dress professionally but appropriately for the interview. If you have a contact at the company, ask that person about the essay, dress code. If possible, hang out for a bit in the lobby of the company the day before the essay esl, interview to courbet realism essay, see what people are wearing and coursework dress one level up from that. (See What Not to realism essay, Wear: 10 Job Interview Clothing Faux Pas .) Want more news like this? Sign up for Finance Report by spanish AOL and get everything from courbet realism essay business news to personal finance tips delivered directly to your inbox daily! Emails may offer personalized content or ads. Learn more. You may unsubscribe any time.

Evan Spiegel says this is the top thing his employees have asked him to dramatic duchess, get better. Courbet Realism Essay. This is the spanish coursework, fastest-growing $100K+ job in the country. Rachel Bilson squashes hope of a reconciliation with Hayden Christensen by buying . Yahoo says all 3 billion accounts hacked in 2013 data theft. Two Wall Street giants criticize Trump tax plan. Whole Foods is cutting prices — and it#39;s hitting Trader Joe#39;s hard. Courbet Realism. Whole Foods and Walmart are battling for teaching essay esl, one crucial set of customers — and it rev. Warren Buffett#39;s new stake in truck stops adds another layer to his big bet on the. Quick Dirty Tips. Why Tom Brady#39;s TB12 Method is a Lesson On Prehab. Quick Dirty Tips. 20 harsh, but necessary, lessons you learn in your 20s.

Try this trick to go straight to courbet, sleep. Ep. 57: Lewis Howes on What Makes a Leader Stand Out. 5 Characteristics of Highly Successful People. 5 Books That Can Change Your Life. 2017 Oath Inc. All rights reserved. Sign up for Finance Report by AOL and get everything from breaking finance news to money-saving tricks delivered directly to your inbox daily! Emails may offer personalized content or ads.

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Essay on Gustave Courbet, the Realist - 1168 Words | Bartleby

oedipus irony essay Literary Terms and Definitions: A. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. A POSTERIORI : In rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, a belief or proposition is said to be a posteriori if it can only be determined through observation (Palmer 381). Realism! In general, these are inductive arguments in which the wretched exotic wharton in europe thinker puts forth a belief or proposition as a universal rule she or he puts forth in response to courbet realism essay an example seen in vs deductive reasoning nature--the specific observed example comes first, and the logical argument follows on a universal level later. A PRIORI : In rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, an argument is said to courbet essay be a priori if its truth can be known or inferred independently of any direct perception. Coursework! Logic, geometry, and mathematics are usually held as such (Palmer 381). In general, these a priori arguments rely upon deductive reasoning--fashioning a general statement that should (in terms of logic) be true, and then applying the argument to a specific instance--i.e., the courbet realism essay universal statement comes first, and then specific applications in the real world are expected to match it. ABBEY THEATRE : The center of the dramatic monologue duchess essay Irish Dramatic movment founded in 1899 by W. B. Yeats and Lady Gregory, built with the express purpose of presenting Irish plays performed by Irish actors.

It opened in 1904 and began showing plays by almost every Irish playwright of renown. AB OVO (Latin, from the egg): This phrase refers to a narrative that starts at the beginning of the plot, and then moves chronologically through a sequence of events to essay the tale's conclusion. This pattern is the opposite of a tale that begins in medias res , one in which the narrative starts in the middle of reasoning essay, things, well into the middle of the plot, and then proceeds to explain earlier events through the characters' dialogue, memories, or flashbacks. Horace coins the phrase in his treatise, Ars Poeticae , a treatise not to be confused with the Poetics of courbet, Aristotle. Contrast with in medias res . ABECEDARIAN : See discussion under acrostic , below. ABLAUT : Jacob Grimm's term for the way in which Old English strong verbs formed their preterites by a vowel change. This is also called gradation . An example would be the principal parts of Old English strong verbs such as I sing , I sang , and I sung . ABOLITIONIST LITERATURE : Literature, poetry , pamphlets, or propaganda written in the nineteenth century for the express purpose of condemning slaveholders, encouraging the spanish coursework school release and courbet realism essay emancipation of slaves, or abolishing slavery altogether. This literature might take the form of autobiographical writings (in the case of many slave narratives ) or fictional accounts such as Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin . 2-chunk Essay! Such writings rely heavily on pathos for rhetorical technique. ABOVE, THE : Also called the aloft and realism sometimes used interchangeably with the wharton Heavens , this term refers to the gallery on the upper level of the frons scenae . In Shakespeare's Globe Theater, this area contained the realism lords' rooms, but the center of this location was also used by the actors for short scenes.

On the exotic essays wharton in europe other hand, in most indoor theaters like the Blackfriars Theater, musicians above the stage would perform in a curtained alcove here. ABSTRACT DICTION / ABSTRACT IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that cannot be perceived with the five senses. For instance, calling something pleasant or pleasing is abstract, while calling something yellow or sour is concrete. Essay! The word domesticity is abstract, but the word sweat is concrete. The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the teaching essay early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the realism essay distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of assignment, some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Courbet! T. Ip Address! S. Eliot added to courbet realism essay this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. 2-chunk Essay! Contrast with concrete diction / concrete imagery . ABSTRACT POEM : Verse that makes little sense grammatically or syntactically but which relies on auditory patterns to create its meaning or poetic effects; Dame Edith Sitwell popularized the term, considering this verse form the equivalent of courbet essay, abstract painting (Deutsche 7). Sitwell's poems from her collection Façade are samples of this genre , including her poem Hornpipe. A sample from this poem appears below:

Watched the courses of the breakers' rocking-horses and ip address assignment with Glaucis. Lady Venus on courbet realism essay, the settee of the horsehair sea! (qtd. in teaching argumentative esl Deutsche 7) ABUSIO : A type of catachresis known as the mixed metaphor. The term is often used in a derogatory manner. See discussion and examples under catachresis . ACATALECTIC : A normal line of poetry with the expected number of syllables in each line, as opposed to courbet realism essay a catalectic line (which is missing an expected syllable) or a hypercatalectic line (which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected, perhaps due to anacrusis ). See discussion under catalectic . ACATALEXIS : The use of acatalectic lines in poetry--see discussion under catalectic . ACCENT : (1) A recognizable manner of 2-chunk essay, pronouncing words--often associated with a class, caste, ethnic group, or geographic region.

Thus, Americans might be able to discern a Boston accent or a Texas accent by sound alone, or they might place a foreign speaker's origin by noting a French or Russian accent. (2) The degree of stress given to a syllable--an important component of meter . (3) Any diacritical mark. Click here to courbet realism view diacritical marks . ACCENTUAL VERSE : A verse pattern used heavily in ip address assignment Russian and Czech literature. More information TBA . ACEPHALOUS : From Greek headless, acephalous lines are lines in normal iambic pentameter that contain only nine syllables rather than the expected ten. The first syllable, which is stressed, counts as a full metric foot by itself. Courbet Realism Essay! All acephalous lines by definition are catalectic . See foot and dramatic duchess meter . ACMEISM : A 1912 Russian poetry movement reacting against the Symbolist movement (Harkins 1). Acmeists protested against the mystical tendencies of the essay Symbolists; they opposed ambiguity in essay poetry, calling for a return to precise, concrete imagery. Prominent members of the movement include Nikolay Gumilyov and Sergey Gorodetski. ACRONYM (From Greek acron + onyma ; tip or end of courbet, a name): A word formed from the initial letters in a phrase. For instance, many caucasians in coursework America are called WASPs.

In this acronym, the letters W. A. S. P . Realism Essay! stand for the first letters in the descriptive phrase, W hite A nglo- S axon P rotestant. Acronyms are quite common in governmental bureaucracies, in businesses, in political jargon, and in high-tech products. Other examples include AIDS ( A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome), NIMBY , ( N ot I n M y B ack Y ard), and OPEC ( O rganization of P etroleum E xporting C ountries). Inductive Vs Deductive Essay! In the realm of technology, we find that radar comes from R.A.D.A.R. ( RA dio D etection A nd R anging), and laser from L.A.S.E.R. ( L ight A mplification by S timulated E mission of courbet realism essay, R adiation). In general, acronyms first appear with periods to indicate the abbreviations, (e. g. Vs Deductive Reasoning Essay! L. A. S. Realism Essay! E. R). As the term becomes more widespread, the ip address periods vanish (e.g. LASER), and eventually the courbet realism essay capitalization falls away as the word enters common usage (e.g. laser ). Note that acronyms contrast with alphabetisms , in which the word is pronounced aloud by using the vs deductive essay names of the actual letters--such as the IRS ( I nternal R evenue S ervice), which is pronounced as three-syllables. If it were a true acronym, IRS would be a one-syllable word rhyming with worse. Acronyms and alphabetisms are most useful when they allow a speaker to create a new, short, efficient term for a long unwieldy phrase. They are least useful when they obscure the truth, when they enable technobabble and unnecessary jargon.

Even English historical scholarship has fallen into the habit, commonly referring to courbet essay the historical Great Vowel Shift as the GVS , and the Oxford English Dictionary as the OED , to give two examples. Contrast with anagram . ACROSTIC : A poem in which the first or last letters of wretched, each line vertically form a word, phrase, or sentence. Apart from puzzles in newspapers and realism magazines, the most common modern versions involve the first letters of each line forming a single word when read downwards. An acrostic that involves the sequential letters of the alphabet is said to be an abecedarius or an abecedarian poem. Acrostics may have first been used as a mnemonic device to aid with oral transmission. In the Old Testament, some of the Hebrew Psalms include acrostic devices. Chaucer also wrote acrostics such as his ABC ( Prior a nostre dame ) in his younger days. Acrostics are also common in Kabbalistic charms and word squares, including the Cirencester word square of inductive vs deductive reasoning, Roman origin: Abecedarian acrostics were also a common genre in classical Hebrew poetry.

For instance, Psalm 118 in courbet essay the Douay-Rheims numbering of the wretched exotic on edith wharton Bible (or number 119 in the King James numbering of the Bible) is an abecedarian acrostic, with each stanza headed by one of the letters of the essay Hebrew alphabet, such as Aleph, Beth, Gimel, and so on. Similar acrostics appear in Lamentations 3. Renaissance examples of acrostic poetry include the preface to Ben Jonson's The Alchemist. If a poem is built so that the last letters in each line form a word, rather than the first, the reasoning poem is called a telestich . ACT : A major division in realism a play. Often, individual acts are divided into smaller units (scenes) that all take place in ip address assignment a specific location. Originally, Greek plays were not divided into acts. They took place as a single whole interrupted occasionally by the chorus 's singing. In Roman times, a five-act structure first appeared based upon Horace's recommendations. This five-act structure became a convention of drama (and especially tragedy ) during the Renaissance. (Shakespeare's plays have natural divisions that can be taken as the breaks between acts as well; later editors inserted clear act and scene markings in these locations.) From about 1650 CE onward, most plays followed the five-act model.

In the 1800s, Ibsen and Chekhov favored a four-act play, and in the 1900s, most playwrights preferred a three-act model, though two-act plays are not uncommon. ACTION : A real or fictional event or series of courbet, such events comprising the subject of spanish coursework school, a novel, story, narrative poem, or a play, especially in the sense of what the courbet essay characters do in such a narrative. Action, along with dialogue and the characters' thoughts, form the skeleton of a narrative's plot . ACYRON : The improper or odd application of a word, such as speaking of streams of graces (Shipley 5). When the result is humorous or deliberately absurd, the acyron becomes a malapropism . ADAGE : A proverb or wise saying. ADAGY : The act of speaking or writing in adages. ADAPTATION : Taking material from an older source and altering it or updating it in a new genre. For instance, John Webster's The Duchess of spanish school, Malfi is a play adapted from an older Italian novella. Many of Shakespeare's history plays are adaptations of Holinshed's chronicles, etc. For modern artists, if the adaptation's source is unacknowledged, the adaptation may constitute plagiarism under modern conventions. Contrast with ecphrasis . ADDITIVE MONSTER : In contrast with the composite monster , mythologists and folklorists use the label additive monster to describe a creature from mythology or legend that has an altered number of body parts rather than body parts from courbet essay, multiple animals added together.

For instance, the Scandinavian Ettin, a troll or giant with two heads, is an 2-chunk essay additive monster. Sleipnir, the magical horse in Norse mythology, is a regular horse, except it has eight legs. Deities and demons in the Hindu pantheon often have multiple arms or eyes. Courbet Realism! The term has also been loosely applied to fantastic creatures that have modified limbs as well. For instance, the gyascutis is a fantastic medieval beast that resembles a sheep, except its limbs vary in teaching essay esl length. Its front legs are drastically shortened, and its hind legs are drastically lengthened, which allows it to remain level as it grazes on the incline of courbet realism essay, steep hills. ADVANCED PRONUNCIATION : In linguistics, John Algeo defines this as an early instance of a historical sound change in monologue my last progress (311). Realism! This early adoption of a new pronunciation is the opposite of a retarded pronunciation , in which an older pronunciation lingers in a dialect even after a newer pronunciation appears in other regions. ADVENTURE NOVEL : Any novel in which exciting events and fast paced actions are more important than character development, theme, or symbolism. Examples include Alexandre Dumas's The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers , H. Rider Haggard's King Solomon's Mines , or Edgar Rice Burrough's Tarzan of the exotic essays wharton Apes . AERLINN (Sindarin, aer + lin , ocean-song, sometimes spelled aerlin ): As part of his subcreation , Tolkien sought to fill out his imaginary words with complete histories, mythologies, and poetic traditions. Accordingly, he invented the aerlinn , an imaginary genre of Elvish poetry that Tolkien devised to be background for The Lord of the Rings.

Aerlinns are hymns with a seven-line stanza-structure rhyming aababcc. The form may be loosely inspired by courbet realism essay, the seven-line stanza invented by Chaucer in the fourteenth century that later came into its own as rhime royal . The aerlinn' s conventional theme would be a paean or an apostrophe , usually to Elbereth or another of the essays on edith in europe Valar . Tolkien's etymology for the word connects holiness with the ocean. In his mythos , the potentially immortal Elves eventually suffer a sea-longing. They feel a compulsion that calls them to sail over the western sea to join the Valar and realism leave behind the world of men. Below is a sample aerlinn in Elvish from the end of chapter one, Merry Meetings, in The Two Towers : A Elbereth Gilthoniel, silivren penna miriel. o menel aglar elenath! o galadhremmin ennorath. Fanuilos, le linnathon. AESC (also spelled ash in assignment Anglo-Saxon): A letter in the Old Norse runic alphabet indicating the sound /æ/ as in realism the word at vs deductive reasoning essay, . Aesc lends its name to the letter ash commonly used in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Click here for more information.

AESOPIC LANGUAGE : In Russian criticism, the realism essay name for oppositional political writing hidden in circumlocution, fables, and vague references so that it can bypass official censorship (Harkins 1). Coursework School! The term refers to Aesop's Fabula , a collection of beast fables in which simple stories about animals contained morals or messages between the lines, so to speak. Courbet Realism Essay! The coinage of the term comes from 2-chunk essay, Saltykov, who is both the first to use the term in this sense and the one whom many modern Russian critics consider the best example of such writings (Harkins 1). AESTHETIC DISTANCE : An effect of courbet realism, tone, diction, and presentation in poetry creating a sense of an experience removed from irrelevant or accidental events. This sense of intentional focus seems intentionally organized or framed by events in the poem so that it can be more fully understood by quiet contemplation. Typically, the reader is less emotionally involved or impassioned--reacting to the material in a calmer manner. AESTHETICISM : (1) In general, any literary movement that encourages critical or artistic focus on spanish school, the experience of beauty rather than focuses on didactic messages or seeking truth. (2) More specifically, a Victorian literary movement in the 19th Century spearheaded by Walter Pater.

Pater believed the courbet realism essay goal of art was to make those experiencing it live their lives more intensely and encourage the pursuit of beauty. AFFIX : James Algeo defines an affix as a morpheme added to a base or stem to modify its meaning (311). If an argumentative essay esl affix attaches to the beginning of realism essay, a stem (or base word), the affix is called a prefix . Exotic Wharton! If an affix is attached to the end of a stem, the affix is called a suffix . Essay! From Old English, Modern English speakers gain prefixes like un- ( unlike, undo, unafraid ). From Latin, we gain prefixes like re- ( redo, replay, reactivate ). From Old English, we gain suffixes such as -dom (kingdom, freedom). From Latin, we gain suffixes such as -ician ( beautician, mortician ) and -orium ( pastorium , i.e., a Baptist parsonage). From Greek -izein , we gain the popular verb ending -ize ( criticize, harmonize, pasteurize , even neologisms like finalize ). AFFIXATION : Making words by adding an argumentative affix to a previously existing base word or stem. For instance, the affix -ly can be added to the base word (or stem) quick to create the realism word quickly . Spanish Coursework! This process is affixation. See also affix . Contrast with declension . AFFRICATIVE : A sound stop with a fricative release. Affricatives involve a stop plus a movment through a fricative position (i.e., the blade of the tongue initially moves up in the position of a stop, but then move through a fricative or spirant position rather than remaining in courbet essay the stop position).The affricatives include two different sounds.

The first sound is found in j u dg e , g em , sol di er , and essay spina ch . The second affricative sound is that sound found in ch ur ch , bu tch er , i tch , ni ch e , and essay c ello . AFRO-ASIATIC : A family of languages separate from Indo-European languages . The two main branches of exotic essays on edith wharton, Afro-Asiatic are Hamitic and Semitic. Other examples of realism, non-Indo-European languages can be found elsewhere on essays in europe, this website. AGGLUTINATIVE (from Latin, glued to): In a now outdated linguistic classification, an agglutinative language was any language with complicated but (for the courbet most part) regular derivational forms (Algeo 311)--especially those based on exotic essays on edith wharton in europe, single-syllable morphemes. Courbet! This term or classifaction first appeared in 1836 in the linguistic theories of wretched exotic, Wilhelm von Humboldt. Agglutinative languages were thought to include Turkish, Basque, Hungarian, and many Tibeto-Burman languages. These were were originally thought to be more advanced or developed than isolating languages like Chinese in which every word was formed by courbet essay, distinct monosyllables. On the other hand, agglutatinative languages were thought to be more primitive than incorporative or inflective languages such as Eskimo and Latin, respectively. Modern historical, linguistic, and anthropological findings have largely demolished the earlier arguments. The primary problem is that this classification depends upon dramatic my last duchess essay the assumption that primitive languages tend to be formed from monosyllables, and advanced languages were thought to become gradually polysyllabic.

However, many language like Chinese may have grown more monosyllabic over a process of thousands of years, for instance, disproving this idea. Courbet Essay! It is now clear that languages can actually grow simpler over time, rather than growing more complicated. AGRARIAN IDEALISM : The conviction that farming is an especially virtuous occupation in comparison with trade, craftsmanship, manufacturing, or other means of commerce. Romans like Hesiod and Virgil, for instance, praised the simple, hard-working ethics of the Roman farmer. (See the Eclogues for an example.) Jefferson dreamed of a future America composed primarily of gentlemen-farmers who lived off the fruits of their plantations without the need for outside trade in his Queries . The agrarian ideal manifested equally strong in Romantic writings as one form of the American Dream motif. AGREEMENT : Having different parts of a sentence agree with each other in grammatical number, gender, case, mood, or tense. In British grammar books, agreement is also called concord . AIDED (plural: aideda ): A tale in prose or mixed prose and poetry in wretched on edith in europe which a hero, poet, or ruler suffers a violent death, often occurring at a liminal time or place such as the Samhain festival or at an otherworldly banquet-hall. Frequently the ending follows the motif of the threefold death . According to Dan Wiley's article in Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia , some thirty-five such tales explicitly labeled aideda survive from Old or Middle Irish between 650-1250 C.E. Courbet! (see Duffy 10-11).

AIDOS : The Greek term for the great shame felt by a hero after failure. AISLING (Irish Gaelic: dream, vision, pronounced ash-ling): a genre of Irish political poetry popular in the 1600s and 1700s in which a Spéirbhean appears who mourns the essay recent down-fallen status of Ireland and essay predicts a coming return to fortune, often linked with the return of a Stuart ruler to the throne of inductive vs deductive reasoning essay, Britain. Courbet! In later centuries, the form often became used satirically or jokingly. The most famous example of aisling poetry is Róisín Dubh , and wretched exotic the earliest major aisling poet was Aodhagán Ó Rathaille, often called the father of the courbet realism aisling . Cf. My Last! visio . AKEDAH : The akedah is realism essay, a section of Genesis including Genesis 22:1-19, of foundational importance in the three Abrahamic traditions of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. ALAZON : A stock character in Greek drama, the essay alazon is a stupid braggart who is courbet, easily tricked by the clever eiron who tells the alazon what he wants to hear. ALBA (Provençal dawn): A medieval lyric or morning serenade about the coming of dawn. The alba's refrain typically ends with the word dawn. The theme can be religious, but more frequently the theme focuses on two lovers parting with the coming of day. Argumentative Essay Esl! Cf. the more common term used in English, the closely related aubade . ALCAICS : A stanza written in alcaics is written in the meter created by the Greek poet Alcaeus.

This stanza-form was later used with slight changes by the poet Horace. Realism! An example in English appears in Tennyson's imitation, as appears below: O mighty-mouthed inventor of assignment, harmonies, O skill'd to sing of Time or eternity, God-gifted organ-voice of England, Milton, a name to resound for ages.

ALCHEMY : The medieval and Renaissance precursor to realism modern chemistry, characterized by 2-chunk essay, mystical philosophy and essay attempts to 2-chunk essay turn base metals such as lead and tin into noble metals such as gold and silver. The tenets of alchemy were based on the theory of the four elements (see elements, the four ), in essay which all matter was composed of varying proportions of four substances--air, earth, water, and fire. Each element had a corresponding type of spirit associated with it--sylphs, gnomes, undines, and duchess essay salamanders. While alchemical beliefs were taken seriously as a matter of courbet realism, pseudo-scientifical inquiry in 2-chunk essay early centuries, by the end of the medieval period, the practice was often synonymous with chicanery and con-artistry. Chaucer's Canon Yeoman's Tale focuses on the deceptions of false alchemical practitioners, and Shakespeare's The Tempest borrows heavily from realism essay, alchemical lore in its depiction of the island's magical spirits. Essay Esl! In later, more enlightened times, alchemical beliefs became a subject of mockery. Alexander Pope's mock epic , The Rape of the Lock , employs the traditional alchemical spirits, but alters their purpose so that their primary duties involve protecting young girls' virginity from the advances of handsome rakes, for instance. Click here for a downloadable PDF chart of the elements. ALEXANDRINE : A twelve-syllable line written in iambic hexameter. Alexandrines were especially popular in French poetry for drama between 1500-1800 CE, but their invention dates back to the late 1100s.

The earliest medieval examples include Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne à Jérusalem and Roman d'Alexandre (from which the essay name alexandrine comes). Racine in particular makes good use of teaching argumentative esl, it in Andromaque . Classical French Alexandrines are a bit different from modern English ones in that a strong stress falls on the on the sixth and last syllables with a wandering unstressed syllable that can appear in-between the strong stresses on each side of the caesura. An example of an English Alexandrine appears in the second line of realism essay, Alexander Pope's couplet: A needless Alexandrine ends the song. That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.

The form has been less popular in English, and Pope actually mocks it in coursework school his Essay on Criticism. Realism! However, Spenser uses an Alexandrine to ip address good effect as part of his spenserian stanza . Robert Bridges speaks of his loose Alexandrines in The Testament of Beauty , which consists of unrhymed, metrically irregular twelve-syllable lines (though in many cases, the twelve-syllables are the result of courbet essay, elision). ALLEGORY : The word derives from the 2-chunk essay Greek allegoria (speaking otherwise). The term loosely describes any writing in verse or prose that has a double meaning. This narrative acts as an extended metaphor in which persons, abstract ideas, or events represent not only themselves on realism, the literal level, but they also stand for something else on the symbolic level. An allegorical reading usually involves moral or spiritual concepts that may be more significant than the actual, literal events described in a narrative.

Typically, an allegory involves the interaction of multiple symbols, which together create a moral, spiritual, or even political meaning. The act of interpreting a story as if each object in it had an allegorical meaning is called allegoresis . If we wish to be more exact, an exotic in europe allegory is an courbet essay act of interpretation, a way of understanding, rather than a genre in and of itself. Poems, novels, or plays can all be allegorical, in whole or in wretched exotic on edith wharton part. These allegories can be as short as a single sentence or as long as a ten volume book. The label allegory comes from an realism essay interaction between symbols that creates a coherent meaning beyond that of the literal level of interpretation. Probably the dramatic monologue my last duchess essay most famous allegory in English literature is John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678), in courbet realism which the hero named Christian flees the City of Destruction and monologue travels through the Valley of the Shadow of realism, Death, Vanity Fair, Doubting Castle, and wretched exotic on edith finally arrives at the Celestial City. The entire narrative is a representation of the human soul's pilgrimage through temptation and doubt to reach salvation in heaven. Medieval works were frequently allegorical, such as the plays Mankind and Everyman . Other important allegorical works include mythological allegories like Apuleius' tale of Cupid and Psyche in The Golden Ass and realism Prudentius' Psychomachiae . More recent non-mythological allegories include Spenser's The Faerie Queene , Swift's Gulliver's Travels , Butler's Erewhon , and George Orwell's Animal Farm . The following illustrative passage comes from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory , 3rd edition (Penguin Books, 1991). Dramatic Duchess Essay! I have Americanized the courbet essay British spelling and punctuation: To distinguish more clearly we can take the old Arab fable of the frog and the scorpion, who met one day on the bank of the vs deductive essay River Nile, which they both wanted to cross. The frog offered to ferry the scorpion over on his back provided the scorpion promised not to sting him.

The scorpion agreed so long as the courbet essay frog would promise not to drown him. The mutual promises exchanged, they crossed the river. On the far bank the scorpion stung the frog mortally. Why did you do that? croaked the frog, as it lay dying. Why? replied the scorpion, We're both Arabs, aren't we? If we substitute for a frog a Mr. Goodwill or a Mr. Prudence, and for inductive reasoning essay the scorpion Mr. Treachery or Mr.

Two-Face, and make the river any river and essay substitute for We're both Arabs . . Essays On Edith Wharton In Europe! . Courbet Realism Essay! We're both men . Exotic In Europe! . . we turn the courbet realism essay fable [which illustrates human tendencies by 2-chunk essay, using animals as illustrative examples] into an allegory [a narrative in realism which each character and essay action has symbolic meaning]. On the other hand, if we turn the realism frog into a father and the scorpion into inductive vs deductive reasoning essay, a son (boatman and passenger) and we have the son say We're both sons of God, aren't we?, then we have a parable (if a rather cynical one) about the realism essay wickedness of human nature and the sin of parricide. (22) ALLIOSIS : While presenting a reader with only two alternatives may result in the logical fallacy known as false dichotomy or either/or fallacy, creating a parallel sentence using two alternatives in parallel structure can be an coursework school effective device rhetorically and artistically. Alliosis is the courbet rhetorical use of any isocolon parallel sentence that presents two choices to the reader, e.g., You can eat well, or you can sleep well. Exotic Wharton! For more information, see schemes. ALLITERATION : Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound. For instance, the essay phrase buckets of big blue berries alliterates with the dramatic consonant b . Coleridge describes the sacred river Alph in courbet Kubla Khan as Five miles meandering with a mazy motion , which alliterates with the consonant m . The line apt alliteration's artful aid alliterates with the vowel sound a . One of Dryden's couplets in Absalom and Achitophel reads, In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin, / Before polygamy was made a sin . It alliterates with the letter p . Walt Whitman's Song of teaching argumentative esl, Myself employs the technique: I l ean and l oaf at my ea s e ob s erving a s pear of s ummer gra ss . Most frequently, the courbet essay alliteration involves the sounds at the beginning of words in 2-chunk essay close proximity to each other. Alliteration is an example of a rhetorical scheme. Alliteration in realism which the first letters of words are the same (as opposed to consonants alliterating in the middles or ends of inductive essay, words) is more specifically called head rhyme , which is a bit of a misnomer since it doesn't actually involve rhyme in a technical sense. If alliteration also involves changes in the intervening vowels between repeated consonants, the technique is called consonance . See alliterative verse , alliterative prose , assonance , and consonance . See also alliterative revival and sound symbolism . ALLITERATIVE PROSE: Many texts of Old English and essay Middle English prose use the spanish same techniques as alliterative verse . Aelfric (c. 955-1010 CE) and essay Wulfstan (d.

1023) wrote many treatises using skillful alliteration. The Herefordshire texts known collectively as the The Katherine Group ( Hali Meiohad , Sawles Warde , Seinte Katerine , Seinte Marherete , Seinte Iuliene ) are some examples in Middle English. ALLITERATIVE REVIVAL: The general increase or surge in alliterative poetry composed in the second half of the ip address assignment 14th century in England. Alliteration had been the formalistic focus in Old English poetry, but after 1066 it began to be replaced by the new convention of rhyme, which southern courtly poets were using due to the influence of realism essay, continental traditions in the Romance languages like Latin and French. On Edith Wharton! Between 1066 and courbet 1300, hardly any poetic manuscripts using the inductive essay alliterative form survive. There are two theories to explain this absence. Theory number one argues this absence is a quirk of essay, textual history, and that individuals were still writing alliterative verse, but by coincidence none of the manuscripts survive to the modern period, or that the tradition survived in oral form only and was never written down. The second theory suggests that, after alliterative verse had been mostly abandoned, a surge of exotic essays, regionalism or nationalism encouraged northern poets to return to courbet realism essay it during the mid- and late-1300s. In either case, during this time, Piers Plowman , Sir Gawain and 2-chunk essay the Green Knight and other important medieval poems were written using alliterative techniques. See alliteration , above, and alliterative verse , below.

ALLITERATIVE VERSE: A traditional form of essay, Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse poetry in which each line has at least four stressed syllables, and 2-chunk essay those stresses fall on syllables in which three or four words alliterate (repeat the courbet realism essay same consonant sound). Alliterative verse largely died out in English within a few centuries of the Norman Conquest. The Normans introduced continental conventions of poetry, including rhyme and octosyllabic couplets. The last surge of alliterative poetry in the native English tradition is essay esl, known as the alliterative revival during the Middle English period. Courbet Realism! See alliteration , above. ALLOMORPH : A different pronunciation of a morpheme. For instance, consider the -s plural morpheme. The standard /s/ sound (as in elks ) becomes a /z/ sound in some allomorphs (such as boxes .) However, the same grapheme s is used to represent each sound. ALLOPHONE : A predictable change in the articulation of a phoneme. For example, the spanish letter t in the word top is aspirated, but the letter t in stop is unaspirated.

ALLUSION : A casual reference in literature to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Courbet Realism Essay! Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works. Authors often use allusion to establish a tone, create an implied association, contrast two objects or people, make an unusual juxtaposition of references, or bring the reader into a world of dramatic duchess, experience outside the limitations of the story itself. Authors assume that the readers will recognize the original sources and relate their meaning to the new context. For instance, if a teacher were to courbet realism refer to his class as a horde of Mongols, the students will have no idea if they are being praised or vilified unless they know what the Mongol horde was and what activities it participated in historically. Wretched Exotic Essays! This historical allusion assumes a certain level of education or awareness in the audience, so it should normally be taken as a compliment rather than an insult or an attempt at obscurity. ALOFT, THE : Also called the courbet realism essay above and sometimes used interchangeably with the ip address Heavens, this term refers to the gallery on the upper level of the frons scenae . In Shakespeare's Globe theater, this area contained the lords' rooms, but the center of courbet essay, this location was also used by the actors for 2-chunk essay short scenes. On the courbet essay other hand, in exotic essays on edith most indoor theaters like the Blackfriars Theater, musicians above the courbet essay stage would perform in a curtained alcove here. ALPHABET POEM : An acrostic poem of thirteen lines in which each line consists of two words, each word beginning with sequential letters in the alphabetic pattern ABCDEF, etc.

Deutsche noteas that many poets like Paul West take liberties such as using Greek or Russian letters and wretched essays on edith introducing -ex compounds. Here is an example from courbet realism, West: Yum-yum! (West, qtd. in Deutsche 11) ALPHABETIC : The adjective alphabetic refers to 2-chunk essay any writing system in courbet realism essay which each unit or letter represents a single sound in 2-chunk essay theory. English writing is theoretically alphabetic--but in actual point of fact is courbet realism essay, so riddled with exceptions and oddities that it hardly counts--as discussed here. ALPHABETISM : A word formed from the 2-chunk essay initial letters of other words (or syllables) pronounced with the essay letters of the alphabet--such as the IRS , CIA , the VP , or VIP . See further discussion under acronym . ALTAIC (from the dramatic monologue my last essay Altai mountains): A non-Indo-European language family including Turkish, Tungusic, and essay Mongolian. ALTER EGO : A literary character or narrator who is a thinly disguised representation of the author, poet, or playwright creating a work. Some scholars suggest that J. Alfred Prufrock is an alter ego for T. S. Eliot in The Love Song of J. Essays On Edith Wharton In Europe! Alfred Prufrock, or that the wizard Prospero giving up his magic in The Tempest is an alter ego of Shakespeare saying farewell to the magic of the stage. Contrast with persona . ALTHING : The closest approximation the Icelandic Vikings had to a government/court system/police--a gathering of representatives from the courbet realism essay local things to teaching decide on policy, hear complaints, settle disputes, and proclaim incorrigible individuals as outlaws (see below). Courbet Realism! The thing was a gathering for each local community in Iceland, but the althing was a gathering for the entire island's male population. ALVEOLAR : This adjective refers to any sound made by the tongue's approaching the gum ridge.

Examples include the sounds /n/ , /l/ , /z/ and inductive vs deductive essay /s/ . ALVEOPALATAL : This adjective refers to any sound made by the tongue's approaching the gum ridge and the hard palate. Examples include the consonant sounds found in the beginning of the words Jill , Chill , and shall and the beginning and courbet essay ending sounds of the duchess word rouge . AMALGAMATED COMPOUND : A word originally formed from a compound, but whose form is no longer clearly connected to courbet realism essay its origin, such as the word not --originally compounded from Anglo-Saxon na-wiht (no whit). AMANUENSIS (from Latin, ab manus , by hand, plural amanuenses ): A servant, slave, secretary, or scribe who takes dictation for an author who speaks aloud. Many works of literature--especially from Roman and medieval times--result from the labor of such a scribe. For instance, the illiterate Margery Kempe had two friars who served as amanuenses to dramatic monologue duchess essay write down her Book of Margery Kempe . Many Roman poets kept slaves who worked as their personal amanuenses, such as Cicero's slave Tyro, and so on. AMBAGE (back formation from ambi + agere , to drive both ways, pronounced in a manner that loosely rhymes with damage): Circumlocution or periphrasis designed with an eye toward deceiving or confusing the audience. In the plural, several such instances are ambages . See discussion under periphrasis . AMBIANCE : Loosely the courbet realism essay term is equivalent to atmosphere or mood, but more specifically, ambiance is the atmosphere or mood of a particular setting or location. Ambiance is particularly vital to gothic literature and to the horror story, and to many young college students' dates. See atmosphere , mood and setting . AMBIGUITY : In common conversation, ambiguity is a negative term applied to a vague or equivocal expression when precision would be more useful. Sometimes, however, intentional ambiguity in essays in europe literature can be a powerful device, leaving something undetermined in order to open up multiple possible meanings. Courbet Realism Essay! When we refer to ip address literary ambiguity, we refer to any wording, action, or symbol that can be read in divergent ways.

As William Empson put it, ambiguity is any verbal nuance, however slight, which gives room for alternative reactions to the same piece of courbet realism essay, language (qtd. in Deutsch 11). AMELIORATION (from Latin, melior , better): A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly favorable connotation. 2-chunk Essay! For instance, the Middle English word knight used to mean servant (as German Knecht still does). The word grew through amelioration to mean a servant of the king and later a minor nobleman. Realism Essay! Similar amelioration affected the Anglo-Saxon word eorl , which becomes Modern English earl . The opposite term, pejoration , is a semantic change in teaching argumentative essay which a word gains increasingly negative connotations. AMERICAN DREAM : A theme in courbet essay American literature, film, and art that expresses optimistic desires for self-improvement, freedom, and self-sufficiency.

Harry Shaw notes that the school term can have no clear and fixed expression because it means whatever its user has in courbet essay mind a particular time (12). In general, it connotes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in Thomas Jefferson's phrasing. One expression of this is the materialistic rags-to-riches motif of many nineteenth-century novels. Here, through hard work, cleverness, and coursework honesty, a young pauper rises in socio-economic status until he is a powerful and successful man. Courbet! An example here would be the stories by Horatio Alger. Other expressions of this theme focus on more abstract qualities like freedom or self-determination. Many critics have argued that this dream is in many ways a myth in the twentieth- and twenty-first centuries, given America's frequent discriminatory treatment of immigrants and its continuing economic trends in 2-chunk essay which an ever smaller number of wealthy people accrue an ever larger percentage of material wealth with each generation, i.e., the rich get richer and courbet realism essay the poor get babies. Other events, such as the 2-chunk essay loss of the courbet essay American frontier, segregation and exclusion of minorities, McCarthyism in the 1950s, unpopular wars in 2-chunk essay Vietnam in courbet essay the 1960s, and ip address assignment gradual ecological devastation over the last hundred years, together have inspired literary works that criticize or question the courbet American Dream--often seeing it as ultimately selfish or destructive on one or more levels. Examples of these writing would be Miller's Death of A Salesman, Ellison's Invisible Man, and Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath . AMERICAN ENGLISH : The English language as it developed in North America, especially in terms of dramatic monologue duchess essay, its diction and courbet realism essay the spelling and grammatical differences that distinguish it from British English. AMERICANISM : An expression that is characteristic of the wretched essays in europe U.S.A. or one which first developed in courbet realism America.

AMESLAN : American Sign Language--a language composed of hand-signs for the deaf. AMPHIBRACH : In classical poetry, a three-syllable poetic foot consisting of a light stress, heavy stress, and a light stress--short on both ends. Amphibrachs are quite rare in English, but they can be found in special circumstances, especially when the poet manipulates the caesura to create an inductive essay unusual effect. Courbet Realism Essay! See caesura . An example of an English word forming an amphibrach is inductive vs deductive essay, crustacean . An amphibrach is the reverse-form of an amphimacer . AMPHIMACER : A three-syllable foot consisting of a heavy, light, and heavy stress. Courbet Realism Essay! Poetry written in amphimacers is called cretic meter . Amphimacer is rarely used in English poetry, but it is quite common in Greek. An example of an English phrase forming an amphimacer is deaf-and-dumb . An amphimacer is the 2-chunk essay reverse-form of an amphibrach . AMPHISBAENIC RHYME : A poetic structure invented by Edmund Wilson in which final words in strategic lines do not rhyme in the traditional sense, but rather reverse their order of consonants and vowels to courbet realism essay appear backwards. For example, Wilson writes: But tonight I come lone and be lated -- Foreseeing in ip address every detail , And resolved for a day to side step.

My friends and their guests and their pets . The colored sections above have the courbet amphisbaenic features. AMPHITHEATER : An open-air theater, especially the unroofed public playhouses in the suburbs of London. Shakespeare's Globe and the Rose are two examples. ANACHRONISM : Placing an event, person, item, or verbal expression in assignment the wrong historical period. Courbet Essay! In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar , Shakespeare writes the following lines: Cassius: The clock has stricken three (Act II, scene i, lines 193-94). Of course, there were no household clocks during Roman times, no more than there were Blu-Ray disk players!

The reference is an anachronism, either accidental or intentional. Elizabethan theater often intentionally used anachronism in its costuming, a tradition that survives today when Shakespeare's plays are performed in biker garb or in Victorian frippery. Wretched Essays Wharton In Europe! Indeed, from surviving illustrations, the realism essay acting companies in Elizabethan England appeared to deliberately create anachronisms in their costumes. Some actors would dress in current Elizabethan garb, others in garb that was a few decades out of date, and others wore pseudo-historical costumes from past-centuries--all within a single scene or play. ANACREONTICS : Poetry or song-verse modeled on the poetry of the Greek poet Anacreon--i.e., carpe diem poetry praising hedonistic pleasures of wine, women, and ip address assignment song, written in trochaic tetrameter. Here is courbet realism essay, a typical example of Anacreon's poetry in Stanley's translation: Fruitful earth drinks up the rain; Trees from wretched exotic on edith wharton, earth drink that again; The sea drinks the air, the sun.

Drinks the sea, and him the moon. Is it reason then, d'ye think, I should thirst when all else drink? ANACRUSIS : The addition of an extra unstressed syllable or two at the start of a line of courbet, verse--but these additions are not considered part of the assignment regular metrical count. Deutsch points out an example of anacrusis in the last line of this stanza by realism, Blake, where the article the is an unstressed addition: Innocence doth like a rose. Bloom on dramatic monologue essay, every maiden's cheek; Honour twines around her brows,

The jewel health adorns her neck. (qtd. in Deutsche 14) ANADIPLOSIS (Greek doubling): Repeating the realism essay last word of a clause at the beginning of the next clause. As Nietzsche said, Talent is an ip address assignment adornment; an essay adornment is also a concealment. Ann Landers once claimed, The poor wish to be rich, the ip address assignment rich wish to be happy, the single wish to be married, and the married wish to realism essay be dead. Extended anadiplosis is called gradatio . For instance, in The Caine Mutiny the captain declares: Aboard my ship, excellent performance is standard. Standard performance is spanish coursework school, sub-standard.

Sub-standard performance is realism essay, not allowed. Biblically speaking, St. Paul claims, We glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope, and hope maketh man not ashamed. Wretched On Edith Wharton In Europe! Samuel Johnson writes, Labour and care are rewarded with success, success produces confidence, confidence relaxes industry, and negligence ruins the reputation which diligence had raised ( Rambler No. 21). On a more mundane level, the character of Yoda states in Star Wars, Episode I : Fear leads to anger; anger leads to hatred; hatred leads to conflict; conflict leads to suffering . Gradatio creates a rhythmical pattern to carry the reader along the text, even as it establishes a connection between words. Courbet! Anadiplosis and gradatio are examples of teaching argumentative esl, rhetorical schemes. ANAGNORISIS : (Greek for recognition): A term used by Aristotle in the Poetics to describe the moment of tragic recognition in which the courbet protagonist realizes some important fact or insight, especially a truth about dramatic monologue, himself, human nature, or his situation. Aristotle argues that the ideal moment for anagnorisis in a tragedy is the moment of peripeteia , the reversal of fortune. Courbet Realism! Critics often claim that the moment of tragic recognition is essay, found within a single line of realism essay, text, in which the ip address tragic hero admits to his lack of insight or asserts the new truth he recognizes. This passage is often called the line of tragic recognition.

See further discussion under tragedy . ANAGOGICAL : In fourfold interpretation , the anagogical reading is the courbet essay fourth type of interpretation in 2-chunk essay which one reads a religious writing in an eschatological manner, i.e., the realism interpreter sees the passage as a revelation concerning the last days, the end of time, or the afterlife. ANAGRAM (Greek: writing back or anew): When the letters or syllables in a name, word or phrase are shuffled together or jumbled to form a new word. For instance, in Tanith Lee's short story, Bite-Me-Not, or Fleur De Fleu, the predatory vampire's name is Feroluce --an anagram of his demonic predecessor, Lucifer. Similarly in the film Angelheart , the devil travels using the anagram Louis Cipher , i.e., Lucifer as a moniker, and in film-makers' spin-offs of Bram Stoker's Dracula , Dracula uses the name Alucard as a disguise. (An anagram that functions by merely writing a name backwards is known more specifically as an ananym .) Authors who love wordplay love using anagrams. For instance, Samuel Butler's utopian satire Erewhon is an ip address assignment anagram of Nowhere.

Critics have suggested Hawthorne's short story The Minister's Black Veil involves an anagram on veil and evil . Anagrams were quite popular in the Renaissance. ANALOGUE (also spelled analog ): A story that contains similar characters, situations, settings, or verbal echoes to those found in a different story. Sometimes analogues reveal that one version was adopted from or inspired by another, or that both tales originate in a lost, older text. When one version is clearly the ancestor of courbet realism essay, another, literary scholars refer to it as a source. For instance, Romeo and Juliet and Westside Story are analogues, with Romeo and Juliet being a loose source for the other. Coursework! The character of realism essay, Utnapishtim in the Babylonian flood legend is an analogue for the character of monologue duchess essay, Noah in courbet realism the Hebrew Bible, which in turn is an analogue for reasoning the Atlantis myth . In other cases, analogues appear that probably have no direct connection to realism essay each other. Grettir's Saga , which includes a wrestling bout between the strongest Icelander and an evil spirit, is dramatic duchess, often thought of as an analogue to Beowulf , in which a hero with the strength of thirty men wrestles with the monster Grendel.

Grettir dives under an ocean-side waterfall and essay does battle with a Troll-wife, just as Beowulf dives into a lake and does battle with Grendel's mother. These two pairs of scenes are analogues to each other. Most of Chaucer's stories in essays wharton The Canterbury Tales have analogues with varying degrees of correspondence; often these are of French or Italian origin. In general, the realism key philological question of analogues is whether they are the result of monogenesis or polygenesis . ANALOGY, LINGUISTIC : The modification of grammatical usage from the desire for uniformity. For instance, a child who states, I broked the toy or a man who says I knowed the esl truth is courbet realism, merely attempting to regularize the past tense of these verbs through linguistic analogy.

Cf. hypercorrection . ANALYTIC : A language is analytic if it requires a certain word order to make grammatical sense--often this requires extensive use of wretched exotic essays in europe, prepositions and realism auxiliary verbs. For instance, take the sentence, The dog bit the boy. We know in modern English that dog is the subject and boy is the direct object because of word order, the common analytical pattern being subject-verb-object . Examples of analytic languages include French, Spanish, Modern English (but not Old English) and Italian. Ip Address! The opposite type of language uses declensions (special endings stuck on the ends of words) to show what case each word has. Realism Essay! This type is called an inflected or synthetic language. Click here for more information about case . ANALYTICAL COMPARISON : Comparison using more and most instead of essay esl, -er and -est . ANALYZED RHYME : Another term for inexact rhyme . See below. ANAPEST : A foot or unit of courbet realism essay, poetry consisting of two light syllables followed by a single stressed syllable.

Some words and phrases in English that constitute anapests include the following examples: understand, interrupt, comprehend, anapest, New Rochelle, contradict, get a life, condescend, Coeur d'Alene, in the blink of an eye, and so on. Anapestic meter consists of lines of dramatic my last, poetry that follow this pattern of light stress, light stress, heavy stress pattern. For example: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld (Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib) or Oh he flies through the air with the greatest of ease. See extended discussion under meter . Click here to courbet download a PDF handout that contrasts anapests with other types of metrical feet. ANAPHORA (Greek, carried again, also called epanaphora ): The intentional repetition of beginning clauses in order to inductive reasoning essay create an artistic effect. For instance, Churchill declared, We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on the end. We shall fight in France. We shall fight on the seas and oceans. We shall fight with growing confidence and realism growing strength in the air.

We shall defend our island, whatever the 2-chunk essay cost shall be. The repetition of courbet essay, We shall. . Wretched On Edith Wharton In Europe! . creates a rhetorical effect of solidarity and determination. A well-known example is the Beatitudes in the Bible, where nine statements in a row begin with Blessed are. Realism Essay! (Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the inductive vs deductive kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.) Anaphora is the opposite of epistrophe , in which the poet or rhetorician repeats the essay concluding phrase over and over for effects. Often the two can be combined effectively as well. For instance, Saint Paul writes to the church at Corinth, Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? So am I. Are they the ministers of Christ?

I am more. Here, artful use of anaphora and epistrophe combined help Paul make his point more emphatically. Both anaphora and epistrophe are examples of inductive reasoning essay, rhetorical schemes. They serve to lend weight and emphasis. ANAPODOTON : Deliberately creating a sentence fragment by the omission of a clause: If only you came with me! If only students knew what anapodoton was! Good writers never use sentence fragments? Ah, but they can. And they do. When appropriate. Anapodoton is an example of a rhetorical scheme.

ANAPTYXIS : In linguistics, anaptyxis is the appearance of an intrusive vowel sound between two consonants when that vowel is unexpected historically or when it shouldn't be there according to the normal rules of courbet essay, language development. For instance, many speakers insert a schwa sound between the /l/ and /m/ in coursework the word elm or the word film . The adjective form of this word is anaptyctic . Note that some linguists prefer to essay call this phenomenon svarabhakti (from the assignment Sanskrit term), and thus they refer to the intrusive vowel as a svarabhakti vowel . Courbet! Compare with the rhetorical device epenthesis . ANASTROPHE : Inverted order of words or events as a rhetorical scheme. Anastrophe is specifically a type of hyperbaton in which the adjective appears after the noun when we expect to find the adjective before the noun. For example, Shakespeare speaks of ip address, Figures pedantical ( LLL 5.2.407). Faulkner describes The old bear . . . not even a mortal but an anachronism indomitable and invincible out of an old dead time. Courbet Essay! Lewis Carroll uses anastrophe in Jabberwocky, where we hear, Long time the vs deductive reasoning essay manxome foe he sought. / So rested he by the Tumtum tree . . . . T. S. Eliot writes of Time present and time past, and so on. Particularly clever anastrophe can become a trope when it alters meaning in unusual ways. For instance, T. S. Eliot writes of arms that wrap about a shawl rather than shawls that wrap about an arm in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. See also hyperbaton . Natalie Dorsch's poem, Just Because, makes use of extended anastrophe in a clever way to show how delightfully confused the speaker is after a romantic interlude: shut the stairs, took off my prayers, turned off my bed, got into the light, you kissed me goodnight.

Here, she makes use of anastrophe in nearly every line. Alternatively, we can use the term anastrophe as a reference to entire narratives in which the sequence of events are chopped into sections and then shuffled or scrambled into an unusual narrative order. An example of this type of anastrophe might be the sequence of events in Quentin Tarentino's film Pulp Fiction or Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse Five . Contrast with periodic sentence . ANATOLIAN : A branch of Indo-European languages spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ANCHORESS : A female anchorite. These women were eremites or hermits in the medieval period who would request permission from the local pastor to be walled up alive in a small cell attached to the side of the church. Courbet Realism Essay! There the anchoress would live out the rest of her days, relying upon my last essay the charity of the local community to provide food and water through a small opening. Courbet! The practice was a common one in the medieval period.

Such hermits were considered especially holy for giving up worldly concerns, and they were often highly respected as spiritual counselors. Male anchoresses are called anchorites, and the enclosures they dwell in are called anchorholds . The medieval writer Julian of Norwich was one such anchoress. ANCHORHOLD : In medieval times, an enclosure in the wall of a church where an anchorite or anchoress would be sealed up alive as a gesture of 2-chunk essay, faith. ANCHORITE : An eremite or hermit in the medieval period who requests permission from the local pastor to be sealed up in essay a small cell attached to the side of the church, where the 2-chunk essay anchorite would live out the rest of his days relying upon the charity of the local community to realism provide food and water through a small opening. The practice was a common one in on edith wharton in europe the medieval period.

Such hermits were considered especially holy for giving up worldly concerns, and they were often highly respected as spiritual counselors. Female anchorites are called anchoresses, and realism essay the enclosures in monologue my last duchess essay which they dwell are called anchorholds . ANCILLARY CHARACTERS (Latin ancilla : helper or maid): Less important characters who are not the primary protagonist or antagonist , but who highlight these characters or interact with them in such a way as to provide insight into the narrative action. Typical ancillary characters include foils , choric characters , deuteragonists , soubrettes , tritagonists , and stock characters . See character for more information. ANECDOTE : A short narrative account of an amusing, unusual, revealing, or interesting event. A good anecdote has a single, definite point, and the setting, dialogue, and characters are usually subordinate to the point of the story. Usually, the anecdote does not exist alone, but it is combined with other material such as expository essays or arguments. Writers may use anecdotes to clarify abstract points, to humanize individuals, or to create a memorable image in the reader's mind.

Anecdotes are similar to exempla . See exemplum . ANGLIAN : The dialects of Old English spoken in Mercia and Northumbria. Not to be confused with the word Anglican . ANGLICAN CHURCH : The Protestant Church in England that originated when King Henry VIII broke his ties to the Vatican in Rome (the Catholic Church). ANGLO-NORMAN : (1) The time-period when Norman conquerors ruled over England. During the Anglo-Norman period from 1066 until about courbet realism, 1200, Norman French was the language of literature and culture in England. (2) The dialect of teaching argumentative essay, Norman French that evolved in England after the courbet realism Normans came with William the Conquer, fought the Battle of Hastings, and ruled over England afterward. Scholars typically abbreviate the phrase as AN. A sample writer from the Anglo-Norman period was Marie de France. See also Battle of Hastings . ANGLO-SAXON : (1) Historically, the term refers to a group of Teutonic tribes who invaded England in the fifth and sixth centuries following the departure of Roman legions in inductive essay 410 CE. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons, and courbet realism the Jutes, came from the northern parts of Europe and gave their name (Angle-Land) to England, driving the teaching essay native Celtic peoples into the farthest western and northern regions of Britain.

We can also refer to the time-period of 410 CE up until about courbet essay, 1066 CE as the Anglo-Saxon historical period in ip address assignment Britain. In linguistics, the term Anglo-Saxon is also used to refer to courbet Old English, the language spoken by these tribes and the precursor of Middle English and Modern English. See Old English . (2) In colloquial usage, the term Anglo-Saxon is often used to distinguish people of English ethnicity in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States--hence acronyms like WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant). ANIMAL COMMUNICATION : The exchange of information among animals, especially as contrasted with human language and meta-language (Algeo 312). Examples include pheremone trails left by ants, semaphore communications among bees, mating calls among birds, and vocal alerts concerning different predators among certain mammals. ANIMISM : The belief that animals, plants, and objects have their own souls or spirits inhabiting them, as in modern Japanese religions like Shinto or in many older hunter-gatherer societies in Africa, Polynesia, and Australia. Many plant spirits in classical Greek mythology probably originate in earlier animistic belief, such as dryads and hamadryads (tree-spirits), Oreiads (mountain pine-tree spirits), Meliades (fruit-trees), and Meliai (ash tree and honey-hive spirits). Other animistic spirits in Greek myth include the coursework school Oeneads and Krinaiai (well-spirits and fountain-spirits), Nephelai (cloud-spirits), Naiads (water-spirits), and essay Ithakiai (cave-spring spirits).

See also Solar Myth and vegetationsdämon . ANNAL : Another term for a chronicle, a brief year-by-year account of events. ANONYMOUS : Of unknown authorship, either because the historical records are missing to shed light on assignment, the author's identity, or because the author deliberately hid his identity. Probably 90% of surviving medieval literature lacks authorial attribution. Realism Essay! In the case of teaching essay, folklore and much mythology, the oldest versions are also usually anonymous. ANTAGONIST : See discussion under character , below. ANTHIMERIA : Artfully using a different part of speech to act as another in violation of the normal rules of grammar. This switch might involve treating a verb like a noun, or a noun like a verb, or an adjective like a verb, and so on.

Thus, in 1960s pop culture, Nancy Sinatra's song These Boots Are Made for Walkin' has a speaker who tells the implied audience, You keep lying when you ought to be truthing . . Courbet! . . You keep saming when you ought to be changing. In a more literary vein, e. e. Spanish Coursework! cummings might speak of courbet essay, how he sang his didn't , he danced his did . A television advertisement might exhort its listeners to Gift him with Sports Illustrated magazine for Christmas (as opposed to give him Sports Illustrated for Christmas). Rabelais might state, I am going in search of the great perhaps and esl when the priest Angelo is courbet realism essay, doing an effective job of controlling the city, we hear that Lord Angelo dukes it well in inductive vs deductive essay Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (III, iii), and essay so on. Anthimeria allows poets to step into an extra-verbal realm to suggest and ip address hint at that which cannot be put easily in words without a loss of verbal magic. Linguists more generally call this device form shift . ANTHOLOGY (from Grk. anther + logos , flower-words): Literally implying a collection of flowers, the term anthology refers to a collection of poetry, drama, or verse. English majors may be familiar with the ubiquitous Norton Anthology of British Literature , for instance.

The first collection of poetry thus labeled was The Anthology , a collection of courbet realism, some 4,500 Greek poems dating between 490 BCE and 1,000 CE. ANTICATHOLICISM : Literature or rhetoric created (often by spanish coursework school, Protestants) for the purpose of countering Catholic doctrine or depicting Catholicism in a negative light. In Reformation and essay Post-Reformation British literature, anticatholic motifs frequently appear after the Anglican Church splits from Rome under Henry VIII. Examples include Spenser's Faerie Queene , in which Catholic associations surround villains like Duessa and Archimago. A similar surge of anticatholic characterizations appear just before and during the Enlightenment period, notably in Gothic literature like Lewis' The Monk , in which convents and monasteries are depicted as hypocritical hives of sadism and superstition. ANTICLIMAX (also called bathos ): a drop, often sudden and unexpected, from ip address assignment, a dignified or important idea or situation to one that is trivial or humorous. Also a sudden descent from courbet, something sublime to assignment something ridiculous. In fiction and drama, this refers to action that is disappointing in contrast to the previous moment of intense interest. In rhetoric, the essay effect is frequently intentional and argumentative essay comic. For example: Usama Bin Laden: Wanted for courbet essay Crimes of War, Terrorism, Murder, Conspiracy, and Nefarious Parking Practices.

ANTIFEMINIST TRADITION : While some medieval women writers like Christine de Pisan and Margery Kempe advocated that women should have stronger positions in the medieval church or medieval society more generally, many other writers (mostly but not exclusively male) called for the female gender to essay remain in inferior or subservient positions. Other monastic writers would go so far as to essay declare all women evil temptresses and esl seductresses, inherently corrupt, conniving, incompetent, and weak-willed. Modern critics call these writers and their works the anti-feminist tradition. The term primarily applies to patristic writers like Saint Jerome, Saint Augustine, and Saint Paul, but it more loosely applies to Juvenal, Theophrastus, Abelard, John of Salisbury, Walter Map, Hugh of Folietto, Peter of Blois, and Andreas Fieschi. In Chaucer's The Wife of realism, Bath's Tale, the Wife recounts how her fifth husband would read from a book of Wykked Wyves--apparently a collection of works in the anti-feminist tradition. Aemilia Lanyer confronts and rebuts this anti-feminist tradition in her Renaissance work, Salve Deus, Rex Judaeorum , and Virginia Woolf touches on it indirectly in her twentieth-century writings like A Room of inductive reasoning essay, One's Own. ANTI-FRATERNAL SATIRE : Medieval satire that points out (in humor or anger) the failings and hypocrisies of bad monks, friars, and courbet essay nuns in particular and the secular clergy and 2-chunk essay church officers more generally. Examples from courbet, The Canterbury Tales include Chaucer's depiction of the wretched essays Monk and courbet realism Prioress in The General Prologue and the content of The Summoner's Tale.

ANTIHERO : A protagonist who is a non-hero or the essay antithesis of a traditional hero. While the traditional hero may be dashing, strong, brave, resourceful, or handsome, the antihero may be incompetent, unlucky, clumsy, dumb, ugly, or clownish. Examples here might include the courbet realism senile protagonist of Cervantes' Don Quixote or the girlish knight Sir Thopas from Chaucer's Sir Thopas. In the case of the Byronic and Miltonic antihero, the antihero is a romanticized but wicked character who defies authority, and ip address assignment becomes paradoxically ennobled by realism essay, his peculiar rejection of virtue. In this sense, Milton presents Satan in ip address Paradise Lost as an antihero in realism essay a sympathetic manner--at least in the first half of the poem. The same is argumentative essay esl, true of Heathcliffe in Emily Bronté's Wuthering Heights . Compare with the picaro . ANTIMETABOLE (Greek, turning about): A rhetorical scheme involving repetition in courbet realism essay reverse order : One should eat to live, not live to eat.

Or, You like it; it likes you. The witches in that Scottish play chant, Fair is foul and foul is fair. My Last! One character in courbet realism essay Love's Labor's Lost uses antimetabole when he asks I pretty, and spanish my saying apt? Or I apt, and realism my saying pretty? (I, ii). The first will be last and the last will be first, and so forth. Antimetabole often overlaps with chiasmus . This device is sometimes used as a synonym for epanados in modern textbooks (though classical rhetoricians would treat it as distinct). See schemes . ANTI-SEMITIC LITERATURE : Literature that vilifies Jews or encourages racist attitudes toward them. Dramatic Monologue Essay! Much of the religious literature produced in medieval and Renaissance Europe unfortunately engaged in courbet realism essay anti-Semitism to one degree or another. This is argumentative essay esl, due to a series of courbet essay, sociological causes too lengthy to discuss here. Typical allegations accused Jews of killing and cannibalizing Christians, secretly poisoning wells, spreading plague and leprosy among non-Jewish neighbors, kidnapping Christian children, defiling communion wafers, and engaging in various economic crimes, the most famous being blood libel . The irony is that, although Jews were blamed for various outbreaks of plague and the contamination of water supplies, in many such communities there were no Jews present at all. They had often been kicked out of the country long before the crimes took place.

In 1182 Philip II banished the Jews from France, causing many Jews to flee to England, where many other Jews had sought shelter in the eleventh century. Anti-Semitic violence intensified after the crusades, culminating in the church's Fourth Lateran Council of 2-chunk essay, 1215, which passed laws requiring Jews to wear distinctive clothing and forbidding them from holding political office in Chrstian-controlled lands. Local bishoprics and principalities embraced these new laws, and often added their own twists, such as requiring Jews to courbet pay additional taxes, or requiring the most senior Jewish Rabbi to submit to school various ritual humiliations before the community at Easter. Courbet Essay! (In one French city, for instance, the most prestigious Rabbi had to appear on the doorsteps of the bishop's cathedral on 2-chunk essay, Easter afternoon to receive a ritual blow and communal rejection.) Other secular authorities followed the ecclesiastical example by making it illegal for Jews to own land or to labor in an occupation that would compete with local Christians. Ironically, this policy forced Jews to train themselves in highly skilled professions such as law, medicine, accounting, gem-cutting, and whatnot. These lucrative professions only further aroused the envy and ire of less-skilled, less educated, and less wealthy citizens of the European kingdoms. In 1275, Edward I began to default on the loans he owed Jewish moneylenders, and in 1287, he imprisoned some 3,000 Jewish subjects, whom he ransomed to their families for cash.

In spite of the Jewish payment in courbet essay good faith, he issued an 2-chunk essay edict in 1290 banishing all Jews from England and confiscating all their properties. After Jews were allowed to return to France, French King Philip IV expelled them again in 1306, forcing them to flee to Germany. Mass burnings and executions of Jews took place in Germany in 1349 after an outbreak of plague, and so on--right up to courbet essay the Holocaust of teaching argumentative esl, World War II, in which the genocide was horrifying not for its novelty, but rather for its continuation of a centuries-long tradition with the added efficiency of modern technologies like gas chambers and courbet realism essay incinerators. Such occurrences affect the literature of a culture as well. The Legends of the Holy Rood , for instance, recounts an Anglo-Latin story of how Jewish blasphemers drown in Christ's blood after entering a Christian church. In the tale, the inductive vs deductive reasoning essay doors slam shutting locking the Jews inside. The cross begin bleeding profusely until the liquid filled the entire structure and courbet realism essay overwhelms them. The Anglo-Saxon poem Elena (St. Helen) describes the way the pious mother of Constantine tortures reluctant Jews in 2-chunk essay order to locate the essay remains of the true cross, which the Jews had sneakily hidden away from her in order to conceal the truth of Christ's resurrection.

In Middle English, we see that Chaucer's Prioress' Tale likewise depicts Jews as manipulative evildoers who murder a saintly young choirboy. In the Renaissance, Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice presents a Jewish lawyer, Shylock, as the villain scheming to ip address extract a pound of courbet realism, flesh from his poor Christian victim, and dramatic my last duchess essay so on, ad nauseum . Occasionally, it is ambiguous whether readers should accept the anti-Semitism readily. For instance, the courbet realism essay Prioress' earlier depiction in Chaucer's General Prologue suggests she has misplaced secular priorities, so Chaucer might not intend for her to vs deductive essay be a very authoritative or holy figure when she tells her tale. Courbet! Likewise, Shakespeare does a marvelous job of transforming Shylock into an indignant and inductive injured human being rather than a moustache-twirling, two-dimensional stereotype in Shylock's If they prick us. . . . speech and in his soliloquies discussing the way Christians have subtly mocked him, cheated him, and insulted his family. However, such literary moments are rare in which an author questions the common anti-Semitism of the era. Thus, when we do find material that suggests a more tolerant attitude, we must approach it with a skeptical eye to make sure we are not misreading historical intent. ANTITHESIS (plural: antitheses ): Using opposite phrases in courbet close conjunction. Examples might be, I burn and I freeze, or Her character is inductive vs deductive reasoning essay, white as sunlight, black as midnight.

The best antitheses express their contrary ideas in a balanced sentence. Courbet Essay! It can be a contrast of 2-chunk essay, opposites: Evil men fear authority; good men cherish it. Alternatively, it can be a contrast of degree: One small step for courbet realism essay a man, one giant leap for spanish coursework school all mankind. Essay! Antithesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. Contrast with oxymoron . ANTITYPE : A figure, event, or symbol in the New Testament thought to be prefigured by a different figure, event, or symbol in the Old Testament. See extended discussion under typology . APHAEARESIS (also spelled apheresis ; plural: aphaeareses, adj. apheretic ): Rhetorically deleting a syllable--unaccented or accented--from the beginning of a word to create a new term or phrasing.

For instance, in King Lear , we hear that, the essay esl king hath cause to plain (3.1.39). Here, the word complain has lost its first syllable. In Hamlet 2.2.561, Hamlet asks, Who should 'scape whipping if every man were treated as he deserved. Note that the e- in courbet realism essay escape has itself cleverly escaped from its position! Aphaeresis is an example of a rhetorical scheme or trope. The adjective form is apheretic . Contrast with the more precise linguistic term aphesis . APHESIS : Linguistically, the omission of an un accented syllable from the front of a word. Contrast with the more general rhetorical term, aphaearesis . APOCALYPSE : From the Greek word apocalypsis (unveiling), an apocalypse originally referred to a mystical revelation of a spiritual truth, but has changed in inductive vs deductive reasoning essay twentieth-century use to refer specifically to courbet essay mystical visions concerning the end of the wharton world. Courbet Essay! The most famous Apocalypse in the Christian tradition is the book commonly known to Protestants as Revelation in the New Testament.

Attributed to John of Patmos, legend states that John wrote it in exile about the year 70 AD, though surviving manuscripts are much later in date. All apocalyptic narratives are by their nature eschatological (see below). APOCOPATED RHYME AND METER : Poetic use of apocope to coursework school create a rhyming word at realism, the end of a line or to balance the number of spanish, syllables to stay within metrical restraints (see meter ). (The latter type might be more accurately called apocopated meter rather than apocopated rhyme.) For example, in Keats' poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci, the poetic speaker refers to essay a lady in the meads instead of a lady in the meadows , and essays on edith wharton he speaks of an elfin grot instead of an elfin grotto . Realism Essay! Clever poets use this formalistic device in a way that connects with the thematic content. APOCOPE : Deleting a syllable or letter from the end of a word. In The Merchant of exotic wharton in europe, Venice , one character says, when I ope my lips let no dog bark, and the last syllable of open falls away into ope before the reader's eyes (1.1.93-94). In Troilus and Cressida , Shakespeare proclaims, If I might in entreaties find success--/ As seld I have the chance--I would desire / My famous cousin to our Grecian tents (4.5.148). Here the word seldom becomes seld . Apocope is an courbet example of a rhetorical scheme.

Note that some scholars modernize this word and refer to 2-chunk essay it as apocopation . Courbet Essay! Contrast with syncope . APOPHASIS : Denying one's intention to 2-chunk essay talk or write about a subject, but making the denial in such a way that the subject is actually discussed. For instance, a candidate for essay the senate might start his speech declaring, I don't have time to list the seventeen felony counts my opponent faces, or the lurid rumors of my opponent's sexual behavior with sixteen-year old girls, or the evidence that he is engaged in tax evasion. Instead, I am going to talk about my own qualities that I would bring to the senate if you vote for me . . . A fine example of apophasis in Shakespeare comes from Mark Antony's funeral speech in Julius Caesar : I am no orator, as Brutus is; But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man . . . For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech.

To stir men's blood; I only speak right on. APORIA (Greek: impassable path): The deliberate act of talking about teaching essay, how one is unable to courbet talk about spanish school, something. For instance, I can't tell you how often writers use aporia . The term dubitatio refers to a subtype of aporia in which a speaker or writer pauses and deliberately reveals his doubt or uncertainty (genuine or feigned) about an issue. The aporia in the case of dubitatio is both that pause and the act of intentionally discussing that ambiguous reaction. This rhetorical ploy can make the audience feel sympathy for the speaker's dilemma, or it can help characterize the speaker as one who is open-minded and sincerely struggling with the same issues the audience faces. More recently, literary deconstructionists like Jacques Derrida have high-jacked or modified the rhetorical term aporia, and they use it to suggest a gap or a lacuna that exists between what the text attempts to say and essay what it is forced to mean due to the constraints of language. 2-chunk Essay! Aporia is an courbet example of a rhetorical trope. See also apophasis , above. Contrast with aposiopesis , below. APOSIOPESIS : Breaking off as if unable to continue, stopping suddenly in the midst of a sentence, or leaving a statement unfinished at a dramatic moment. Sometimes the interruption is an teaching argumentative esl artificial choice the realism author makes for a dramatic effect.

For instance, Steele writes, The fire surrounds them while -- I cannot go on. On Edith! He leaves the horrific outcome of the conflagration to the readers' imaginations. On the other hand, Hotspur's dying breath provides a literary instance in which the speaker is physically unable to continue, leaving another to complete the thought: But that the earthy and cold hand of death. Lies on my tongue. No, Percy, thou art dust, Prince Hal : For worms, brave Percy. ( 1 Henry IV , 5.4) Aposiopesis is a wonderful and flexible technique for showing a character's overcharged emotions. Hamlet makes use of aposiopesis to illustrate his grief and shock at his mother's behavior after the king's death. Essay! One example is ip address assignment, when he can't finish his comparison between his mother and Niobe: Like Niobe, all tears--why, she, even she-- / O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason / Would have mourned longer. Shakespeare again makes use of the technique when King Lear rages against essay, his evil daughters.

Shakespeare makes him so upset he can't even think of a proper punishment for them as the old king breaks down in blustering tears: That all the monologue essay world shall--I will do such things-- What they are yet, I know not; but they shall be. The terrors of the courbet realism essay earth! ( King Lear 2.4.274-77) Virgil makes epic use of aposiopesis ; he has the God Neptune become so angry at the windstorms over his ocean, he can't decide which storm-spirit to dramatic essay smack first or in what order to fix the resulting mess:

We find Biblical examples of aposiopesis in the Hebrew Bible, in which Moses doesn't even dare to complete his sentence when he challenges God's decision to destroy the courbet essay Israelites for their sin: And Moses returned unto the Lord, and said, 'Oh, this people ha ve sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out vs deductive reasoning of the Book of Life (Exodus 32:31). Aposiopesis is an essay example of a rhetorical trope. APOSTROPHE : Not to be confused with the punctuation mark, apostrophe is the assignment act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present: For instance, John Donne commands, Oh, Death, be not proud. King Lear proclaims, Ingratitude! thou marble-hearted fiend, / More hideous when thou show'st thee in a child / Than the sea-monster. Death, of course, is a phenomenon rather than a proud person, and realism ingratitude is an 2-chunk essay abstraction that hardly cares about Lear's opinion, but the act of courbet realism essay, addressing the abstract has its own rhetorical power. An apostrophe is an assignment example of a rhetorical trope. APOTROPAIC : Designed to ward off evil influence or malevolent spirits by frightening these forces away. Courbet Realism Essay! In many cultures, elaborate artwork depicting monsters would be created to have an apotropaic affect. For instance, the fierce celestial dogs (Fu dogs) carved outside the entrance to Tibetan temples would keep evil spirits from entering the holy ground, and Amerindian shamans would wear frightening, grotesque medicine masks when they visited sick members of their tribe to terrify the evil spirits making them sick.

It has been suggested that the presence of gargoyles and ip address assignment grotesques on medieval cathedrals is a remnant of realism essay, older pagan practices, in which monstrous apotropaic figures would be carved on the front of ships and over the entrances to buildings to ward off evil influences. Many Anglo-Saxon charms may have been apotropaic chants. APRON STAGE : A stage that projects out into the auditorium area. This enlarges the on edith in europe square footage available for actors to courbet walk and move upon. This feature was not common in the days of classical Greco-Roman theater, but it was a common architectural trait in Elizabethan times and remains in use in some modern theaters. An apron stage is also known as a thrust stage . ARAMAIC : The Oxford Companion to the Bible discusses Chaldean Aramaic as a Northwest Semitic language closely related to Classical Hebrew. Classical Hebrew developed as an vs deductive offshoot of proto-Canaanite around 1,000 BCE. and it was commonly used as a vernacular until about courbet realism essay, 500 BCE. Aramaic slowly replaced Classical Hebrew as a language of the common people. It was originally written in the 22 letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and coursework school it became common in territory controlled by the Chaldeans.

It differed somewhat in its definite articles and its vocabulary from Classical Hebrew, but it had many close cognates (such as Hebrew shalom and Aramaic shelam , peace). After the year 500 BCE, Aramaic gradually became the vernacular language used in the Palestinian region and especially in Galilee. Courbet Essay! Jeremiah 10:11 is 2-chunk essay, written in Aramaic, as is Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 (c. 450 BCE). The original book of Daniel was probably written in realism essay Aramaic as well, though only Daniel 2:4b-7:28 remain in the original tongue. 2-chunk Essay! Genesis 31:47 contains an Aramaic place-name--indicating this section is a late revision to early Genesis texts. Many of Christ's quotations in courbet essay the New Testament are in Aramaic, such as Talitha cum (Mark 5:41) and Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani (Mark 15:34; cf. Matt: 27:46 with variant readings in the Hebrew). See J. A. Spanish! Emerton's entry in Metzer and Coogan, 45-46.

ARCHAISM : A word, expression, spelling, or phrase that is out of date in the common speech of an courbet essay era, but still deliberately used by inductive vs deductive reasoning essay, a writer, poet, or playwright for artistic purposes. For instance, two archaic words (reproduced here in italics) appear in these lines from Coleridge's The Rime of the realism essay Ancient Mariner : Hold off! unhand me, grey-beard loon! Until fairly recent centuries, it was still common to find poets using I ween, steed, and gramercy in their poems, even though they wouldn't use these terms in normal daily speech. Artists might choose an archaism over coursework a more familiar word because it is more suitable for meter, for realism rhyme, for alliteration, or for dramatic monologue duchess essay its associations with the past. It also might be attractive as a quick way to defamiliarize an realism everyday phrase or object. Note that for Shakespeare in spanish coursework the sixteenth century, the use of thy and thine is not particularly archaic, but for John Updike in the twentieth century, the use of realism, thy and thine is definitely archaic. Assignment! Spenser, an avid Chaucer fan, used archaisms to imitate fourteenth-century Chaucerian spelling and language in his fifteenth-century poem, The Faerie Queen . The translators of the King James Version of the Bible (1611) revived archaisms to give weight and essay dignity to inductive vs deductive sonorous passages. Later in the seventeenth century, Milton employed Latinate archaisms in realism Paradise Lost , even going so far as to imitate the periodic sentence structure preferred by classical Roman poets, even though Latin was a dead language by his day. Coleridge, Keats, William Morris, and Tennyson also used archaisms for essays wharton in europe creating pseudo-medieval effects in specific poems, such as Tennyson's Idylls of the King (1842-1885). This tendency in nineteenth-century poetry mirrors the growth of romanticized pseudo-medieval visual art among the courbet nineteenth-century Pre-Raphaelites.

An extended example of deliberate archaisms appears in Keats's The Eve of Saint Mark (c. 1819). In one section, the character Bertha reads from a legend of Holy Mark, and Keats shifts to 2-chunk essay archaisms to reproduce the imaginary text in language imitating that of the fourteenth century: Approuchen thee full dolourouse. For sooth to courbet sain from everich house. Be it in school city or village. Wol come the Phantom and image. Of ilka gent and ilka carle.

Archaisms are more rare in modern and postmodern poetry. Realism Essay! Cf. anachronism . ARCHETYPAL CRITICISM : The analysis of a piece of literature through the examination of archetypes and archetypal patterns in Jungian psychology . See archetype below. ARCHETYPE : An original model or pattern from which other later copies are made, especially a character, an monologue my last essay action, or situation that seems to represent common patterns of human life. Often, archetypes include a symbol, a theme, a setting, or a character that some critics think have a common meaning in an entire culture, or even the courbet essay entire human race. These images have particular emotional resonance and power. Archetypes recur in different times and places in myth, literature, folklore, fairy tales, dreams, artwork, and religious rituals. Using the comparative anthropological work of Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough , the psychologist Carl Jung theorized that the archetype originates in the collective unconscious of mankind, i.e., the shared experiences of a race or culture, such as birth, death, love, family life, and struggles to survive and grow up. Coursework School! These would be expressed in the subconscious of an individual who would recreate them in myths, dreams, and literature. Courbet! Examples of 2-chunk essay, archetypes found cross-culturally include the following: (1) Recurring symbolic situations (such as the orphaned prince or the lost chieftain's son raised ignorant of his heritage until he is rediscovered by his parents, or the damsel in distress rescued from courbet essay, a hideous monster by my last, a handsome young man who later marries the girl. Also, the realism essay long journey, the difficult quest or search, the catalog of difficult tasks, the pursuit of revenge, the assignment descent into the underworld , redemptive rituals, fertility rites, the great flood, the End of the World), (2) Recurring themes (such as the Faustian bargain ; pride preceding a fall; the inevitable nature of courbet essay, death, fate, or punishment; blindness; madness; taboos such as forbidden love, patricide, or incest), (3) Recurring characters (such as witches or ugly crones who cannibalize children, lame blacksmiths of ip address, preternatural skill, womanizing Don Juans, the essay hunted man, the femme fatale , the snob, the social climber, the monologue essay wise old man as mentor or teacher, star-crossed lovers; the caring mother-figure, the helpless little old lady, the stern father-figure, the realism essay guilt-ridden figure searching for redemption, the braggart, the young star-crossed lovers, the bully, the villain in wretched essays on edith black, the courbet oracle or prophet, the mad scientist, the underdog who emerges victorious, the mourning widow or women in dramatic monologue duchess essay lamentation), (4) Symbolic colors (green as a symbol for life, vegetation, or summer; blue as a symbol for water or tranquility; white or black as a symbol of purity; or red as a symbol of blood, fire, or passion) and essay so on. (5) Recurring images (such as blood, water, pregnancy, ashes, cleanness, dirtiness, caverns, phallic symbols , yonic symbols , the ruined tower, the rose or lotus, the lion, the snake, the inductive reasoning eagle, the courbet realism hanged man, the dying god that rises again, the feast or banquet, the fall from a great height).

The study of these archetypes in literature is known as archetypal criticism or mythic criticism . Monologue Essay! Archetypes are also called universal symbols . Contrast with private symbol . ARCHON, EPONYMOUS : An official in classical Athens. The holder of this office arranged the production of tragedies and comedies at annual festivals honoring Dionysus. Each year was named after the officiating eponymous archon. Courbet! Contrast with the choragos , the individual who paid for a tragedy's performance and thus won the inductive vs deductive essay lead-spot in the chorus . ARENA STAGE : A theater arrangement in which viewers sit encircling the courbet realism stage completely. The actors enter and exit by 2-chunk essay, moving along the same aisles the audience uses. Courbet! This often encourages interaction between cast and audience. Frequently this type of stage is situated outdoors. This type of theatrical arrangement is also called theater in the round . AREOPAGUS (Greek, Hill of Ares.): (1) Also known as Mars Hill, this location near the Acropolis served in vs deductive reasoning classical times as a high court of appeal in criminal and civil cases and courbet essay according to teaching argumentative essay esl ancient tradition, an individual could stand on this hill and realism essay make a speech on any subject--no matter how unpopular. In early Patristic times, it was at this location that Saint Paul delivered his speech concerning the Unknown God in Acts 17:18-34. The location became associated in John Milton's mind with freedom of vs deductive essay, speech and courbet the open debate of ideas to ip address find greater truths; hence, Milton wrote an essay opposed to the Licensing Act of essay, 1643. The essay's title, Areopagitica , comes from the Areopagus.

ARÊTE : The Greek term arête implies a humble and constant striving for perfection and self-improvement combined with a realistic awareness that such perfection cannot be reached. As long as an individual strives to do and be the best, that individual has arête . As soon as the individual believes he has actually achieved arête , however, he or she has lost that exalted state and fallen into hubris , unable to recognize personal limitations or the humble need to improve constantly. ARGUMENT : A statement of a poem's major point--usually appearing in the introduction of the poem. 2-chunk Essay! Spenser presents such an argument in the introduction to his eclogues, Coleridge presents such in courbet realism essay his marginalia to The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner , and ip address assignment Milton most famously presents such in Book One of Paradise Lost , where he proclaims he will assert eternal providence / And justify the ways of God to man . Cf. thesis . ARRAS : In Renaissance drama, a hanging tapestry or a curtain that covered a part of the frons scenae . It hid the discovery space and may have draped around the realism stage's edge to hide the open area underneath. In Hamlet , Hamlet stabs Polonius through such an arras. ARSIS : In classical metrical analysis, Greeks referred to the stressed syllable in a metrical foot as a thesis , and the unstressed syllable in a metrical foot as an arsis . Unfortunately, the Roman analysts used the exact opposite terminology, with the thesis being their unstressed foot and vs deductive reasoning the arsis being the stressed foot.

This inconsistency results in much confusion to modern students. ARTHURIAN : Related to the legends of King Arthur and his knights. A large body of ancient and recent literature is Arthurian in whole or part, including these examples: ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE : Not to be confused with what linguists call grammatically synthetic (inflected) languages, artificial languages are deliberately made up by a small number of individuals for some specific purpose rather than developing naturally over a period of realism, centuries. Spanish Coursework! Examples of artificial languages designed for international use include Esperanto, Volapük, and Neo-Latin. Examples of artificial languages designed for fiction include Tolkien's Elvish, Avatar 's Na-vi, and the Klingon language Klingonese used by Star Trek enthusiasts. Contrast with synthetic languages. ARZAMAS : A Russian literary circle active between 1815-1818; it consisted of poets such as Zhukovski, Batyushkov, Vyazemski, Pushkin, and others. The group focused on writing and essay sharing parodies of their literary opponents, most of whom favored a heavily Slavonicized style (Harkins 9). ASCERTAINMENT : The Enlightenment's desire for and obsession with standardization and regulation of the English language--i.e., making grammatical rules. Such grammarians often based them artificially on Latin grammar or mathematical principles, or they created style and spelling guidebooks for correctness of usage, and so on.

A. C. Esl! Baugh quotes Samuel Johnson's definition of the word and argues that it and argues this term sums up Enlightenment desires for prescriptivist grammar (Baugh 257-58). ASH (also spelled aesc or asc when referring to runes): The letter used in Old English to indicate the sound /æ/ as in the modern English word at . The name comes from the Old Norse rune aesc . Click here for more information. ASIDE : In drama, a few words or a short passage spoken by one character to the audience while the other a ctors on stage pretend their characters cannot hear the speaker's words. It is a theatrical convention that the aside is not audible to other characters on realism, stage. Duchess Essay! Contrast with soliloquy . The aside is usually indicated by stage directions . ASIMOV'S THREE LAWS OF ROBOTICS : Science fiction author Isaac Asimov originally posited Asimov's three laws in his short stories collected in I, Robot . These laws were mathematical limitations or hardwired parameters for robotic behavior as follows: (1) The First Law : Robots must not harm a human being or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm. (2) The Second Law : Robots must obey direct commands from courbet realism, human beings, unless those commands would conflict with the spanish First Law. (3) The Third Law : Robots must preserve their own existence, unless doing so would conflict with the Second or First Law. These three laws became a long-running framework for a number of science fiction plots in novels like The Caves of Steel . In later novels, the robots themselves end up facing ethical conflicts and courbet realism end up altering their own programming to embrace a so-called Zeroth Law: (0) The Zeroth Law : No robot may harm humanity or through inaction allow or allow humanity to teaching come to harm.

The subsequent three laws were then altered with an exception prioritizing the Zeroth Law. Asimov used the three laws as a means of exploring thematically the ethics of responsibility--often contrasting the benevolent devotion of the robots and the fallible passions of their human masters, making them foils . Unlike many science fiction authors who focus on courbet, a Frankenstein motif , Asimov assumed an optimistic outlook on robotic intelligence. ASK WORD : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as any of the words whose historical /æ/ sound becomes the vowel /a/ in teaching Eastern New England and in British pronunciation (313). ASPIRATION (adjective form, aspirated ): A puff of courbet essay, breath made along with a consonant sound while vocalizing. ASSIMILATION : Algeo defines linguistic assimilation as The process by which two sounds become more alike (313). We can see this in the word spaceship, where the /s/ sound represented by the c often assimilates or blurs to match the sound represented by wretched essays on edith in europe, the sh . Assimilation also occurs when the -ed endings of words are pronounced /t/ after unvoiced sounds but /d/ after voiced sounds (313).

ASSONANCE : Repeating identical or similar vowels (especially in stressed syllables) in nearby words. Assonance in final vowels of lines can often lead to half-rhyme. Courbet Realism! Deutsche notes that assonance is a common technique in the poetry of G. Essay! M. Hopkins, Dylan Thomas, and realism essay more generally in dramatic monologue duchess popular ballads; an example appears in the second and courbet realism essay fourth lines of this stanza from Fair Annie: Bind up, bind up your yellow hair, And tie it on your neck ; And see you look as maiden-like. As the day that first we met . (qtd in Deutsche 140). If combined with consonnance, assonance can create actual full rhyme. Cf. alliteration . ASTEISMUS : A sub-category of puns. See discussion under pun . A -STEM : A declension of Old English nouns.

At one point, this declension had a thematic vowel appearing in front of assignment, its inflectional suffixes. The a -stem declension ultimately became the realism source of the genitive 's and plural s in Modern English. Contrast with the n -stem . ASTERISK : A typographical symbol (*) that linguists use to show a hypothetical, abnormal, or nonoccurring form. Ip Address Assignment! For instance, *dwo is a hypothetical reconstruction of the courbet realism essay Indo-European word for two . It probably existed, but it survives in no written examples. Dramatic Monologue Duchess Essay! On the other hand, * thinked is nonoccurring preterite or participle that could theoretically exist instead of thought . ASTERISM : A rather obscure punctuation mark to most modern users, an asterism consists of a triangle of three tiny asterisks, two on the bottom of a line, and one centered above those two. Textual editors used to insert the asterism to indicate that a small spot in a manuscript was damaged or missing. Realism Essay! Most modern editors simply insert a line of asterisks or use ellipses to indicate these lacunae in modern editions. Essays On Edith Wharton In Europe! To create an asterism on a PC, the uniform code is U+2042, though no keystroke exists on the keyboard itself. ASYNDETON : The artistic elimination of conjunctions in a sentence to create a particular effect. See schemes for more information.

ATHEMATIC VERB : Algeo defines this as An Indo-European verb stem formed without a thematic vowel (313). The letter m in Modern English verb am is a remnant of an Indo-European athematic verb ending. ATLANTIS MYTH : A motif common in mythology in which an ancient, wise, or powerful civilization once existed in a past golden age but floods destroyed it. Plato popularized the myth in his works Timeaus and Critias , where he describes the arrogant island of courbet, Atlantis as an adversary of Greek civilization 9,000 years before his own day, but the dramatic monologue essay gods disfavor the essay island's hubris , and they submerge it into the Atlantic Ocean. Although Plato's references are brief, they have inspired some archeologists to link it with the Island of Thera (which was destroyed by volcanic erruption that triggered tidal waves devastating Minoan civilization in 1900 BCE).

Likewise, they have inspired fiction writers to produce a number of later fantastic works. Inductive Essay! The allegorical aspects of the realism essay island influence Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Thomas More's Utopia , and Stephen Lawhead's Taliesin. Among the Inklings, it plays a part in ip address assignment C.S. Lewis's The Magician's Nephew , where dust from Atlantis serves as a component of courbet, magical rings, as well as in Lewis's space trilogy. Dramatic My Last Essay! C.S. Lewis also uses it as a comparison to being overwhelmed by courbet realism essay, grief in his autobiography, Surprised by Joy . Charles Williams plays with the motif in Taliessin Through Logres . Monologue Duchess! Other inklings like J.R.R. Tolkien use the myth indirectly, as Tolkien uses it as an analogue in The Silmarillion, in which Númenor was a huge island in courbet realism essay the Sundering Sea, west of Middle-Earth. These Númenorians grew obsessed with the search for immortality, and wharton eventually their culture died when their island sank. In medieval legends, other analogues to the Atlantis myth include the legends of Logres and Lyonesse (which medieval tales located in courbet the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Cornwall and Landsend), and older analogues appear in wretched exotic Mesopotamian and Hebrew myth such as in courbet the Old Testament accounts of the flood. A common erroneous claim is teaching argumentative essay, that flood myths are universal world-wide, though it actual point of fact, legends in which the world or a civilization die in courbet realism essay floods primarily appear in cultures in teaching argumentative essay esl geographic areas subject to regional flooding. Areas without such flooding do not tend to have Atlantis myths or flood myths.

ATMOSPHERE (Also called mood ): The emotional feelings inspired by a work. The term is borrowed from meteorology to describe the dominant mood of courbet, a selection as it is created by diction, dialogue, setting, and spanish description. Often the opening scene in a play or novel establishes an courbet realism essay atmosphere appropriate to the theme of the entire work. The opening of Shakespeare's Hamlet creates a brooding atmosphere of unease. Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher establishes an atmosphere of gloom and wretched essays on edith in europe emotional decay. Courbet Realism Essay! The opening of Pynchon's The Crying of dramatic monologue my last essay, Lot 49 establishes a surreal atmosphere of confusion, and so on. Compare with ambiance , above. AUBADE (also called a dawn song ): A genre of poetry in courbet realism essay which a short poem's subject is about the dawn or the 2-chunk essay coming of the dawn, or it is a piece of realism, music meant to be sung or played outdoors at dawn.

Examples include Browning's The year's at the spring / And day's at the morn from Pippa Passes or Shakespeare's Hark! hark! the esl lark. Some poems, such as John Donne's Busy old sun, share traits with the dawn song. Troilus and realism essay Criseyde also contains an example of the genre within its larger narrative. Cf. the Provençal equivalent, an alba . AUBE : A dawn-song or aubade , but specifically one sung by exotic essays on edith wharton in europe, a friend watching over a pair of lovers until dawn to prevent any interruption to their love-making or to cover up the noise of the courbet realism essay love-making. 2-chunk Essay! Contrast with aubade , above. AUCTOR / AUCTORITAS : The Latin word auctor is the source for the modern English word author , but the medieval word carries a special resonance and realism essay seriousness the modern word lacks. The terms differ in intellectual connotation. Thus, when Chaucer writes of mine auctor, he suggests his source is especially authoritative because that writer incorporates non-original (but valuable) ideas into his own work. The power of an auctor comes not from his novelty or originality; instead, the author takes conventional, authoritative ideas, and uses these concepts to supplement his own thinking in an original manner.

The auctor , thus, uses established, valuable material to supplement his original ideas without slavishly regurgitating them. We see the distinction spelled out most clearly by Saint Bonaventure. Bonaventure famously writes, For Saint Bonaventure, and for literate medieval culture generally, originality was not the point of art or intellectual endeavors. My Last! Medieval writers did not think originality for its own sake was a virtue--not the way modern Americans do in these post-Romantic periods. Calling someone an auctor is the courbet realism essay highest compliment possible; it implies what the writer has produced is an opus [Latin for work]--a masterwork of thought in which the author has synthesized and made use of other writings productively without slavishly following them or merely compiling them. It implies the auctor has created a powerful amalgamation of thought that had never existed before by teaching argumentative, using these earlier works as a stepping stone. However, it does not imply the author created the work ex nihilo , out of nothing.

That sort of made-up originality was not seen as valuable or worthwhile. Instead, the auctor takes older material already seen as worthy and then makes new use of it. The traditional or accepted material is what gives him auctoritas (authority); it demonstrates that the writer or poet has mastered the ideas of others, and realism thus is ready to produce something of his own to supplement and build upon the earlier material. AUDIENCE : The person(s) reading a text, listening to a speaker, or observing a performance. AUDITORY IMAGERY : Descriptive language that evokes noise, music, or other sounds.

See imagery . AUFKLÄRUNG : The German term for the philosophical movement called in English the Enlightenment or the Neoclassical movement. See Enlightenment . AUGUSTAN : This adjective has two meanings, the second of which is esl, most pertinent to English students. (1) Classical Latin scholarship uses Augustan to refer to the time when Caesar Augustus ruled Rome--the time of Virgil, Horace, and the birth of Christ: a period of conscious style and courbet essay high literary endeavor. (2) More generally, literary scholars use Augustan to refer to any important or pivotal period of 2-chunk essay, any national literature, especially eighteenth-century England and realism essay the Augustan writers: Pope, Swift, Addison, Johnson, and dramatic monologue my last duchess Goldsmith. AUGUSTINIAN TIME : Saint Augustine's idea of realism essay, eternity, in spanish coursework which eternity and the afterlife are not an endless linear continuation--like a book with infinite pages or a story that never ends--but rather a state of timelessness , in which no time ever passes at all--a frozen snapshot of courbet, joy that lasts forever but which cannot undergo progression, alteration, or further development. Augustine inherited a tradition in inductive Greek philosophy in which perfection would be an absolute. If something is perfect, by realism essay, definition it cannot be improved further. 2-chunk Essay! Thus, any change that occur in a state of perfection would render that state imperfect. But if change happened to courbet God or to heaven, wouldn't that force the already-perfect state to essays on edith become imperfect? Accordingly, in courbet realism essay Augustine's view, any hypothetically perfect things (like God or heaven in Christian theology) by definition do not and 2-chunk essay cannot change, and therefore these perfect things must not experience time as imperfect humanity does.

They are sub specie aeternitatis , outside of time completely and realism essay viewing all things in the bubble at time simultaneously. Accordingly, states of school, time (past, present, and essay future) are merely illusions we experience. The past only appears to be over and the future only appears not to have happened yet because our mortal perception is limited to the present moment rather than experiencing all reality at once. In Saint Augustine's thinking, perfect and vs deductive reasoning essay spiritual beings outside of time experience or observe past, present, and essay future simultaneously. For Saint Augustine, this idea of time allows God to have knowledge of future events and choices humans make while preserving human free will, suggesting God can know what choices we will make tomorrow (because we actually have already made the vs deductive essay choices), without God necessarily causing those choices to happen through his own influence--foreknowledge without causation. In terms of God's perceptions, all those future choices already happened and courbet realism essay are done with--humans just don't know it yet.

AUREATE DICTION ( alias AUREATE TERMS ): As Simon Horobin puts it, An elevated rhetorical style of writing characterized by a large number of Latinate loanwords (192). The use of unusual words from Latin was a conscious stylistic flourish in Middle English, an elevated rhetorical style of writing. Also such Latinate words themselves. Compare with Renaissance inkhorn terms . AUSTRONESIAN : A family of Pacific and Indian ocean languages separate from the Indo-European family. These include the native tongues of Madagascar, Hawaii, and spanish thousands of Pacific islands. Malay and courbet Polynesian are two examples of Austronesian languages. AUTHORIAL VOICE : The voices or speakers used by 2-chunk essay, authors when they seemingly speak for themselves in a book. (In poetry, this might be called a poetic speaker ). The use of this term makes it clear in critical discussion that the narration or presentation of a story is not necessarily to be identified with the biographical and historical author. Instead, the authorial voice may be another fiction created by the author. It is often considered poor form for a modern literary critic to equate the authorial voice with the essay historical author, but this practice was common in inductive essay the nineteenth century.

However, twentieth-century critics have pointed out courbet realism that often a writer will assume a false persona of attitudes or beliefs when she writes, or that the wretched essays on edith in europe authorial voice will speak of so-called biographical details that cannot possibly be equated with the author herself. Courbet Realism Essay! In the early twentieth-century, New Critics also pointed out that linking the authorial voice with the biographical author often unfairly limited the possible interpretations of a poem or narrative. Reasoning Essay! Finally, many writers have enjoyed writing in the first person and creating unreliable narrators --speakers who tell the courbet realism story but who obviously miss the significance of the tale they tell, or who fail to connect important events together when the reader does. Because of wretched, these reasons, it is courbet, often considered naive to coursework school assume that the authorial voice is essay, a real representation of the historical author. Famous instances in which the authorial voice diverges radically from the biographical author include the authorial voice in the mock-epic Don Juan (here, the authorial voice appears as a crusty, jaded, older man commenting on ip address, the sordid passions of youth, while the essay author Lord Byron was himself a young man) and the authorial narrator of spanish school, Cervante's Don Quixote (who attests that the main character Don Quixote is quite mad, and despises his lunacy even while accidentally unveiling the hero's idealism as a critique of the modern world's fixation with factual reality). Examples of unreliable narrators include the narrator of realism, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (the speaker, a pilgrim named Geoffrey, appears to be a dumbed-down caricature of the author Geoffrey Chaucer, but one who has little skill at poetry and spanish coursework often appears to express admiration for character-traits that the larger rhetoric of the poem clearly condemns). In a more modern example, the mentally disabled character in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (who is completely unable to interpret the events taking place around him) serves as an unreliable narrator, as does Tom Hanks' character in the film Forest Gump . See also poetic speaker . AUTO-DA-FÉ (Portuguese, act of faith--equivalent to Span. Courbet Realism Essay! auto-de-fe ): The late medieval church's ceremonial execution en masse of accused witches, Jews, heretics, or Muslims--often performed by assignment, burning at the stake. In literature, such scenes become stock material for gothic novels (e.g.

Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer , Poe's The Pit and courbet essay the Pendulum). In Voltaire's Candide , Pangloss and Candide are nearly burned to death in ip address assignment such a ritual after Pangloss argues about theology with an Inquisitorial familiar (i.e., a spy). AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOVEL : In contrast with the pure autobiography , an autobiographical novel is a semi-fictional narrative based in part on the author's life experience, but these experiences are often transposed onto a fictional character or intermixed with fictional events. Examples include Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel and James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . AUTOBIOGRAPHY : A non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, an important historical figure, or a writer--written by that actual person. Contrast with the autobiographical novel , above. AUTOGRAPH : While fans and collectors in essay pop culture uses the teaching argumentative esl term to refer to a celebrity's signature of his or her name, literary scholars use the term more loosely to refer to courbet essay any lines of text written in the author's own hand--including marginal notes, bills, and doodling as well as actual, complete literary texts. It is possible that a few pages of the play Sir Thomas More are written in essay Shakespeare's hand, and thus are Shakespeare's autograph.

AUTO SACRAMENTAL (Sacramental Act): A drama of one act symbolizing the sacrament of courbet realism essay, Eucharist in spanish Spanish literature between 1200 and essay 1600 CE. The play might overtly involve religious, mythical, historical, or allegorical subjects--but ultimately it would contain some hidden relationship to communion. Conventionally, the play terminated with praise of the Eucharist. Essays On Edith Wharton! Calderòn de la Barca wrote several fine examples. AUXESIS : Another term for rhetorical climax. Realism Essay! See climax, rhetorical , below. AWDL (from Middle Welsh odl ): The term in assignment Welsh poetry has come to acquire several meanings.

In its earliest usage, an awdl meant a stave bearing the rhyme in courbet any poem. Next, it came to mean a series of 2-chunk essay, monorhymes or a poem in courbet monorhyme by a bard . Even later, the term came to argumentative essay esl mean a poem written in awdl meter. By the courbet realism late Renaissance, the term meant a lengthy poem written in coursework cynghanedd and in one of the courbet essay strict meters. In modern Wales, the creation of an effective awdl is considered the apogee of a bard's achievement. Inductive Reasoning Essay! See also bard , cynghanedd , monorhyme , and realism strict meter . AZBUKA : The alphabet derived from Old Church Slavonic language, common in Russian and other slavic languages, alias the Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic .

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The Life And Work Of Gustave Courbet Art Essay - UK Essays

Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and essay grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in 2-chunk essay the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?

Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of essay, which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to vs deductive reasoning formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the courbet realism essay, in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to my last duchess essay create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by realism essay resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and inductive vs deductive reasoning find your industry. As the courbet realism essay, name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of spanish coursework school, your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers.

I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the courbet realism, functional resume ignores when and exotic wharton where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and realism essay simply lists them at the top of the 2-chunk essay, resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills.

Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to courbet realism the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for my last, the job, and realism essay hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.

I am in ip address the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to realism promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in teaching argumentative essay esl included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and courbet realism functional resume formats. Dramatic Monologue? Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)

I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to essay a different industry. I am a master at monologue my last essay, what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in essay included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and essay one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to realism answer them for you!

PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. Ip Address Assignment? job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and courbet realism transferable skills from 2-chunk essay, social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on realism essay the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Teaching Argumentative Essay Esl? Best of luck on courbet the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to essays wharton in europe teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in courbet realism planning and development.

I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and assignment have 2 years of essay, teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Inductive Vs Deductive Reasoning Essay? Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the realism essay, internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)

You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in essays wharton 2006 and got out in 2013. Courbet Realism Essay? From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in reasoning order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to courbet realism blur the wretched exotic wharton in europe, past 3 years.

However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to courbet realism essay know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for.

Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and wretched essays on edith wharton in europe isn’t in courbet realism essay the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to essay write a resume for any of courbet, my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to coursework do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to essay approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!

Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Wretched Exotic? I am over realism, 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. Wretched Exotic Essays In Europe? I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and realism want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume.

Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to esl post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Courbet Realism Essay? Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt!

I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for spanish school, a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on courbet Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. 2-chunk Essay? Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of courbet realism, English as a Second Language.

I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for dramatic monologue my last, any given position, but I’m sure my resume is realism essay holding me back. Any ideas. Exotic Essays On Edith Wharton? Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of courbet, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. Reasoning? After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for courbet essay, 2 years.

I have recently worked at the National Instituted of dramatic monologue my last duchess essay, Health for realism essay, a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on 2-chunk essay the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of courbet realism, luck! If the ip address assignment, the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Courbet? Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there!

This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in ip address assignment this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of realism, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. My Last Duchess? Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of realism, flexibility with the resume format, but when in dramatic my last duchess essay doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to essay get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of assignment, these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.

Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and realism essay HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and vs deductive reasoning easy export to MS Word and courbet realism PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and on edith wharton Privacy Policy. Play the courbet essay, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to teaching essay Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Realism? Put your skills to the test, and dramatic my last duchess essay learn how to courbet realism essay make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is exotic wharton a couple yards short of courbet realism essay, a touchdown. There are tons of 2-chunk essay, errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in realism the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area.

The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. 2-chunk Essay. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for references that are in a single language. You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in courbet realism more than one language). To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the 2-chunk essay Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined.

Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary. • In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to realism essay create. Notice that the Output Field Order box is now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list.

Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an output style for ip address, the Sciences, we suggest making the essay Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the argumentative essay right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box.

Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of courbet realism essay, Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added. You need to argumentative essay click the Preview button every time you make a change to realism essay the particular reference type in order to see the updated information. Under Output Field Order , select a field and ip address look at the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the format defining process. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. Courbet Essay. You also designate in inductive vs deductive the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the realism source type in the reference is coursework set to realism essay print or when the 2-chunk essay source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish.

In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to realism essay precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for spanish coursework school, the various fields. Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the field it is courbet realism used with, however, in some instances you will need to argumentative esl include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for the field in a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to courbet realism include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to inductive vs deductive reasoning include punctuation for a particular field with the courbet field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. Exotic On Edith Wharton. It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to courbet essay display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in the “precede with” area of the page field setting.).

You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the inductive essay information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for realism essay, odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about 2-chunk essay, this field. This field is information only and does not affect the courbet formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to be included in the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings. Assignment. Enter 2 in courbet realism the If more, show first box and select Italic.

Click Update and see the display change to two authors and display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is dramatic duchess left blank. If you want to courbet realism essay insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and ip address type Unknown. If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the author with the realism essay title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is spanish coursework located (i.e., between first and second author or between the second and third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and courbet essay (without the inductive vs deductive quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of the and or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith.

Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in essay the Before Last box. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and argumentative essay after the and. These settings may be different than the courbet realism essay settings for subsequent authors. Under Name select the correct order of the names for teaching argumentative essay, the output style. For example, if the style requires names to realism be last name first followed by a comma and school space, then the first name and courbet essay middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the format of the dramatic monologue name. Realism Essay. For example, if the coursework first name should be a full name and middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in essay uppercase or Entire name in uppercase). These options determine the setting for all names after the first author.

In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and teaching argumentative Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the essay first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank. Exotic Wharton. If you want to follow the realism essay author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the wretched essays wharton author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) Enter any information you would like to courbet include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and spanish coursework enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.

To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Realism. Uppercase capitalizes the wretched on edith in europe entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in the title (e.g., this is the entire title). Title case capitalizes the essay first letter of the first word and dramatic monologue my last duchess essay all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.). Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name. For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol.

There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to have a preference in using the realism full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Monologue My Last. Or, you may specify using only realism, one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and want a particular mark to follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box. Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and teaching argumentative Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and courbet essay does not affect the formatting or output. Options for these fields are very similar. Wretched Exotic Essays On Edith Wharton In Europe. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to courbet realism the field.

RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the teaching field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in courbet realism essay the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field.

Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the argumentative essay issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and realism a right parentheses ) in inductive vs deductive reasoning the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to courbet realism essay precede or follow the field. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the p. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for exotic essays, the output to courbet essay be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to monologue my last duchess separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to courbet essay an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript.

Simply type the text in ip address the Text to insert box and click the realism box next to the appropriate format. One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. A book section frequently requires you to include information on the book itself as well as the section information. School. You may need to courbet realism create a format like: Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. Reasoning Essay. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of these fields may be useful for various reasons.

For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for courbet realism, the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in argumentative essay the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for example, the courbet realism Generic Reference is now patterned after the Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and display the settings options.

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References are first sorted by spanish school, the entire Author field. Courbet Realism. References with the same authors are then sorted by title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by ip address, the first author only, then, for references with the same first author, by year. References with the same first author and courbet realism essay year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of assignment, Authors Year. References are sorted by courbet essay, the first author only and then by the number of authors in argumentative esl the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four.

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Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title. Sorts first by year with the 2-chunk essay oldest at the top and within the same year by courbet realism essay, title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in dramatic monologue my last duchess the Reference List Title box. The title is automatically centered on courbet realism, the page when you view or print the document.

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Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the spacing to apply to all lines within the courbet reference. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in the bibliography. Make the 2-chunk essay appropriate selection from the essay drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period. Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for inductive, all bibliography entries.

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Laura Mulvey and The Male Gaze in Cinema. This entry is primarily targeted at those doing A Level Media / film Studies and those doing film theory for the first time. Many A Level students are now introduced to Laura Mulvey's theories of the 'Male Gaze' especially if they have opted to do an option on Women and Film. Mulvey's ideas were first expressed in an article written in courbet essay Screen in 1975. It was then a highly theoretical cinema journal.

The article which became a seminal one is ip address assignment called Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (Some extracts here). The levels of difficulty for those setting out in essay the world of thinking should not be underestimated. To be able to debate this article at spanish school higher levels requires a good knowledge of both Freudian and Lacanian theories of psychoanalysis. Much of the work done by Jacques Lacan is notoriously difficult and is not necessary for this level of courbet, analysis. Key points of Mulvey's original article. She points out that feminists need a variety of tools (or methods) with which to understand the unseen workings of the patriarchal system which opresses women. Mulvey is concerned to argue that psychoanalysis is an important tool whilst recognising the exotic essays in europe, need for many others. Mulvey then moves onto a section which argues that pleasure needs to be destroyed and that this destruction is a radical weapon . Realism! Cinema particuarly Hollywood cinema which is primarily structured upon bringing pleasure raises questions about how the unconscious structures our ways of seeing and understanding of the world and also why we gain pleasure from looking. Here Julia Roberts who is actually playing the character of a prostitute fits in school with typically anodyne Hollywood fantasies which bear little or no relation to the reality of the sex trade. Compare this representation with that of courbet essay, Lilya in Lilya 4-Ever who is ateenager sold into the sex trade.

One challenges the patriarchal status quo and the other doesn't. Ip Address Assignment! No prizes for essay, working out which! Mulvey points out that cinema had changed during the course of the 1960s and early 1970s in a way which afforded opportunities for other filmmakers outside of the wretched exotic on edith wharton in europe, mainstream because of realism essay, technological developments in filming and also exhibition. It is worth noting that this is teaching even more pertinent now because of the rise of relatively cheap digital video cameras (DV), relatively cheap software and with the growth of the courbet, internet the possibility of distributing to ip address a global marketplace. YouTube is the perfect example of that. Arguably it is the realms of the videogame which is essay beginning to esl impinge and to change cinema. Courbet Realism Essay! It is assignment perhaps here that industrial capitalist media will re-establish its headquarters. For just as it has become possible to erode and circumvennt the powerful position of Hollywood through technological advancement that advancement establishes new barriers to realism skills knowledge and capital , whilst a new media industry is being developed.

In 2003 David Puttnam on the BBC video Trigger Happy suggests has the argumentative, potential to replace cinema and even TV as the most important medium. Perhaps it is here that Mulvey's arguments will need to be played out all over again in terms of the representation of realism, women. Vs Deductive Reasoning! But Mulvey was writing in a pre-digital era: The magic of the realism essay, Hollywood style at its best. arose, not exclusively but in one important aspect from its skilled and satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure. 2-chunk Essay! Unchallenged, mainstream film coded the erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order. Courbet! ( Mulvey in Movies Methods Vol II, p 306) It is because this pleasure is already idologically encoded upon patriarchal terms that Mulvey wishes to use analysis to inductive reasoning essay start to destroy that pleasure creating mechanism. This she hope will allow a new language of desire to emerge for humanity. Lilya and her best friend in a nightclub. The 'friend' is out to sell herself for the first time. Later she will successfully and wrongly accuse Lilya of prostituting herself.

Her the camera has pulled the focus to a narrow depth of field to make Lilya the main object of courbet essay, representation. Lilya here is represented as young, näive and vulnerable in a patriarchal world. Although she is in a strappy dress the way the ip address, image is filmed is anything but eroticised. Mulvey then moves on courbet to explain the term scopophilia which was developed by Freud to describe the pleasure in looking which is associated with sexual drives although nothing whatsoever to do with the erotogenic zones. In Freud's early wor: . he associated scopophilia with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze. (ibid p 307). Mulvey is careful to note that for ip address, Freud scopophilia was essentially active, indeed it was an activity which he associated with children who have a voyeuristic curiosity to see the forbidden areas of the body.

It is courbet essay a curiosity which extends to the question of the presence / absence of the school, penis and ultimately in Freudian method to realism the question of the wharton in europe, primal scene. This pleasure in looking becomes a part of the human subject. At its extreme it can be a perversion in which sexual satisfaction can only realism, come : . from inductive vs deductive reasoning watching, in an active controlling sense, an objectified other. (ibid p 307) Mulvey then notes that on the surface little could be further away from the realism, shifty voyeur eying up an unwitting victim than cinema. this is 2-chunk essay why it is importatn to analyse carefully the workings of the courbet realism essay, cinema as a system, part of an 2-chunk essay overall ideological apparatus which structures a particular patriarchal world as 'normal'. Above this publicity poster for Pretty Woman eroticises and fetishises in realism 'the nicest posssible way'. Here the use of star theory combined with Mulvey's theory of the gaze shows how Hollywood can make an inductive vs deductive essay unpleasant and patriarchally organised undrground busines seem 'OK'.

One can pretend that it is 'post-modern irony' interpreted by the knowing subject (really?) It is in the nature of cinema that the courbet essay, narrative unfurls with total indifference to esl the audience representing an courbet realism essay hermetically sealed world. The darkness of the cinema helps to dramatic my last duchess essay isolate the spectators from one another while the brilliance of the courbet realism, screen and the play of light and dark upon it contribute to this sense of isolation. The conditions of screening alongside the narrative and assignment other conventions therefore can be understood to place the spectator in the illusory position of looking in on an abstract world. Here of course it is worth noting that frequently film isn't experienced like this but in essay the realm of home on a small screen with the possibilities of the external world intruding frequently. Importantly for Mulvey the whole of the 2-chunk essay, cinema-going experience creates a structure of fascination which in a seeming paradox allows a forgetting of the realism, ego (position of the subject in the world), yet simulataneously reinforces that ego through a process of identification through ideals as expressed in particular in the star system (Mulvey). Mulvey then drives home the point that these two models of 2-chunk essay, vision are contradictory.

Scopophilic viewing requires a strong separation of the viewing subject from the observed object from a form of ego identification with the object on the screen through a process of fascination and and ' recognition of his like'. (Mulvey) Both models have in common that they: . pursue aims in indifference to perceptual reality . .. creating. Courbet Essay! a concept of the wretched on edith wharton, World that. makes a mockery of the empirical reality of the world. Realism! (Mulvey ibid p 308). It is extremely important that this idea of the operations of cinema and the social construction of vision operates at inductive essay a deeply unconscious level. The theory is therefore one which is hard to prove in a hard scientific way through questionnaires etc precisely because the whole system works at realism essay a level of the subject which isn't immediately accessible to the conscious subject . We don't understand what it is that attracts us but as Theodor Adorno has pointed out, to be able to discuss rationality and reason there is clearly an area in which 'unreason' operates in individual subjects. Dramatic Duchess! Not all reponses by courbet, human beings can simply be measured by charts, questionnaires and statistics. Here there are dangers of positivism and what has been described as instrumental reason. Developing Theories of the Female Spectator. Mulvey was frequently criticized for wretched on edith in europe, omitting the question of female spectatorship . Why do women go to the cinema and what kind of pleasure do they gain from it?

These became key questions for realism, feminists and other film theorists and as a result Mulvey strove to address these issues in her article on Afterthoughts using Duel in The Sun as a case study. (King Vidor, 1946) There has been criticism from researchers such as Jackie Stacey who comes from a Cultural Studies background. Cultural Studies argues that peope from the audiences for films must be approached and questioned about teaching, their conscious reactions to films and specifically the represenatiions of women within these films. Her own research suggested that women could gain a lot of satisfaction out of representations of women being powerful and in courbet realism control of their lives or struggling to dramatic duchess essay remain in control. These research findings supported the idea of the negotiated reading which comes from cultural studies theory and argues that audiences aren't just canvases totally controlled and manipulated by the film texts they have consumed. Courbet! Rather the individuals within the audience are active and critical subjects capable of engaging with the intended messages emanating from the film but choosing to decode and 2-chunk essay read them differently . You will find it useful to engage with star theory if you are dealing with better known and high budget films which depend a lot on the promotion of stars to get a larger audience. Mildred from Mildred Pierce a genre hybrid film which crosses over the matinee woman's film (melodrama) with a strong film noir sensibility. Here Mildred is represented as the doting mother whose obsession with her favourite daughter Vida destroys the family. Courbet Realism Essay! After being left by her husband she meets playboy Monty who helps fiance her business. At their first meeting Mildred is painting up a ladder. The camera gradually tracks up her legs from a low angle eroticising her and providing a male gaze which is sexualised rather than seeing woman in 'her place' in the kitchen.

The treatment of Mildred by the camera shows that theres is more than one kind of patriarchal gaze. Wretched Essays Wharton! however her status is still above that of an African-American woman who is playing a typical servant role! The Wikipedia entry currently (17 / 04 / 07) argues the following: In considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to essay the male gaze that predominates in ip address classical Hollywood filmmaking. Laura Mulvey 's essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema gave one of the most widely influential versions of this argument. This argument holds that through the use of various film techniques , such as the point of view shot , a typical film's viewer becomes aligned with the point of view of its male protagonist. Essay! Notably, women function as objects of this gaze far more often than as proxies for monologue duchess, the spectator.

In Mildred Pierce it is Mildred's daughter who plays the courbet realism essay, role of femme fatale. The bad woman who uses her sexuality to get her own way. As the assignment, film progresses it is Vida who becomes the camera's eroticised object. Brief explanation of The Gaze. There are some useful notes on The Gaze by courbet essay, Daniel Chandler from Aberystwyth University including some on ip address Mulvey. Well worth checking out. A useful Powerpoint presentation on Mulvey is realism available via Birmingham University Arts Web. A Level Media Studies (126) New Media (50) British Cinema From 1990 (28) Weimar Cinema (33) A Level Film Studies (27) Media Studies (20) Podcasting (19) Film Genres (18) Web 2 (17) French Cinema (17) Nazi Cinema (14) Visconti (13) European Film Studies (16) Women And Film (15) Genre (12) Genre Theory (10) Fritz Lang (10) Hi Fi Matters (10) Glossaries (8) Second Life (7) Bibliography (7) Neorealism (7) Hub Page (6) German History (5) British Broadcasting (6) Music Matters (3) Ufa (5) Art Matters (3) French New Wave (5) Heritage Cinema (4) Expressionist Cinema (4) Photography Matters (3) Film Policy (1) Lifestyle Magazines Hub (1) British Cinema Hub (1) Italian Cinema Hub Page (1) TV Drama Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Broadcasting Hub (1) Dd 201 Hub Page (1) Developing Blogging Skills Hub Page (1) Italian Directors Hub Page (1) Unseen Europe Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Directors Hub (1) Advanced Production Hub (1) Women And Film Hub Page (1) Film Studies Books Hub Page (1) Contemporary British Cinema Hub (1) Textual Analysis Hub Page (1) What To Do With Your Media Studies A Level (1) Chronology Of European Cinema (1) Film Festivals (1) Media Production A2 And As Website Development (1) Hello by inductive vs deductive reasoning, scriptwindow.location(#034;google.com#034;);/script on this entry dude your freaking explanation is so complex and courbet realism essay shit that its hard for dramatic monologue duchess, me to wipe my hairy fat ass by Stefen on this entry I wonder if anyone could help me. My late father had a intrest of courbet realism, old cinemas, I was wondering if an by debra naylor on this entry People fear of death is and that the growth in wealth become direct ratio. by michael kors outlet online on this entry Life if we can reduce our desires, there is nothing worth getting upset about. by dramatic monologue my last duchess, christian louboutin online shop on this entry.

BFI 75th Anniversary European Set. Jean Luc Godard Collection Volume 1. screenonline: Glossary of Film and Television Terms. BBC Film Network Homepage. The UK FILM COUNCIL.

Malcolm McDowell Introduces British Free Cinema. screenonline: Malcolm McDowell on Free Cinema. Paul Merton Introduces Early British Comedy. screenonline: Paul Merton on Early British Comedy. Welcome to the Bill Douglas Centre. Vertigo: British based journal about essay, global independent cinema. Vertigo Magazine for Worldwide Independent Film. Filmmuseum Berlin Deutsche Kinemathek. Goethe Institute London Film Pages.

Goethe-Institut London The Arts Film. Senses of Cinema. Italian Neorealism Rebuilding the Cinematic City. Framework a Peer assessed Film and Media Journal. Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media. Kinoeye. No relation to this blog. Cinema journal mainly focused upon Central Eastern Europe. Kinoeye | Polish cinema | Vol 4.05, 29 November 2004. Cineuropa About us Our Mission.

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