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Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks. Phd Thesis Word. Bookkeeping, accounting, and ip address assignment auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations. They record financial transactions, update statements, and check financial records for accuracy. Bookkeeping, accounting, and word auditing clerks work in offices and may do site visits. About 1 in 4 worked part time in 2014. How to Become a Bookkeeping, Accounting, or Auditing Clerk. Dr.jekyll. Most bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks need some postsecondary education and also learn some of their skills on the job. They must have basic math and phd thesis computer skills, including knowledge of spreadsheets and bookkeeping software. The median annual wage for hyde compare and contrast essay bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks was $38,390 in May 2016.
Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and word auditing clerks is projected to decline 8 percent from 2014 to 2024. Wallpaper Madness Essay. Technological change is expected to reduce demand for these workers. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Compare the phd thesis, job duties, education, job growth, and pay of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about a mockingbird essay, bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks by phd thesis word, visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.
What Bookkeeping, Accounting, and essay Auditing Clerks Do About this section. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations. They record financial transactions, update statements, and check financial records for accuracy. Bookkeeping, accounting, and phd thesis auditing clerks typically do the following: Use bookkeeping software, online spreadsheets, and databases Enter (post) financial transactions into the appropriate computer software Receive and record cash, checks, and assignment vouchers Put costs (debits) and income (credits) into the software, assigning each to an appropriate account Produce reports, such as balance sheets (costs compared with income), income statements, and totals by phd thesis, account Check for accuracy in figures, postings, and reports Reconcile or note and report any differences they find in the records. The records that bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks work with include expenditures (money spent), receipts (money that comes in), accounts payable (bills to be paid), accounts receivable (invoices, or what other people owe the organization), and questions on essays profit and loss (a report that shows the organization’s financial health). Workers in this occupation have a wide range of tasks. Some are full-charge bookkeeping clerks who maintain an entire organization’s books. Others are accounting clerks who handle specific tasks. These clerks use basic mathematics (adding, subtracting) throughout the day. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks use specialized computer accounting software, spreadsheets, and phd thesis databases to enter information from receipts or bills.
They must be comfortable using computers to record and calculate data. The widespread use of computers also has enabled bookkeeping, accounting, and on essays auditing clerks to take on additional responsibilities, such as payroll, billing, purchasing (buying), and phd thesis word keeping track of overdue bills. Many of these functions require clerks to communicate with clients. Bookkeeping clerks , also known as bookkeepers , often are responsible for 3rd grade some or all of an organization’s accounts, known as the word, general ledger. They record all transactions and post debits (costs) and credits (income). They also produce financial statements and other reports for supervisors and teaching managers. Bookkeepers prepare bank deposits by compiling data from cashiers, verifying receipts, and sending cash, checks, or other forms of payment to the bank. In addition, they may handle payroll, make purchases, prepare invoices, and keep track of overdue accounts.
Accounting clerks typically work for larger companies and have more specialized tasks. Their titles, such as accounts payable clerk or accounts receivable clerk, often reflect the type of accounting they do. The responsibilities of accounting clerks frequently vary by level of experience. Entry-level accounting clerks may post details of transactions (including date, type, and amount), add up accounts, and word determine interest charges. They also may monitor loans and essay paragraph accounts to ensure that payments are up to date. Word. More advanced accounting clerks may add and balance billing vouchers, ensure that account data are complete and on essays accurate, and code documents according to word an organization’s procedures. Auditing clerks check figures, postings, and documents to wallpaper madness essay ensure that they are mathematically accurate and properly coded. They also correct or note errors for accountants or other workers to phd thesis word fix. Work Environment About this section. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks held about questions on essays, 1.8 million jobs in 2014. The largest employers of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks were as follows: The professional, scientific, and technical services industry includes the accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services sub-industry.
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks work in offices. Bookkeepers who work for multiple firms may visit their clients’ places of business. They often work alone, but sometimes they collaborate with accountants, managers, and phd thesis auditing clerks from to start, other departments. Many bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks work full time. About 1 in 4 worked part time in 2014. They may work additional hours to meet deadlines at the end of the fiscal year, during tax time, or when monthly or yearly accounting audits are done. Those who work in hotels, restaurants, and stores may put in overtime during peak holiday and vacation seasons. How to Become a Bookkeeping, Accounting, or Auditing Clerk About this section. Most bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks need some postsecondary education and also learn some of their skills on the job. Word. They must have basic math and computer skills, including knowledge of spreadsheets and bookkeeping software. Employers generally require bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks to have some postsecondary education, particularly coursework in accounting.
However, some candidates can be hired with just a high school diploma. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks usually get on-the-job training. Under the guidance of essay, a supervisor or another experienced employee, new clerks learn how to do their tasks, including double-entry bookkeeping. In double-entry bookkeeping, each transaction is phd thesis entered twice, once as a debit (cost) and ip address once as a credit (income), to phd thesis word ensure that all accounts are balanced. Some formal classroom training also may be necessary, such as training in specialized computer software. This on-the-job training typically takes around 6 months.
Licenses, Certifications, and and mr. hyde and contrast essay Registrations. Some bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks become certified. For those who do not have postsecondary education, certification is a particularly useful way to gain expertise in word the field. The Certified Bookkeeper (CB) designation, awarded by the American Institute of the yellow wallpaper madness essay, Professional Bookkeepers, shows that those who have earned it have the skills and knowledge needed to carry out phd thesis word, all bookkeeping tasks, including overseeing payroll and balancing accounts, according to accepted accounting procedures. For certification, candidates must have at least 2 years of full-time bookkeeping experience or equivalent part-time work, pass a four-part exam, and adhere to a code of ethics. The National Association of Certified Public Bookkeepers also offers certification. The Uniform Bookkeeper Certification Examination is an online test with 50 multiple-choice questions. Test takers must answer 75 percent of the questions correctly to teaching writing 3rd grade pass the exam.
With appropriate experience and education, some bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks may become accountants or auditors . Computer skills. Bookkeeping, accounting, and phd thesis auditing clerks need to to kill essay paragraph be comfortable using computer spreadsheets and bookkeeping software. Detail oriented. Phd Thesis Word. These clerks are responsible for producing accurate financial records. They must pay attention to detail in order to avoid making errors and recognize errors that others have made. Integrity.
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks have control of an dr.jekyll and mr. hyde essay organization’s financial documentation, which they must use properly and keep confidential. It is vital that they keep records transparent and phd thesis guard against misappropriating an organization’s funds. Math skills. The Yellow Wallpaper Madness Essay. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks deal with numbers daily and should be comfortable with basic arithmetic. Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks.
Median annual wages, May 2016. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Word. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of ip address assignment, Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for phd thesis word bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks was $38,390 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,880, and assignment the highest 10 percent earned more than $59,630. Word. In May 2016, the median annual wages for list to start bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Many bookkeeping, accounting, and phd thesis word auditing clerks work full time.
About 1 in 4 worked part time in 2014. They may work longer hours to meet deadlines at the end of the fiscal year, during tax time, or when monthly or yearly accounting audits are performed. Those who work in hotels, restaurants, and stores may put in overtime during peak holiday and vacation seasons. Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Total, all occupations. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy.
Source: U.S. Bureau of and mr., Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks is phd thesis projected to teaching decline 8 percent from 2014 to phd thesis 2024. Technological change is expected to reduce demand for these workers. Software improvements, such as cloud computing, have automated many of the tasks performed by bookkeepers.
As a result, bookkeepers will increasingly be hired on a contract basis through third party bookkeeping firms, rather than being held on a mockingbird paragraph, staff. Demand for bookkeeping is tied particularly to the growth of small businesses, which tend to hire bookkeepers rather than accountants due to their relatively lower cost. Therefore, economic growth should create some openings for bookkeepers to keep these organizations’ financial records. Because bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks make up a large occupation, there will be a large number of job openings from workers leaving the occupation. Thus, opportunities to enter the occupation should be plentiful. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Bookkeeping, accounting, and phd thesis word auditing clerks. State Area Data About this section. To Start A Thesis. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Phd Thesis. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to essay introduction be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.
America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records. They ensure that financial records are accurate and that taxes are paid properly and on time.
Accountants and auditors assess financial operations and work to help ensure that organizations run efficiently. Budget analysts help public and private institutions organize their finances. They prepare budget reports and monitor institutional spending. Cost estimators collect and analyze data in order to estimate the time, money, materials, and labor required to manufacture a product, construct a building, or provide a service. They generally specialize in phd thesis a particular product or industry. Financial clerks do administrative work for many types of organizations. They keep records, help customers, and carry out financial transactions. Loan officers evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of loan applications for people and businesses. Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents. Tax examiners and the yellow wallpaper collectors, and phd thesis revenue agents ensure that federal, state, and local governments get their tax money from businesses and citizens.
They review tax returns, conduct audits, identify taxes owed, and collect overdue tax payments. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about bookkeeping, accounting, and list of words to start auditing clerks, visit. Bureau of phd thesis, Labor Statistics, U.S. On Essays. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015.
The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and phd thesis responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the of words statement, number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the word, major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for essay introduction part-time work, the amount and word type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and assignment the risk of injury that workers may face.
The How to Become One tab describes how to phd thesis prepare for a job in essay the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in word the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. The State and of words to start a thesis statement Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the word, number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the to kill a mockingbird introduction paragraph, Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to word relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.
Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Dr.jekyll And Mr. Hyde. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by phd thesis, employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.
The employment, or size, of to start a thesis statement, this occupation in 2014, which is the phd thesis word, base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. Ip Address. Typical level of education that most workers need to phd thesis enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the yellow essay the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of word, employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024.
The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The Yellow Wallpaper Madness. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.
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Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedy—one thinks of Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra —but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the audience is inevitably complicit in this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of word, him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out what it is for the first time only through Iago's violently eroticizing and essay introduction paragraph, racializing report to Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. 88-89). 2.
At this point in my teaching of the play, I normally point to phd thesis word, all the ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the tropes of race, so that we are made to understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of essay paragraph, Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the phd thesis victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in ip address assignment Venice, an ideology to phd thesis word, which he is relentlessly subjected and assignment, which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes it—internalizes it so fully that, searching for a metaphor to convey his sense of the soil attaching both to his name and to Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a stain—a stain specifically associated with his sexuality—and discovering that stain on Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in part a function of his horrified recoil from phd thesis his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in Othello through what I take to be the play's representation of Othello's experience of race as it comes to ip address, dominate his sense of himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and hence quick to believe her unfaithful. But although the play locates Othello in phd thesis a deeply racist society, the sense of pollution attaching to blackness comes first of all (for the audience if not for Othello) from of words a thesis Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of Desdemona's tendency to deception and word, the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and racializing invocation of Othello. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on Othello, it offers us an equally rich—and in some ways more disturbing—representation of the function of Othello's race for Iago. I offer the following reading of that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to test out the applicability of psychoanalytic theory—especially Kleinian theory—to problems of race, an arena in which its applicability is often questioned; and, second, to identify some of the ways in which racism is the writing psychic property (and rightly the concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out of the phd thesis night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of its properties. Dr.jekyll Essay? Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makes—and teaches Othello to make—of Othello's blackness.
Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of his own, Iago has a distinctive I. Word? The matter of essay writing 3rd grade, Othello, and phd thesis word, satisfaction of the audience's urgent curiosity about to kill a mockingbird essay, what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of injuries to that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof, . . . Word? must be lee'd, and calm'd [11. 28-30]; And I, God bless the mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by what it is not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1.
57]), in fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and nonexistence: I am not what I am (1. 65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and the injured I is essay introduction his signature, the ground of phd thesis, his being and the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the action of the play as though in response to this sense of injury: Call up her father, . . . poison his delight (11. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to perform his will; and essay writing, with his words, the action begins. The structure of the word first scene models Iago's relation to list to start, the world that he calls up, for the play proper seems to arise out of word, Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by Iago's I but becomes in of words a thesis effect a projection of phd thesis, it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in Othello. Othello—and particularly in relation to Desdemona—becomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the presence, the fullness of list of words to start a thesis, being, that Iago lacks. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the kind of word, interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to Iago's interior emptiness and fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the to kill introduction extent to which Othello's fullness and solidity are the object of Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to which he works to replicate his own self-division in word Othello.
Split himself, Iago is a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in Othello the dr.jekyll and contrast essay sense of phd thesis, dangerous interior spaces—thoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mind—which Othello seems to the yellow wallpaper madness, lack, introducing him to the world of phd thesis word, self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by the end, Othello is so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against Turk, literalizing self-division by splitting himself graphically down the middle. 9 Though Iago is not there to see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the the yellow wallpaper illusion of word, Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is first of questions on essays, all his division from Desdemona and from the phd thesis fair portion of himself invested in her. If Cassio is any indication, that erotic power is heavily idealized by the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful. That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits. . . . But for ip address, Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an end in phd thesis word itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of sexual union on the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of essay writing, bestowing the position Iago initially seeks. The thrust of his plot toward the marriage bed, even at the cost of his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to spoil is on that bed: the phd thesis fullness and presence signified by Othello's possession of Desdemona, the ip address sexual union that reminds him of his own extincted spirits.
For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in his head; though he seems to imagine a series of erotic objects—Desdemona (11. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and phd thesis, Othello himself (in the coded language—the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]—that makes cuckoldry an anal invasion of Iago's own body)—he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in of words to start his revenge plot, and he imagines them only in sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. Phd Thesis Word? And in response, he effectively neutralizes the erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of Othello as black: and in the yellow wallpaper essay fact it is Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. His first use of the phd thesis word language of black and white is in his call to Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. If Cassio needs to essay, make Othello into an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to word, make him into a black monster, invading the citadel of whiteness. (The idealization and the debasement are of essay 3rd grade, course two sides of the phd thesis word same coin, and essay writing 3rd grade, they are equally damaging to word, Othello: both use him only as the container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the image of on essays, Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to phd thesis word, form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is imagined as threatened by its opposite. Iago's language here works through separation, works by placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of their mixture. But the ip address assignment play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and word, the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as black—and therefore himself as white—when he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and he uses that racialized blackness to destroy what he cannot tolerate. List To Start A Thesis? But the phd thesis trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is to kill a mockingbird engender'd, he tells us; Hell and phd thesis word, night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (1.3.401-2).
This trope makes the blackness Iago would attribute to Othello—like his monstrous generativity—something already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the monster he makes of Othello. Dr.jekyll Hyde Compare? 13. If the structure of the first scene predicts the process through which Iago becomes the progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the mechanism of projection through which Iago will come to use Othello's black skin as the container for phd thesis, his own interior blackness. Cassio uses Othello as the locus for fantasies of ip address assignment, inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the repository for his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. For Iago needs the blackness of phd thesis, others: even the white ewe Desdemona is blackened in his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351). How are we to understand Iago's impulse to dr.jekyll and mr. compare and contrast, blacken, the impulse for which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the receptacle for one's own contents?
The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to word, call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by invoking the body behind the abstraction, Othello in the yellow madness essay effect rubs our noses in it. 14. Let me begin, then, by word thinking about the way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of bodies. For Iago is the questions play's spokesman for the idea of the inside, the hidden away. At the word beginning of his seduction of Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and makes it his own, reinscribing it in his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for essay writing, foul toads / To knot and gender in (4.2.62-63). Phd Thesis Word? But merely by insisting on essay, the hidden inwardness of thought, Iago has already succeeded in causing Othello to phd thesis word, conflate the essay 3rd grade hidden with the word hideous, as though that which is inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in a mockingbird essay introduction his thought, / Too hideous to be shown [3.3.110-12]).
15 According to phd thesis word, this logic, the case against Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, has—psychically and anatomically—an inside, unknowable and monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in to kill introduction transferring his own sense of hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in her body, the sense of the hideous thing within—monstrous birth or foul intruder—begins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to Brabantio (Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags. . . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to phd thesis word, Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of ip address assignment, danger to Iago himself. For Iago finds—or creates—in Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of phd thesis word, vulnerability to intrusion, and he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the questions on essays old black ram who is word tupping your white ewe/you—or, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Iago's fantasy, and ip address, leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat, the thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the phd thesis word image of the body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for wallpaper essay, the body. Again and phd thesis word, again Iago imagines the body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and should be vomited out or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of list to start statement, courtesy to phd thesis word, Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for his sake (1. List To Start A Thesis? 176), Iago says; through the bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an word imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only lips and faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and emetic penetration of a body—Desdemona's? Cassio's?—imagined only as a container for faeces. Early in compare essay the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . Phd Thesis Word? . . Whom love has turn'd almost the wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break.
The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the love that has almost turned him inside out is here refigured as pus that threatens to break through the surface of his body. To Kill Essay? In Iago's fantasy of the body, what is inside does not need to be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is phd thesis word already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into this interior will be contaminated by it. Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in to kill a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph which matter is phd thesis word taken in for the body's nourishment; any good object taken in will be violently transformed and violently expelled. Questions? When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as acerb as the coloquintida, an emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the gorge (2.1.231-32). (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the body's interior as a mass of phd thesis, undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of to kill introduction paragraph, self-control to Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and phd thesis word, differentiation of the to start a thesis body's interior and on its malleability to the exercise of will: . . . 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of phd thesis, this, lies in hyde compare our wills.
This is not, presumably, his experience of his own body's interior or of phd thesis, his management of it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in control both of the inner processes of his body/garden and of the troublesome business of gender, and woman is wholly absent. 16 His only explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into and mr. hyde compare and contrast, his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidy—or even his untidy—rows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of supply[ing] the word body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured I—his sense that he is chronically slighted and betrayed, his sense of self-division—produces (or perhaps is the yellow madness essay produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and contaminated, especially by Othello.
In fact, any traffic between inner and outer is phd thesis dangerous for Iago, who needs to dr.jekyll and mr. hyde, keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and 157) of his inside; to do less would be to phd thesis word, risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the list wrong side outward, to wear [his] heart upon [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at (11. Word? 64-65). 18 To allow himself to be seen or known is tantamount to being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the outside unless he manages to of words to start statement, keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the phd thesis inside if he lets anyone in. Iago's need for sadistic control of others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of ip address, vulnerability: unable to be gardener to himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to bursting out, and hiding the contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in this process. As the embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to word, display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and then rub him to the sense in order to demonstrate the difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of Iago's own insides. On Essays? Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the fantasy of new objects to be taken into the self: objects over which—unlike the thought of phd thesis word, Othello, which gnaws at his inwards—he can exert full control. Obsessively—six times in fourteen lines—Iago tells Roderigo to ip address assignment, Put money in thy purse . . . fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).
We know that Iago has received enough jewels and gold from Roderigo to phd thesis word, have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from any ordinary human motivation, the money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at assignment, will. Put money in thy purse, he repeats insistently, and then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the emptiedout Roderigo becomes the container that holds the illusion of Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to fill himself with objects in order to phd thesis word, compensate for the contamination and chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the self is made of and filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the teaching essay writing 3rd grade association of sadistic control with the phd thesis word anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into to kill a mockingbird essay, his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to phd thesis word, a classically psychoanalytic reading of Iago as repressed homosexual.
20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and not only insofar as they can be said to assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at either the quality of wallpaper, Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to form any kind of libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and phd thesis word, conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to ip address assignment, the areas opened up by the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of Iago will, I think, help us to understand the ways in phd thesis word which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto the landscape of the to kill a mockingbird essay introduction play. In Klein's account the primitive self is composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and pieces of people, taken into phd thesis word, the self as part of the self's continual negotiation with what an outside observer would call the world) and the world is composed in part of projected bits and pieces of the questions self. Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the ego, and the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. Phd Thesis Word? 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of its own and hence enables the return of goodness to the world: Through processes of projection and introjection, through inner wealth given out and re-introjected, an questions on essays enrichment and deepening of the ego comes about. . . . Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the individual becomes able to share its gifts with others. 24 And the phd thesis corollary is clear: if the 3rd grade infant cannot take in the experience of the good breast (either because of his/her own constitutional conditions or because the experience is not there to be had in a consistent way), the bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to give back anything good to the world.
But, in the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the hand from which it feeds . . . is the phd thesis child who will then attempt to bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and hyde compare, apparently available, the infant may not be able to use it. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the word sense of dependency on this external source of goodness, the good breast will not be available for the infant's use: its goodness will in effect be spoiled by madness the infant's own envious rage. The prototype for Kleinian envy is the phd thesis word hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only list of words statement, with badness, confronted with the imagined fullness of a source of phd thesis, goodness outside itself: the first object to be envied is the feeding breast, for to kill essay, the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and that it has an unlimited flow of milk, and love which the breast keeps for its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on word, the priority of the breast as the hyde compare first object of envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from this earlier prototype. 27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of infantile destructiveness and rage, the source and target is the frustrating bad object—a maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is felt to be spoiled; but in Klein's reading of phd thesis word, envy, the source and target of rage is not the list to start frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and it is exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the peculiar sensitivity of the envious to the good—and the consequent need not to possess but to destroy it, or, in Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into the mother, and first of all into her breast, in order to phd thesis, spoil and destroy her. 28 But the breast so destroyed is of course no longer available to the child as a source of good: The breast attacked in this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of goodness within himself; hence the peculiarly vicious circle of envy, which destroys all good both in essay writing 3rd grade the world and in phd thesis the self, and essay, hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of course, need the help of a Kleinian perspective to identify Iago as envious. His willingness to kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is driven by envy; in an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy.
Here, for example, is Envy from Impatient Poverty: A syr is not thys a ioly game . . . Enuy in phd thesis fayth I am the same . . . I hate conscience, peace loue and to kill a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, reste. Debate and stryfe that loue I beste. Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. Word? For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy.
Klein describes an envy so primal—and so despairing—that it cannot tolerate the existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in possessing what is good but in spoiling it. And that spoiling takes place in fantasy through a special form of object-relating: through the violent projection of bits of the self and its contaminated objects—often localized as contaminated bodily products—into the good object. By means of this projection, the self succeeds in the yellow replicating its own inner world out there and thus in destroying the goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in the words of phd thesis, one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the lens of a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of this process as Iago fills Othello with the poison that fills him. In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to his interior and has to keep it hidden away because it is more a cesspool than a palace or a garden.
And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is dr.jekyll compare essay foul; everything taken in turns to pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. This sense of inner contamination leaves him—as Klein would predict—particularly subject to word, the sense of goodness in others and particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to ip address assignment, bring out the quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by the daily beauty in Cassio's life—at a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of Othello and Desdemona (he is an erring barbarian and she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodness—and affirms it in order to phd thesis word, imagine spoiling it. Othello's free and teaching essay writing, open nature he will remake as the stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400). He will not only phd thesis word, use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the desire to spoil always takes precedence over the desire to possess; one need only contrast him with Othello to see the difference in their relation to good objects. 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the good object gives the questions on essays play much of its emotional resonance.
He imagines himself as safely enclosed in its garnery, nourished and protected by it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to word, be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoiled—a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in—its loss is wholly intolerable to him; even at the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the good object in her. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is not to stain but to restore the ip address assignment purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to shed her blood (5.2.3). Phd Thesis Word? Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in teaching essay 3rd grade fantasy he cleanses the slime / That sticks on filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. 149-50, 146). But Iago's only joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on (3.3.170-71). His description of the phd thesis word green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against marks the workings of a very Kleinian envy in him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the dr.jekyll fullness of the word breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and sustain him, spoiling them by means of his corrosive wit. 35 (Or perhaps—in good Kleinian fashion—by tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the image of feeding on meat, mock may carry traces of mammock, 36 to tear into pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and hence the talion logic in his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockery—especially of the wallpaper meat he might feed on—is Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the phd thesis word wine she drinks is made of grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is only good enough To suckle fools, and chronicle small beer (1.
160). If the list of words first object to be envied is the feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of maternal nurturance here is just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. Phd Thesis Word? As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the breast is likely to extend to all feminine attributes, in particular to the woman's capacity to bear children. . . . The capacity to give and to preserve life is felt as the greatest gift and therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and ip address assignment, fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the word beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into a breeding ground for writing 3rd grade, plague is Desdemona's generative body. Hence, I think, the urgency with which Iago propels the plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the phd thesis ultimate game is to make father destroy mother on that bed in a parody of the life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. 39. And hence the on essays subterranean logic of Iago's favorite metaphor for that destruction, his monstrous birth.
For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and only suckle fools; her body will breed only flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock —as devaluation and derisive imitation—come together, as Boris's work on phd thesis word, envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the envied object has several components to it. First, of course, is the denuding (an idea) and disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the original. This makes possible what follows, namely the idea that the 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in every way the equal of the real thing. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by taking on assignment, its powers for himself, denying the difference—between her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and phd thesis, his emptiness—that he cannot tolerate. And Mr. Hyde? Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by stages. When he first invokes the metaphor of pregnancy, he is merely the midwife/observer: There are many events in word the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). Essay? But his triumphant I ha't only thirty lines later—I ha't, it is engender'd; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light—replaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the body in which the monstrous birth is engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in which he replaces the world outside himself 41 —the world of phd thesis word, time's womb, or of dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare and contrast, Desdemona's—with the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to destroy the generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product. Phd Thesis? Emilia's description of the jealousy Iago creates in Othello—it is a monster, / Begot upon questions on essays itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)—is not accurate about Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to its psychic sources. If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the word world conform to the shape of his envy by undoing the contours of the already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the wish to be begot upon oneself, born on the yellow essay, oneself, no longer subject to—dependent on, vulnerable to—the generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes.
42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and destroying in the process the envied good object in Desdemona. And it is just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for phd thesis, Iago. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on his capacity to blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of projection. His monstrous birth is from the on essays first associated with the darkness of phd thesis, hell and night; and when, in his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is associated specifically with the extrusion of a dark and sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out brain and hyde essay, all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. . . . Presumably Iago means that his invention is phd thesis word as slow—as laborious—-as the process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in which the of words to start a thesis statement nap of the cloth is phd thesis word removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out teaching essay writing, brain and all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is treacherous: the phd thesis syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from my pate as birdlime does), takes us on an apparent detour through the soiling of cloth (the birdlime stuck to the frieze), and ends with the image of his head emptied out altogether (plucks out brain and all), as though in on essays a dangerous evacuation. Phd Thesis? Then, through a buried pun on conception, the concealed intermediary term, the evacuation becomes a pregnancy and delivery, displaced from his own body to that of the questions on essays Muse, who labors and is delivered. Invention, in phd thesis word other words, becomes the male equivalent of pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and essay, delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and phd thesis word, darkness into the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is then returned to to kill essay introduction, its source as his monstrous birth, the phd thesis word baby he has conceived in response to Desdemona's request for praise (2.1.124) and ip address, the easy generativity (his own is phd thesis a difficult labor) that he envies in ip address assignment her.
This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in effect to replicate his dark sticky baby in her, soiling her generative body by turning her virtue into pitch, 45 spoiling the object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by making it the phd thesis receptacle for his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only because pitch is questions black and sticky—hence entrapping—but because it is notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on her defilement—her blackening—to make Othello black. Word? In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on that wedding bed. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for ip address assignment, the internal blackness that he would project outward, the dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the burden of his own contamination; and to some extent the play makes us complicit in phd thesis word the process, as it makes Othello in effect into Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the childbirth that might have taken place there. Othello himself seems to recognize that a birth of sorts is dr.jekyll compare and contrast taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to phd thesis, kill Desdemona on that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle for—and enactor of—Iago's fantasies. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on the yellow wallpaper madness essay, Othello by doing to Othello what he imagines Othello has done to word, him. (I follow him to on essays, serve my turn upon him is sexualized in phd thesis word ways not likely to be audible to a modern audience [1.1.42].
For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in of words to start a thesis statement Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for our benefit—in case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and word, Othello's—Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . . . Burn like the mines of list of words, sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is word distinctive about projection in this play—and distinctively Kleinian. Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in which disowned ideas and emotions were displaced onto the yellow wallpaper essay an external figure. Klein insisted both on phd thesis, the fantasies of teaching writing 3rd grade, bodily function accompanying this process and on the extent to which it is phd thesis specifically pieces of the self and its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to to kill a mockingbird paragraph, be out there, both controlling the object into which they have been projected and subject to dangers from phd thesis word it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. And her followers have expanded on essay writing 3rd grade, the concept, stressing the effects of word, these projected contents on the recipient of the projection, the ip address ways in which the projector can in word fact control the recipient. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only experience the bits of wallpaper, self projected into him but also enact the projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of all responsibility for them.
49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to me to phd thesis, be engaging in something close to garden-variety projection: he is assignment attributing to Roderigo portions of himself, or ideas about himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into the object and control of the object by parts of the phd thesis self, 50 he is much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to experience himself as contaminated and hence to to kill essay paragraph, act out Iago's scenarios. And the play depends on precisely this specialized kind of projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about his status and phd thesis, his color that he wishes to and mr. hyde compare essay, be found; he can confidently wish the goodness of the night (1.2.35) on Cassio and the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for him. Phd Thesis Word? But as Iago projects his faecal baby into him, Othello comes more and more to imagine himself as the foul thing—the old black ram—intruding into the palace of Venetian civilization or the of words a thesis statement palace of Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in word making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is wallpaper madness essay begrim'd, and black as his face) and phd thesis, with bad interior objects. (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on black vengeance to arise as though from within the hollow of teaching essay 3rd grade, himself.) 52 His experience of himself, that is, comes increasingly to phd thesis word, resemble what Iago has projected into him; and he begins to act in accordance with that projection, replicating in hyde and contrast Desdemona the contagion of projection itself. The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by the end of the play, Emilia can call Othello the blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in emptying himself out into phd thesis, Othello; and insofar as Othello becomes in effect Iago's faecal baby, Othello—rather than Iago—becomes the bearer of the fantasy of inner filth. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and then allowing the Venetians (and most members of the audience) to congratulate themselves—as he does—on their distance from the now-racialized Othello. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and to kill introduction, motivated by, his racial type—becomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealous—and Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is no more than Iago has already performed on word, himself: if the projection of his own inner contamination into Othello is ip address Iago's relief, it is also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the bodiliness of the fantasy of phd thesis word, projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of projective identification results in the weakening and impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the mind can be . . . so evacuated by projective identification that the questions on essays individual appears empty.
53 If at the end of the play there is nothing left to phd thesis, envy, there is also no one left to to kill essay paragraph, experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into the racial other he constructs as the container for his contamination ends not only by destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the pestilence of himself into phd thesis, Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. 3rd Grade? The closer he is to his goal, the flatter his language becomes; by the end, there is no inside left, no place to speak from. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from this time forth he never will speak word. 1 Quotations follow the phd thesis word Arden edition of Othello, edited by M. R. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the Folio Othello; I have noted the differences where they seem significant to my argument.
Citations of essay paragraph, plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out that the phd thesis word word race gained its current meaning only as it was biologized in support of the economic institution of slavery and teaching essay writing 3rd grade, that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in 1604 have been thought of phd thesis word, as racially separate from the list of words to start a thesis statement English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the invocation of race as a category in early modern England, see Lynda E. Boose, 'The Getting of a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker, eds. (London and phd thesis, New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp. 35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and the geography of difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for the claim that early modern otherness was based on geography rather than on the anachronistic category of race (25).
Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the primary signifier of questions, his otherness—as Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the flag inscribing Othello within the difference of skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and the infidel collapse (38)—the text insists on the visible difference of phd thesis, skin color that will increasingly come to define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the significance of on essays, visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and word, mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of line 392, since this line occurs in a passage not found in writing Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in place of F's My name, perhaps to word, rationalize Othello's peculiar association of on essays, his name with the fairness of a figure for female virginity. I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the phd thesis word identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in list of words statement the quartos; F omits the adjective. 5 This position was powerfully—and variously—articulated in three classic essays published in 1979-80: Edward A. Snow's Sexual Anxiety and word, the Male Order of Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and to kill a mockingbird introduction paragraph, the Stake of the Other in Disowning Knowledge in phd thesis Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in 1979 in compare and contrast essay The Claim of Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52.
For the association of phd thesis word, Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and a mockingbird introduction, Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the word Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in Othello in Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in history and ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O'Connor, eds. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for a fuller reading of the essay paragraph ways in which Othello internalizes the Venetian construction of his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in phd thesis word English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. The blackening of Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp. Wallpaper Essay? 410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and phd thesis, New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of 'Race' and 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to light in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. 95; and especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the blackening of Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and black in the category of compare and contrast essay, monstrous sexuality.
6 See W. H. Auden's related account of Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to word, them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. .. . If the word motive is given its normal meaning of a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the essay practical joker is phd thesis word without motive. Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the drive is introduction negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. In any practical joker to whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is always an element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in the ultimate case of the phd thesis absolute practical joker, this is projected onto all created things (The Dyer's Hand and other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57). The Yellow Essay? The emptiness of phd thesis, Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in list to start statement role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of word, self by playing the questions roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 : 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for a moment in word another and ip address, as another; but for Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). Phd Thesis Word? More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of on essays, a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. Phd Thesis Word? 327-28. In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an list to start a thesis envy of being that is the deconstructionist's equivalent of the state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the enonces of phd thesis word, others, transforming them into simulacra.
Othello is ip address assignment precisely the lord of the enonce (Serpieri, Reading the signs: towards a semiotics of Shakespearean drama, trans. Word? Keir Elam, in Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. 139). In its emphasis on envy and projection, Auden's and Serpieri's work is questions closest to my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and the sadistic projections through which he attempts to fill it (Iago's Wound in Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. Word? [Rutherford, Madison, and essay introduction paragraph, Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in phd thesis Harold N. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work. In Berry's account, for example, Othello is divided from the beginning by teaching the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and hence to achieve a true sense of personal identity is a powerful source of tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for critics who read Othello as an early instance of a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in Hendricks and phd thesis, Parker, eds., 287-99, esp.
288) position Othello specifically in to start statement opposition to what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at phd thesis word, least insists that he is the divided one, and Othello initially claims that his soul is to kill a mockingbird essay perfect or undivided; whatever the state to which Othello is reduced, Othello —like The Tempest —seems to me to encode the fantasy that the exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to word, a very helpful and responsive audience at Notre Dame in November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in a thesis which Othello's self-division is literally played out on word, the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to Othello, so does his habit of soliloquizing. Soliloquies are usually in Shakespearean tragedy the discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in pieces need to explain themselves to questions, themselves and have distinct-enough interior voices to carry out the job for our benefit. Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from phd thesis Ridley in following F's version of line 80; Ridley and Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to Desdemona's arms. The Yellow Wallpaper? Ridley himself finds Q1's version of line 80 pallid and thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on the grounds that it is inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is (xxixxxx and 52n). Word? In the context of lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43.
12 See Neill's powerful account of the ways in ip address assignment which the audience is implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the whole of the play constitutes the primal scene of racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from phd thesis word which the audience constructs the assignment significance of race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of phd thesis, Racism in Othello, SQ 44 : 304-24, esp. 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and dr.jekyll hyde compare, James R. Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 : 221-38) and specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Shakespeare's audiences than it is to a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in Othello, but usually in the other direction, from Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.
Stewart, Character and Motive in Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for a symbolic reading of Iago and Othello as parts of a single whole. Phd Thesis Word? For somewhat later versions of to kill a mockingbird introduction paragraph, Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. In these accounts projection is phd thesis loosely used to indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the ip address assignment mechanism of projection or consider the degree to which the word structure of the play posits Iago—not Othello—as its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by hyde and contrast projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto others (Some Monster in word His Thought: Sadism and Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 : 59-67, esp. 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Dr.jekyll And Mr. Hyde And Contrast Essay? Serpieri sees Iago as the artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotes—Iago's characteristic nay-saying figure—becomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of phd thesis word, persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all that—the diabolical, the lustful, the alien—which it refutes or censures in the 'self (134 and 142). Attention to the status of to kill a mockingbird introduction paragraph, others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the site of Iago's projections rather than as the originator of projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of projection (100). My account differs from those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the word mechanisms of projective identification at work in the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the hidden/hideousness of the bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is compare and contrast very much indebted to his. In the course of her enormously suggestive account of the phd thesis cultural resonances of the hidden/private in Othello and Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on the association of the hidden with the woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.
64-69. 16 Gender can of course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and the yellow essay, Ql; I here depart from phd thesis it in giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in The Standard Edition of the ip address Complete Psychological Works of word, Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. List To Start? (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp.
171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of phd thesis, Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to the Theory of the Anal Character in Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. On sadism and of words, anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. 319 and 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283. 20 The loci classici for this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the phd thesis word Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on ip address assignment, Freud's account of delusional jealousy as a defense against homosexual desire in word the Schreber case. For an extension and list to start a thesis statement, elaboration of this view, with particular focus on phd thesis word, Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to introduction paragraph, locate their readings not in phd thesis word this model but in the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of Othello into an aural penetration and insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the imagined penetration is anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of to kill essay, Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of Time in Queering the Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp.
251n. 21 For historically based arguments against phd thesis Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and London: U of questions, Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and word, 75. Both Dollimore and Smith stress the teaching writing 3rd grade social functions of the male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of phd thesis, homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the homosexual subject is an to kill a mockingbird introduction anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to him in order to represent Iago as acting out of phd thesis, desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and to kill essay introduction, critics who insist that we do away with the homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the baby with the bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of phd thesis word, Male Friendship in Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the questions cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the word bedfellow could be put; but in order for Smith, for example, to invoke Iago's report of and mr. hyde compare essay, Cassio's bedfellow dream to word, make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the explicit sexiness of the a thesis dream (the hard kisses plucked up by word the roots, the leg over the thigh). The dream clearly crosses the line—between male friendship and sodomy—that Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to Othello; and whether or not the reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on the information that Cassio dreams about assignment, Desdemona. As for subjectivity: whether or not the Renaissance shared our sense of the bourgeois subject—in any case, emphatically not the subject as it is construed by psychoanalysis— Othello is word obsessively about what is hidden away within the person, the of words statement inner, private, and unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of these controversies—and a sensible middle position—see Alan Sinfield, Cultural Politics—Queer Reading (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in phd thesis Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. Questions On Essays? 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189.
27 For an early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and phd thesis, the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. Ip Address Assignment? 190-91 and phd thesis word, 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 186. 30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of Iago and the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in everyday life in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185.
32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for the damaged object and to make reparations to essay writing 3rd grade, it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States  and Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States , both in Love, Guilt and word, Reparation, 262-89 and list of words to start a thesis, 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of phd thesis, splitting and the yellow wallpaper madness, projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms in word Envy and Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and on essays, Snow, 392. Phd Thesis Word? See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the self-referential qualities of envy. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the oedipus complex, in which the dr.jekyll and contrast loss of a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the object are felt to be intolerable. Jealousy seeks to preserve the good object, if necessary by killing it; envy seeks to phd thesis word, spoil the good object. Dr.jekyll And Mr. And Contrast? (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 196-99; and phd thesis word, Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and questions on essays, Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an important defence against envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). Phd Thesis? This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at large: in Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to himself (tellingly, he uses the traditional language of teaching essay writing 3rd grade, envy—Spenser's Envy inwardly . . . chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]—to register the phd thesis word gnawing effects of jealousy on him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of jealousy are far more legible and recognizably human than the envy represented through Iago and dismissed in him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic.
35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of commentary in teaching writing 3rd grade the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1886]). William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). Phd Thesis? With very little plausibility but some interest for my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to bedaub or make foul: two other commentators—Zachariah Jackson and list to start statement, Lord John Chedworth—approved of phd thesis word, this emendation enough to come up with candidates for the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.
39 This destruction also has the effect of separating the questions on essays two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. Klein hypothesizes the combined parent figure as a special target of word, envy (the suspicion that the essay 3rd grade parents are always getting sexual gratification from one another reinforces the phantasy . . . that they are always combined [Envy and Gratitude, 198]); Iago in fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in his initial description of Othello and Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of achieving the phd thesis incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an attempt to wallpaper madness essay, dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on Klein's concept of envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. Word? In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for example, is to reduce the universe to faeces, or rather to annihilate the universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Perversion [New York: W. W. Norton, 1984], 4). Insofar as perversion attempts to replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the equivalent of Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the genital universe of the father (11). While this formulation is suggestive for questions, Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the phallus and the father's law; Iago is at least as intent on imitating and ultimately replacing the phd thesis word mother's generative function as the and mr. compare father's law. 42 With the kind of psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to phd thesis word, stand the debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk. 4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk.
5, 11. 860-61). Klein cites Milton's Satan as an instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in envy (Envy and dr.jekyll and mr. and contrast essay, Gratitude, 202). 43 According to phd thesis word, the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the bark of the holly tree and smeared on branches to entrap birds; With the teaching 3rd grade barkes of Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from phd thesis word Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. J. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216). Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. 215), but there apparently refers to the oak, not the holly. In any case, despite the teaching essay 3rd grade echo of lime, birdlime seems to have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of faeces with baby is familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on word, the cloacal theory of questions on essays, birth (If babies are born through the anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp.
219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of word, Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76. To Start A Thesis? For fantasies that overvalue the word power of faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of writing 3rd grade, Excretory Processes, 322; about one of his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the universe out of his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the phd thesis pitch into which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the proverbially defiling properties of teaching writing 3rd grade, pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from word Ridley in following F and Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. The half-buried metaphor of childbirth is, I think, present in either case, both through the association of groan—especially in dr.jekyll and mr. compare proximity to a bed—with childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and 4.5.10; and Measure for phd thesis word, Measure, 2.2.15) and wallpaper essay, through the family relation between conceit and Latin conceptus, cited in the OED; the OED also gives Conception of offspring as an obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only word, a pun (3:647-48, esp. 648). 48 See also the best turn F th' bed (Antony and dr.jekyll hyde and contrast essay, Cleopatra, 2.5.59). For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to the vices of thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and word, Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of a very complex development in psychoanalytic theory; for a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of projective identification in Clinical Lectures on list of words to start statement, Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp.
59-64. For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the concept by her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for a particularly lucid account of some of these, see, in addition to Spillius, Joseph, Projective identification—some clinical aspects in Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. Phd Thesis Word? (London and writing, New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50. 50 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to coaly by the OED, 3:390-91.
52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. In either reading, the apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in the reference to a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and word, 5.2.76), as though returning them to the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140. Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello in Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No.
2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for to kill, Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the entire play is based on an. In Othello, Iago is extremely manipulative. Phd Thesis? Iago is dr.jekyll a master at manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of doubt in phd thesis Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in his accusation as he merely. There is - as usual in Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at madness essay, the end of Othello.
In the scene in the dark, Cassio is wounded in the leg, and phd thesis, Roderigo is killed by Iago in the dark. Madness Essay? In the. There are several reasons given for Iago's hatred of, and phd thesis word, intended ruination of Othello. First, he is insulted by Othello's promotion of Cassio; he felt that he deserved the promotion. That is. For each of the teaching essay writing following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script.
For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at the end of Act I, scene 3.
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Powerful New Grad Resumes and Cover Letters: 10 Things They Have in Common. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. OK, you’re graduating from college soon. Word. Time to give your resume and cover letter a checkup to ensure they are as powerful as they can be. Powerful new grad resumes and cover letters have several things in common, so you can kill a number of birds with one stone with this checkup. 1. Powerful resumes and cover letters are used as direct-mail (or e-mail) sales tools. It’s important to remember the purpose of a resume and cover letter. They don’t have to perform the task of getting you a job since very few people are hired sight unseen. Teaching Essay 3rd Grade. All they have to do is get you an phd thesis word, interview. So the introduction paragraph, primary mission of a resume and cover letter is phd thesis arouse the reader’s interest and sell yourself enough so that you get asked to meet with the employer.
The lesson here is to keep your documents concise and to the point. You don’t have to questions include everything about phd thesis yourself, and you should not include anything that’s not relevant. You don’t have write your autobiography. Now, granted, some college students have the opposite dr.jekyll hyde essay problem. Instead of limiting the word, information they list on their resumes, they worry about not having enough. Others are tempted to list every class they’ve taken, every award, and questions, every extracurricular activity. Many of these items may be worthy resume components, but for every item you’re considering inserting into your resume, ask yourself, is it relevant to the kind of job I’m seeking? Course work usually isn’t necessary unless it’s unusual or you have very little else to list in phd thesis word your resume. Dr.jekyll And Contrast. Honors, awards, and activities are generally good resume fodder, but don’t go overboard, especially at word the expense of work or internship experience. I knew one new grad who had an impressive list of and mr. hyde compare honors and awards.
But it was so long that her work experience was buried at the bottom of the resume. Word. Consider omitting activities that reveal ethnicity, and on essays, especially political or religious affiliations. Let go of word high-school activities and honors unless they are truly exceptional or demonstrate an early interest in your chosen career. Your college accomplishments should supplant what you did back in high school. 2. Powerful resumes and cover letters must be targeted to the employer’s perspective.
When constructing your resume and on essays, cover letter, put yourself in the mind-set of the employer. Ask not what the employer can do for you but what you can do for the employer. There’s a temptation, especially among college students, to tell employers what you’re looking for in a job. Objective statements that say, “Seeking challenging position with growth potential,” are passe; in fact, all objective statements are out of phd thesis fashion. Employers want to of words to start a thesis know what you can do for them, how you will benefit their companies, how you will impact their bottom lines. While they’re not totally oblivious to your career hopes and dreams, your aspirations are not their primary concern.
To read more about word using a cover letter to of words to start a thesis statement tell how you’ll benefit the employer, see Emphasize What You Can Do for the Employer in our Cover Letter Tutorial. 3. Powerful resumes and cover letters are focused and as specific as possible. The sad truth is that resumes and cover letters are read in as few as 6 seconds. So you have only the briefest moment to catch the employer’s interest. The employer wants to know as quickly as possible: What do you want to do and what are you good at? He or she doesn’t have time to wade through lots of text to find out.
So how can you sharpen the focus of your resume and cover letter? Include a Professional Profile. A profile section, also known as a “Summary of Qualifications,” can help sharpen your resume’s focus by presenting 3-4 bullet points that encapsulate your best qualifications and selling points. It’s often a good idea to list relevant computer and foreign-language skills in word this section instead of burying them at wallpaper madness essay the bottom of your resume, as many job-seekers do. You can find a large collection of real, high-quality new college grad resume and phd thesis word, cover letter samples for improving your job, internship, grad-school search here: Real New College Grad Resume and Cover Letter Job-Search Samples. Tailor cover letters to specific jobs. Madness Essay. An effective cover letter must target a specific position, which should be mentioned in the first paragraph. Don’t list several possible positions or say that you’re willing to consider any position.
If you do, the employer will see you as unfocused or even desperate. Read more about cover letter specifics: Cover Letter Success is All About Specifics and consider using our Cover Letter and phd thesis word, Resume Customization Worksheet. Specifically tailor your resume. According to the yellow wallpaper one research study, employers want resumes to show a clear match between the applicant and a particular job’s requirements. Word. A “general” resume that is not focused on to start statement a specific job’s requirements is seen as not competitive. Phd Thesis. Now it may not be realistic or practical to change your resume for every job you apply for, but you can change certain elements, such as the aforementioned Professional Profile section. The Yellow Wallpaper Madness Essay. Another alternative is to have more than one version of your resume. Phd Thesis Word. Let’s say you want a marketing career, but you’re open to both marketing research and promotions. You could craft a version of your resume for each niche. See our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to Resumes.
Consider adding a graphic. This suggestion is pretty radical, and it’s not for everyone, but a very small, tasteful graphic on your resume and/or cover letter could sharpen your focus. Essay Writing. One of my former students, for phd thesis, example, wanted a career working with horses. She placed a tiny horse graphic at questions the top of her resume. Her career focus was instantly apparent. Word. Another student pursuing a law career used a tasteful scales of justice graphic; another interested in ip address international business had a small world map graphic. Word. Note that this technique is only for resumes seen by the human eye — in networking or career-fair situations, or after the resume has passed a screening through the the yellow wallpaper madness essay, employer’s Applicant Tracking Software and is viewed by people. 4. Powerful resumes and cover letters make the most of your college experience. Too many college students miss the opportunity to exploit valuable experience on their resumes and phd thesis word, cover letter because they overlook unpaid experience. The Yellow Wallpaper. Experience is experience.
It doesn’t have to be paid. Anything you’ve done that has enabled you to develop skills that are relevant to phd thesis word the kind of job you seek is worth consideration for list of words, resume and cover letter mention. That’s especially true if you don’t have much paid experience. The key, as noted in #1, is relevance . Consider the following in evaluating what experience and word, skills you’ve gained that are relevant to what you want to do when you graduate: Internships Summer jobs Campus jobs (work-study) Sports Entrepreneurial/self-employed jobs Temporary work Volunteer work: school, church, club, not-for-profit organizations Research papers/projects Campus activity positions Fraternity/sorority/social club positions Extracurricular or sports leadership positions. And go ahead and list material from these areas under your Experience section. Don’t confuse the reader with a bunch of differently labeled experience sections, such as Internship Experience, Work Experience, and Project Experience.
5. Powerful resumes and cover letters portray your skills as transferable and applicable to what you want to do. You may think what you’ve done is not relevant to your future career, but you can probably spin the experience so that it demonstrates the the yellow wallpaper madness essay, transferable and word, applicable skills that most employers want: The value of transferable skills is a major reason I urge students to list sports in the Experience sections of their resumes — because athletics so often provide the teamwork, leadership experience, and competitive drive that employers seek. 6. Assignment. Powerful resumes and cover letters focus on ACCOMPLISHMENTS, NOT job duties and responsibilities. In a research study, content elements that propelled employers to immediately discard resumes included a focus on duties instead of phd thesis word accomplishments, while documented achievements were highly ranked among content elements that employers look for. Therefore, NEVER use expressions like “Duties included,” “Responsibilities included,” or “Responsible for.” That’s job-description language, not accomplishments-driven resume language that sells. Instead, emphasize the to kill, special things you did to phd thesis word set yourself apart and do the job better than anyone else. Admittedly, it’s not easy to come up with accomplishments from the kinds of jobs that college students typically hold. But it’s important to: Start tracking your accomplishments NOW. Start HAVING accomplishments NOW!
You may not think you can have accomplishments in your lowly restaurant server or pizza delivery job, but try to. Ask your boss what you can do to improve. To Kill Essay Introduction. Strive to phd thesis word win any awards (such as Employee of the Month) that your employer offers. Find ways to go above and beyond your job description. 7. Powerful resumes and the yellow wallpaper madness, cover letters use KEYWORDS and word, action verbs! Because more than 90 percent of resumes are searched for teaching, job-specific keywords, keywords are among the phd thesis word, most important aspects of today’s resume.
Most employers rely on list of words a thesis placing job-seeker resumes in keyword-searchable databases and using software to search those databases for phd thesis, specific keywords — usually nouns — that relate to dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare and contrast job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and phd thesis, many smaller companies now use these technologies. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. The profile or summary sections mentioned in #3 can be important for front-loading your resume with those all-important keywords. Action verbs in your resume and cover letters are also important, as they increase the ip address, strength of your writing and make you sound dynamic to employers. Luckily, there is no lack of sources for word, lists of list action verbs; you can find them all over the Web (including Quintessential Careers’ Job-Seeker Action Verbs) and in nearly every resume and phd thesis word, cover-letter book. Almost as important as using action verbs is avoiding weak verbs:
Do. Try “conduct,” “perform,” or “orchestrate.” Forms of the verb “to be.” Instead of “was,” say “served,” “functioned,” “acted.” Work. Everyone works. Be more specific. Job-seekers often use “work” in of words to start terms of “working with” someone else, such as other team members. Word. In that context, “collaborate(d)” is list of words to start often a good substitute. Received. This verb, especially in the context of receiving an award sounds so passive, as though you deserve no credit for whatever you received. Always say you “earned” an award or honor rather than “received” it.
8. Powerful resumes and phd thesis word, cover letters contain NO typos or misspellings. This characteristic should go without saying, yet in dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare and contrast our resume-writing service, we still see typos and misspellings with alarming frequency. Remember that it’s not enough to phd thesis spell-check your documents because you may have used a perfectly spelled word — but it wasn’t the word you wanted. For example, a word frequently seen on resumes and cover letter is “possess,” but some job-seekers accidentally spell it “posses,” which is the plural of list “posse.” Proofread your resume and cover letter.
Put them down for a few hours, come back, and phd thesis word, proofread again. Then get a friend or family member with a good eye to proof them for you. 9. Powerful resumes and cover letters are reader-friendly. Research ranks easy readability highest of all resume characteristics in terms of first impressions. The employers surveyed ranked use of essay bullets second highest. Use the following to make your documents reader-friendly:
Bullets in resumes (and sometimes in cover letters) White space. Make sure your documents have reasonable margins. In my opinion, the phd thesis word, default margins in Microsoft Word are wider than they need to be (1.25? on the left and right and 1? at the top and bottom). Margins can be as narrow as .75? if needed. My partner uses the questions on essays, “thumb test.” When he’s holding a resume or cover letter, he wants enough white space on the left and right so that his thumbs don’t touch the text. Phd Thesis Word. Of course, he has big thumbs, so 1? left and right margins suit him better. Also make sure you have a line of questions on essays space between all the phd thesis, jobs listed on your resume and between all resume sections.
For cover letters, equalize the white space at the top and bottom of the letter so that it is centered vertically on the page. Of Words To Start A Thesis Statement. Type large enough to phd thesis word read (no smaller than 10.5 point). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and questions on essays, writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to word help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and writing, blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for phd thesis word, New Graduates and essay 3rd grade, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Phd Thesis. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to ip address a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by word e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out and mr. hyde compare and contrast essay, Dr.
Hansen on phd thesis word GooglePlus. I AM A STUDENT This page is for teaching 3rd grade, all students and prospective students (high school, college, graduate school), where you will find some expert free resources and tools for furthering your education. Students have been one of the primary priorities of Quintessential Careers since our founding in 1996, and we have a large number of  10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for phd thesis, Jobseekers by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and ip address, job applications and are receiving requests for phd thesis, interviews, it’s time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job  Personal Career Branding #038; Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists.
Personal Career Branding Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and dr.jekyll and mr. hyde and contrast, Career Activists Where job-seekers can find some expert articles, tools, and resources for developing your personal career brand, as well as key self-marketing techniques to get hired or promoted.Quintessential Careers Career Branding Marketing Articles Resources: Job SeekerPersonal Brand Building Your Online Career Brand: Five  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of word Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of questions our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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41 Most Innovative K–12 Schools in America. Across the country, 41 innovative schools are transforming K–12 education. Phd Thesis Word! They are doing away with dusty chalkboards, heavy textbooks, one-sided lectures, and bells reminiscent of factory shift-change signals. Essay Introduction! Some have forgone traditional school buildings altogether. In place of tried (but not always true) educational standbys, these schools are implementing visionary methodologies and challenging well-established notions about the very nature of phd thesis word, primary and to kill a mockingbird introduction paragraph, secondary education. Several are empowering students in underserved communities. Many employ revolutionary teaching methods, including flipped classrooms, gamified lessons, phenomenon-based learning, and student-led governance. The schools on this list are also broadening technology use with partnerships between engineers and educators. Some have instituted groundbreaking curricula that drive learning outside the walls of classrooms and even schools entirely. Phd Thesis! A few have reconceptualized the very idea of a school by creating inspiring learning environments in dr.jekyll and contrast, unexpected places, and by using architectural design to guide learning. From zoos to state-of-the-art tech labs, highly tailored individualized lessons to collaborative group projects, these schools’ sites and sources of learning all share one feature in common: They redefine what education at its best could — and should — look like.
In selecting the schools for this list, our team of Noodle researchers pored over state- and phd thesis word, school-reported data; analyzed years of news coverage; examined academic studies on the efficacy of various teaching methods; and listened to the perspectives of students, parents, alumni, teachers, and administrators. While they vary in list of words to start statement, how they innovate education, all of the featured schools meet several key criteria: They serve students in grades K–12; are accredited (or in the process of becoming accredited); introduce new curricular or pedagogical approaches; and phd thesis word, produce sustainable and positive outcomes for students. What a positive outcome looks like, however, varies based on essay, the objectives of each school. Phd Thesis Word! For schools seeking high college placement rates, student standardized test performance is one important measure of achievement. For schools geared toward improving attendance rates and reducing bullying rates, the elimination of truancy and the creation of the yellow, a supportive learning environment define success. Schools focused on phd thesis word, instilling a sense of responsibility for communities and environments cultivate community-service awareness in their graduates. Whatever the varied aims and wallpaper madness essay, outcomes may be, all of these schools facilitate learning in new and phd thesis word, exciting ways. The 41 schools on ip address, this list are not only changing the word, lives of their students, but also redefining the education landscape. We are thrilled to recognize the inspiring work these schools do, and we can’t wait to see what they do next.* If your school is dr.jekyll compare and contrast, doing something innovative, we want to hear about it! Nominate a school for inclusion in next year’s list by filling out this short form.
Below is the full list of schools. To read a specific profile, click on the name of the word, school. How is Clairemont Elementary School innovative? A public K–3 school in Decatur, Georgia, Clairemont Elementary became one of the first Expeditionary Learning (EL) institutions in the country. The product of a collaboration between Outward Bound and the Harvard Graduate School of ip address, Education, EL itself is defined by phd thesis word a curriculum based on learning through collaborative exploration in and mr., and out of the classroom. EL schools, like Clairemont or Evergreen Community Charter School, another Noodle innovative school, are founded on 10 principles that emphasize a connection to the natural world, a balance between collaboration with others and competition with oneself, and a thirst for curiosity and self-discovery. In an EL program, students' studies on a particular topic culminate with an expedition and a public presentation of lessons learned.
EL reorients a typical classroom model and emphasizes that all members of the school community are learners. Clairemont, which was founded in phd thesis word, 1936, launched its revolutionary EL program in 1994, the second year of the EL pilot nationwide. The model was so successful there initially that all district K–3 schools implemented it; and since 2004, the learning method has been adopted across grade levels districtwide. Because Clairemont showcases best practices — and stellar results — for EL teaching and learning, it was selected as one of 18 EL Mentor Schools (in a network with 160-plus schools). The school also hosts teacher residencies to train educators in EL methods. The Yellow Wallpaper! At Clairemont, students work together to create outstanding projects that bring their lessons to life. One such project was a PSA about the importance of voting created by third-graders. Phd Thesis! Another addressed growing and of words a thesis statement, harvesting plants at local reserves.
What are the outcomes of Clairemont Elementary School’s innovation? Expeditionary learning, on the whole, has been shown to improve understanding of word, reading and math in middle school students. In 2014, Decatur school performance on college and career readiness tests was the sixth-highest in Georgia. Clairemont Elementary scored the highest of all the assignment, schools in phd thesis word, the district on the College and Career Ready Performance Index (CCRPI), surpassing the state average by ip address assignment 37 percent. In 2011, Clairemont was one of 26 schools in the state to be named a Georgia School of phd thesis word, Excellence for the yellow wallpaper madness essay, its outstanding academic record. How is Clairemont Elementary School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Clairemont’s trendsetting use of EL gives students a sense of ownership over — and investment in phd thesis, — the learning process. The learning-by-doing approach that the the yellow wallpaper madness, school helped pioneer is a component of other highly effective instructional methods, such as project-based learning and the maker movement. Additionally, Clairemont's move to an EL program serves as an example of a successful comprehensive curriculum reform — and of the phd thesis word, effective provision of school staff support. How is Clintondale innovative?
Clintondale, located in essay writing 3rd grade, a suburb of Detroit, was the first institution to pioneer the phd thesis word, flipped classroom model at the K–12 level. A financially challenged public school, three-quarters of whose students qualify for free or reduced-price lunch, Clintondale sought out the yellow madness, a radical solution to its then-failing educational model. Phd Thesis! Under the leadership of influential educator Greg Green, and thanks to funding from ip address assignment, software company TechSmith, Clintondale abandoned the traditional classwork/homework paradigm. Instead, the school turned the standard learning model on its head. Starting with the entire ninth-grade class, Clintondale had students watch teachers’ lessons at home; then, they would come into school to do “homework” and word, problem-solving with the guidance of their teachers. As Green wrote in a CNN op-ed: “When students do homework at school, they can receive a meal and access to madness, technology … and an overwhelming amount of support and phd thesis word, expertise.” These resources, he noted, enable the school to “provide a level playing field for students in all neighborhoods.” Clintondale’s ninth-graders met with such success using the ip address, flipped classroom model that Green led the phd thesis word, implementation of this innovation schoolwide. Now, Clintondale is an entirely flipped school. What are the madness essay, outcomes of Clintondale’s innovation? The flipped classroom model has met with early — and phd thesis, continued — success at Clintondale.
For the 140 first-year high school students in the 2010 pilot program, results were staggering. The school reduced the failure rate in dr.jekyll and contrast, English Language Arts by word 33 percent, in math by 31 percent, in science by 22 percent, and in the yellow madness, social studies by 19 percent. In addition, Clintondale saw a dramatic reduction — of word, 66 percent — in disciplinary actions among participating first-year students. How is Clintondale’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The positive effects of Clintondale’s flipped classroom experiment have been felt nationwide. Thanks to the yellow madness essay, the school’s pioneering efforts, other K–12 institutions across the country are utilizing flipped classrooms. Green has also spoken and written about the model’s success, including in a TEDx talk. Now, teachers around the U.S. are using the flipped model — and spreading the word about how to implement it to improve student success. How is phd thesis word, Ewa Makai innovative?
Ewa Makai Middle School has a unique approach to physical education, one that integrates the physical with the technological. In “Tech P.E.,” middle-school students use iPads in gym class to essay paragraph, document each other’s progress. They can then check the recorded material to assess their ability to perform certain maneuvers and make adjustments to their form as needed. The recordings provide a way to phd thesis word, acknowledge students’ strengths and skills development. The school’s technology department also developed a special app that allows students to download their class performance and on essays, track their progress throughout the phd thesis, year. In addition to using iPads apps, students wear portable heart monitors when they engage in the school’s dynamic P.E. lessons. Ip Address! The school’s innovative integration of fitness with technology encourages students to think — and act — creatively. So, too, do its activities. One lesson includes watching a video that shows dances from around the phd thesis, world; students are then required to create their own video in which they collaborate with classmates to recreate these dances.
What are the outcomes of Ewa Makai’s innovation? Students at Ewa Makai have expressed great satisfaction — as featured on PBS Hawaii — with the on essays, way technology allows them to reflect on their physical endeavors. They also appreciate that they are able to see evidence of phd thesis word, improvement throughout the year. Students’ physical-fitness feats also seem to correlate with increasingly strong academic performance. And Mr. Essay! In the 2012–2013 school year (the most recent for which standardized test scores are available), Ewa Makai had reduced the achievement gap in proficiency between high-needs and non–high-needs students by word six percent. How is questions, Ewa Makai’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space?
Ewa Makai is taking traditional notions about phd thesis word technology — that it encourages physical in activity — and turning them on their head. These days, it’s no surprise to find laptops or tablets in every classroom — but it is unusual to writing 3rd grade, find them in gym class. Ewa Makai has come up with a use for technology that doesn’t replace physical activity, but rather enhances it. The school is, in short, leveraging technology to promote physical activity — and to great effect. Additionally, Ewa Makai has redefined gym class as a site of creativity, with kids creating personal videos that express appreciation of physical movement. The school has, furthermore, enlarged the scope of phd thesis word, gym class, giving it the potential to dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare essay, be a more inclusive space for students who are traditionally unable to participate. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Ewa Makai? Built in 2009, Ewa Makai is Hawaii’s first public school to be Gold LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified, and it was recognized as a U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon School in 2012.
How is Francis Hammond innovative? Francis Hammond was founded in 2015 as the pioneer middle school program in the International Network for Public Schools. Phd Thesis Word! (Before its founding, all International Academy schools were high schools.) This nonprofit group of dr.jekyll hyde compare and contrast, schools is dedicated to supporting immigrant students and their families. Francis Hammond was specifically created to support middle schoolers who have lived in the U.S. for fewer than four years and who are English language learners (ELL). At Francis Hammond and other International Academy schools, instead of studying English at phd thesis, separate times from madness essay, other coursework, students have language lessons integrated into their academic curricula. Additionally, students are not divided into groups based on their English proficiency level, but rather work together on collaborative projects.
In this way, students fine-tune conversational skills and learn from one another. The network also provides professional training and curriculum development for Francis Hammond and other member schools. What are the outcomes of Francis Hammond’s innovation? The program, though in its inaugural year, shows tremendous promise. It has 135 enrolled students this year. The school meets an phd thesis, urgent educational need, given Francis Hammond’s location in an area with a fast-growing immigrant population. The percentage of foreign-born Alexandrians has increased from 24 percent to 30 percent in the past five years, having skyrocketed from just three percent during 1960s.
Francis Hammond’s focus on English-only instruction establishes a common ground for teaching essay 3rd grade, all ELL students to interact with and learn from one another, regardless of their first language — an especially advantageous curricular feature given that Alexandrian immigrants hail from a variety of phd thesis word, home countries across Latin America, Africa, and Asia. As an International Academy school, Francis Hammond also has a built-in model for success. International Academy high schools in New York demonstrated marked improvement in student performance, with an teaching essay 3rd grade, 18-point jump in the New York City progress report card from 2007 to 2008. In recent years, the majority of phd thesis word, NYC high schools in the network received A's and B's on their progress reports, which measure school environment as well as student progress and performance. How is teaching essay writing 3rd grade, Francis Hammond’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Thanks to Francis Hammond’s innovative curriculum and collaborative learning process, ELLs are able to word, gain mastery in English without compromising the rigor of their academic coursework. Francis Hammond and dr.jekyll hyde compare essay, other International Academy schools differ from word, traditional as well as bilingual programs, which typically offer instruction in students' first language separate from English-language instruction. At International Academy schools, English is always the language of instruction, and all teachers — regardless of their areas of expertise — are trained in a mockingbird, language teaching. This pedagogical style facilitates the use of other highly effective educational techniques, including project-based learning and word, other interdisciplinary instructional approaches.
Francis Hammond is also a financial trendsetter: International Academy programs do not increase the questions on essays, school district’s per-pupil cost of instruction, since the training and support provided by the nonprofit is paid for by its own fundraising. Grand Rapids Public Museum School. Phd Thesis Word! How is the Public Museum School innovative? Newly opened in teaching 3rd grade, fall 2015, the Grand Rapids Public Museum School transforms a museum into a classroom, in word, the process bringing education into a new and dynamic space. With a mission “to inspire passionate curiosity, nurture creative problem-solving, cultivate critical thinking, and questions, instigate innovation,” the school offers students unparalleled opportunities to undertake problem-solving and phd thesis, exploration via hands-on activities. Students also gain valuable experience with the the yellow wallpaper madness, collections of the Grand Rapids Public Museum, where classes are held, and phd thesis, which serves as the site of their place-based education. At present, the school has 60 sixth-graders, and it will add a grade level each year, ultimately serving grades 6 through 12. Wallpaper Madness Essay! What are the outcomes of the Public Museum School’s innovation? As a Center of phd thesis, Innovation — a designation that signals a partnership between public and list, private entities (in this case, among the school, the Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids Public Schools, Kendall College of Art and Design of phd thesis, Ferris State University, Grand Valley State University, the City of wallpaper, Grand Rapids, and phd thesis word, Downtown Grand Rapids, Inc.) — there’s an expectation that the number of essay writing 3rd grade, students who graduate exceed the statewide average.
Other theme schools in the district rank within the top third of all public elementary and phd thesis, middle schools in the state, according to essay paragraph, the Mackinac Center Context and Performance Report Card. If it follows suit, as it is expected to do, the Public Museum School will similarly graduate relatively high rates of alumni who are critical thinkers and strong problem-solvers. How is the Public Museum School’s innovation relevant to phd thesis word, the larger ed space? The Public Museum School and other institutions within the Grand Rapids Public School System are redefining what a classroom looks like. Of Words A Thesis Statement! Museums, zoos, and other public centers are no longer relegated to field trips, but instead serve as schools themselves.
At these immersive sites, students gain immediate access to primary sources that serve as the phd thesis, bases for their academic and creative inquiries. What surprising thing did Noodle discover when researching the Public Museum School? At the a mockingbird, Public Museum School, students are welcomed each morning by a 76-foot whale skeleton. How is Harvey Milk innovative? Founded in word, 2003, Harvey Milk is the list a thesis statement, first high school designed for, but not limited to, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and phd thesis, queer (LGBTQ) students. The school was established by the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a social services organization created to foster and support at-risk LGBTQ youth. Ip Address! Indeed, many of the students at phd thesis word, the school have ties to a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, the organization, having arrived on its doorstep seeking health — specifically, HIV — education, job-readiness training, or basic necessities like warm food. The school now has approximately 100 enrolled students and seven teachers.
Harvey Milk is able to foster close relationships among students coming from very unstable situations (at the time the school was founded, 20 percent of word, its students qualified as homeless). In fact, its students are so attached to introduction, the school that school leaders had to create an “aging-out” policy, requiring that learners move on phd thesis, once they turn 21. In addition to fostering relationships with and assignment, among students, the school takes on word, two essential tasks that allow LGBTQ youth to feel particularly supported: It surrounds them with positive and understanding teachers (many of whom themselves identify as LGBTQ); and the curriculum, while adhering to state standards, incorporates an LGBTQ perspective (for instance, students have read “Bent,” a play about gay people in Nazi Germany, in their English class). What are the outcomes of Harvey Milk’s innovation? For kids who have been the victims of vicious hate crimes, Harvey Milk is a refuge, offering a safe space and teaching, a community for phd thesis word, students who have faced severe abuse because of gender and/or sexual identity. In the madness, 2013 National Climate Survey, 55.5 percent of LGBTQ youth reported feeling unsafe at phd thesis, school because of writing, how they were judged for their sexual orientation. At the time they were polled, one-third of the LGBTQ respondents explained they had missed a day of school in the past month because they felt uncomfortable or unsafe attending class. Meanwhile, in 2014, only word three percent of the student body at Harvey Milk reported being bullied. Many students who came to the school as runaways find themselves able to focus on their education without the potential distraction of bullies or hallway heckling, and dr.jekyll essay, they discover a larger community of teenagers with similar experiences and backgrounds. Word! Indeed, the school’s results hold long-term promise for LGBTQ youth. In 2012, the Center for American Progress reported that 67 percent of same-sex white couples, 40 percent of same-sex African-American couples, and less than 25 percent of same-sex [emailprotected] couples had pursued post-secondary education.
In 2014, by comparison, 60 percent of Harvey Milk graduating students went on to advanced programs or colleges. How is wallpaper essay, Harvey Milk’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Harvey Milk has ignited a debate about whether schools should create segregated spaces for students of unique backgrounds and circumstances. Critics claim that by establishing such schools, educators and administrators aren’t tackling bullying and systemic homophobia at its roots. Advocates and supporters of Harvey Milk claim the school is able to phd thesis, teach empathy, warmth, courage, and confidence to students who would struggle to develop these qualities anywhere else, since many are homeless or runaways. The school’s students attest to how special it is and how comfortable and secure they feel there; few LGBTQ students in more “traditional” educational settings would likely say the ip address, same. Whether or not more specialized schools to empower marginalized students are built to follow suit, Harvey Milk’s ability to phd thesis word, create an empathic culture, provide knowledgeable mentors, and establish a curriculum infused with lessons relevant to its students’ identities has proven to essay writing 3rd grade, be successful and can serve as a model for how other institutions can help empower disenfranchised students. What surprising discovery did Noodle make while researching Harvey Milk? The school gained much attention when it was sued by state senator Ruben Diaz, Jr. in 2003. Diaz’s lawyer claimed that the school’s $3.2 million expansion was “taking money from the poor and giving it to phd thesis word, the rich,” and, moreover, that the school had violated the law by establishing an institution exclusively for gay students. These claims are untrue: 85 percent of the questions on essays, students at Harvey Milk qualify for phd thesis word, free or reduced-price lunch, and students of essay, all sexual orientations and backgrounds have always been welcome to phd thesis, attend the school.
In the end, the teaching 3rd grade, city settled with Diaz by altering the school’s description to read as more inclusive. Phd Thesis Word! The NYC Department of Education was still able to to kill a mockingbird, finance the school’s expansion. How is phd thesis word, Lake View innovative? Lake View High School bills itself as a neighborhood school within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system. It is an early college science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) high school that enables students to on essays, earn college credits while completing their secondary education. The school offers four tracks — STEM, humanities, music/visual arts, and world language — though its overall STEM focus integrates computer science, design process, and project-based learning into phd thesis word all areas of the curriculum.
Through this approach, students in hyde and contrast, every track develop technological literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative skills. The school offers more than 15 advanced placement classes, as well as an extensive array of extracurricular clubs and sports teams. It has ongoing partnerships with Northwestern University, DePaul University, Microsoft, and Lumity (a local nonprofit providing digital support to Chicago philanthropies) in order to facilitate the integrated use of technology, college and career mentoring, and technology-oriented extracurricular and phd thesis, summer activities. What are the ip address, outcomes of the innovation? Lake View, which received one of the phd thesis, district’s highest ratings for safety, is nestled within Chicago's School District 299, whose population is predominantly black and Hispanic, with a significant percentage of low-income families. Many schools throughout the ip address assignment, district have historically poor student outcomes. By contrast, Lake View’s graduation rate for phd thesis, the past four years has far exceeded state and district averages. In addition, 65 percent of graduates enroll at four-year colleges, and the school boasts an extraordinary number of and contrast, student achievements: five Posse Scholarship winners in its 2013 class, two Gates Millennium Scholarship winners in its 2014 class, and more than $15 million dollars in college scholarship money earned by its last two graduating classes.
How is Lake View’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Lake View's emphasis on a comprehensive and practical form of technological literacy woven into the curriculum — including for non-STEM specialists — is a model for other high schools to emulate. Word! Many advocates of ip address assignment, technological literacy equate the phd thesis, skill set with “coding,” a designation that can be limiting. By contrast, in a thesis statement, making computer science, problem-solving, and word, project-based learning integral to the entire curriculum, Lake View demonstrates that technological literacy can be an and mr. hyde essay, important part of a versatile and phd thesis word, well-rounded education — from the yellow wallpaper madness essay, which students go on word, to accomplish great things. What surprising discovery did Noodle make while researching Lake View? In an instance of the difficulties that sometimes emerge in K–12 accountability systems, Lake View High School was actually placed on probation in 2013 for failing to meet growth and attendance standards, despite students’ strong performance across the board. This is widely recognized as a quirk of the madness, then-prevailing performance metrics used by CPS and not reflective of the word, school's continual record of achievement — in fact, this experience helped prompt district leaders to draft a new set of a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, performance policies for the 2014–2015 school year. How is Loving High School innovative? In addition to phd thesis, conventional academics, Loving High School offers career and technical education (CTE) opportunities.
These programs provide participants with training in a choice of career clusters that include health sciences, STEM fields, and and contrast, construction and architectural trades. Practical application is the foremost concern in the career-oriented Programs of Study (POS): Construction and architecture students, for instance, build a home as part of the curriculum. The school's career-oriented offerings are available in partnership with local businesses and professionals, and phd thesis word, students may also take more advanced coursework at madness essay, New Mexico State University–Carlsbad. The combination of a traditional high school education, career classes, and practical experience enables students to earn college credits and pursue a well-defined path toward skilled work, further technical training, or additional education upon phd thesis word, graduation. What are the outcomes of Loving High School’s innovation? Loving High School boasts an on-time graduation rate above 95 percent and a college attendance rate of close to 60 percent — in a rural district that is overwhelmingly economically disadvantaged.
While student standardized test scores are lower than statewide averages, these do not fully capture the school’s achievements in questions on essays, preparing students to phd thesis, succeed in both higher education and the workforce; moreover, 100 percent of students taking the exam were economically disadvantaged, and a significant proportion were also English language learners (ELLs). In 2010, Loving High was cited alongside the much-larger Newark Vocational High School in New Jersey as an example of a superbly successful CTE school that had dramatically improved student outcomes. On Essays! For the school’s stellar record of preparing students for success, U.S. News World Report awarded Loving High School a Bronze ranking in 2015. How is Loving High School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Loving High School’s innovative curriculum is phd thesis word, one of the best arguments for the value of technical and introduction, vocational training. An education that makes explicit the pathways between education and phd thesis, work — even in medium-tech but high-demand fields, such as nursing and construction — motivates and guides students toward career paths that, given the wallpaper essay, school's rural location and families' economic hardships, they might otherwise have found entirely out of phd thesis word, reach. What surprising discovery did Noodle make while researching Loving High School? The town of writing, Loving, New Mexico has only 1,400 permanent residents, of whom 191 are students at phd thesis word, Loving High School.
How is MAST Academy innovative? MAST Academy — short for Maritime and Science Technology Senior High — is a magnet middle and high school providing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education to populations typically underrepresented in these fields. The Yellow Essay! The school, situated on a barrier island between Miami and Key Biscayne, is in a prime location for maritime study. It was founded in 1990 to support students interested in maritime sciences, offering specializations in word, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Maritime Studies and Culture, and Marine-Related Industries (MRI). As of this year, in addition to on essays, offering the Maritime and word, Science Technology program, it also offers three different Cambridge curricula: Cambridge General Studies Program; Cambridge Global Studies Program; and Cambridge Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. It offers 18 AP courses and several dual-enrollment courses. The school has a vast array of extracurricular activities, including a National Ocean Sciences Bowl Competition team, a steel drum band, and several sports. It also has the only Coast Guard JROTC in the nation.
What are the ip address, outcomes of MAST Academy’s innovation? MAST Academy has an active community outreach program with a mobile school laboratory that provides educational programs for children in grades 5 through 8, often at no charge to other participating schools. Phd Thesis! How is MAST Academy’s innovation relevant to on essays, the larger ed space? MAST Academy has long been at the forefront of career-focused learning. Word! It emphasized STEM education a decade before that became the focus of modern curricula. The school’s continued focus on a specialized, career-minded curriculum for high schoolers made it so popular within the district that MAST ultimately expanded its student body to include students from the neighboring Key Biscayne district. Its success inspired another such school; MAST served as the teaching essay writing, model for the Marine Academy of Science and Technology in Monmouth, NJ. Pathways in Technology Early College High School. Pathways in Technology Early College High School (P-TECH), founded in 2011, is the result of phd thesis, a public-private partnership among the New York City Department of Education, City University of New York (CUNY), New York City College of the yellow essay, Technology (City Tech), and IBM. In conceiving of the school, industry and phd thesis, education leaders came together to design a public, six-year, high school-to-college program focused on information technology and other STEM fields. Students will graduate with an associate's degree and a wealth of practical work experience in technological occupations.
P-TECH intensively supports and mentors its students, providing all learners with personalized paths that guide them through the curriculum according to their individual needs and achievement. Essay Writing 3rd Grade! Such tailored attention ensures that students are academically capable and successfully prepared for both the job market and phd thesis, further education. What are the outcomes of P-TECH’s innovation? Since P-TECH did not open until 2011, its first cohort is not scheduled to graduate until 2017. Questions! That said, in June 2015, six students graduated two years early with excellent prospects, including offers of full scholarships at a variety of colleges — or the opportunity to head directly into jobs with starting salaries of $50,000 or higher. Phd Thesis! A significant proportion of P-TECH's students have already completed college-level coursework, and more than 80 percent of fourth-years have taken part in paid internships at IBM. List A Thesis! How is P-TECH’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? In just a few short years, the phd thesis word, success of the P-TECH model has already led to the creation of 40 other schools across the U.S., four of which IBM will lead as an industry partner.
What’s more, P-TECH's approach has the potential to address both the lack of cultural diversity in the technology industry (since 96 percent of the yellow wallpaper madness essay, P-TECH students are black or Hispanic) as well as the trend in recent years of shortchanging vocational and technical education. In the scramble to make four-year college readiness a universal benchmark, education leaders often overlook the substantial demand for skilled technology work that doesn't necessarily require a bachelor’s degree. At the same time, P-TECH demonstrates that professional training at word, the high school or associate’s level does not preclude a four-year college education; on the contrary, the school expects many of its graduates to dr.jekyll hyde and contrast, continue on to earn bachelor’s degrees. What surprising discovery did Noodle make while researching P-TECH? President Obama endorsed the word, school in dr.jekyll compare and contrast essay, his 2013 State of the Union address, and he personally visited later the same year. How is Quest to Learn innovative? Established in 2009 with its first sixth grade class, Quest to Learn is a NYC public school created in word, collaboration with the nonprofit Institute of Play. The founders, a group of game designers and essay paragraph, classroom teachers, set out to use game design and systems thinking as the basis for the school’s pedagogical approach. They harnessed the word, principles of game design — that is, a problem set, immediate feedback, and questions, a motivational structure — to phd thesis word, engage learners in academic content. While the original focus of the school was on digital games, the scope soon broadened to include all kinds of game play. Designers worked with teachers to questions, create Common Core–aligned curriculum modules in which there is an overall mission — or, a semester-long area of study — that students must investigate by word working through a series of smaller “quests” (problems to solve) on a mockingbird paragraph, their journey to reaching a final defined goal.
For example, in a unit on cellular biology, middle schoolers play different roles to help Dr. Phd Thesis Word! Smallz, a scientist who has mistakenly shrunken himself and is now lost in the body of a dying patient, find his way through the various anatomical systems. The goal of the mission is ip address assignment, both to phd thesis, discover how to save the patient and to help Dr. Dr.jekyll! Smallz escape his patient’s body. In the process of pursuing this quest, students learn cellular and organ structures, systems functions, and the effects of feedback loops. There are seven quests, ranging in duration from one to three weeks, each focused on a different body system. Students are assessed through a final presentation in phd thesis word, which they must argue for introduction, a treatment choice to word, save Dr. Smallz’s patient. From its start with sixth grade, the school has added a level each year and will graduate its first high school class in 2016.
It attracts students from all over the yellow wallpaper madness essay, New York City, though it gives preference to families from its immediate district. The student body is racially, ethnically, and word, socioeconomically diverse, and nearly a third of students qualify for special-education supports. Quest continues the game-learning approach in teaching, its after-school programs, as well as in a summer camp and professional development offerings for phd thesis, teachers. What are the the yellow wallpaper essay, outcomes of Quest to Learn’s innovation? By traditional measures on statewide assessments, Quest to Learn’s scores have been close to or above citywide averages in recent years. Phd Thesis Word! For example, in the school’s 2012–2013 Progress Report, overall student performance was awarded a B grade, while student progress (that is, movement from one year to the next) on the same measures was given a C rating. According to its own website, 56 percent of Quest students scored better than the citywide average on the 2013 ELA exam, while 43 percent did so on the science exam.
That said, such measures may not offer the right tools to determine whether Quest’s innovations are successful. If, as the Institute of Play asserts, the challenge facing education stakeholders today is one of engagement, then an list of words to start a thesis, approach that delivers the content students must learn in K—12 schooling through activities that most are passionate about may hold promise to increase their interest and ensure that the phd thesis word, learning sticks. And Richard Arum, a New York University professor of sociology and education who is studying Quest to teaching writing, Learn’s achievements over time, noted in a January 2015 article in The Hechinger Report that student results on the College and Work Readiness Assessment show that the school is providing kids with the skills “to collaborate, think critically, and master 21st-century competencies like systems thinking and design thinking.” How is Quest to Learn’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Design and systems thinking impart the vital problem-solving, critical-thinking, and phd thesis, collaborative skills needed in 21st-century workplaces. By understanding the compelling nature of games and applying the principles of their creation to a traditional learning environment, Quest and the Institute of on essays, Play have developed an educational approach that leverages activities that kids find inherently engaging to teach them core academic content. For educators, administrators, and policy leaders, this school offers a model for how to challenge, motivate, and engage learners.
The skills these students develop — inquiry-based, problem-solving, creative thinking, and collaborative — are, moreover, the very abilities that 21st-century employers seek. Phd Thesis Word! Quest to Learn’s methods also illuminate infrastructure problems in schools across the country. While other schools may opt to draw on game and ip address assignment, design theory (their technological capacity notwithstanding), implementation of Quest to Learn’s full curriculum requires certain digital resources. For instance, the phd thesis word, school incorporates Minecraft into ip address its curriculum and uses a private social network for communications, assignments, and digital citizenship instruction. In short, schools seeking to implement Quest to Learn’s pedagogical methods may first have to address a lack of broadband access, or district policies prohibiting the use of social networks in schools. Phd Thesis Word! Ultimately, beyond disrupting how students learn, this school is also making clear which tools students need to learn well. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Quest to Learn?
The school also has its own private social network, QLink, through which students are taught — and may practice — digital citizenship skills, such as resolving conflicts without resorting to list of words statement, online bullying. How is Vail Ski Snowboard Academy innovative? Vail Ski Snowboard Academy (VSSA) opened in 2007 as the first public school to phd thesis word, offer specialized instruction for elite snow sport student-athletes in grades 5–12. The school accommodates students' travel and training schedules, and while winter mornings are spent on questions on essays, the slopes with the Ski and phd thesis word, Snow Club Vail (SSCV), afternoons are reserved for the classroom (except Mondays, which call for to kill essay paragraph, a full day of word, academic instruction). In the fall and spring, students engage in academic pursuits full-time. Innovation at VSSA goes beyond the 3rd grade, school’s dedication to supporting students' athletic goals. In order to accommodate the frequent travels and demanding training schedules, the school adopted creative ways of effectively delivering lessons, including via a computer-based flipped classroom model for phd thesis word, all students, not just those on the road.
Collaborative project-based work and video conferencing are also keystones of the ip address, school’s learning methods. Students at VSSA become self-directed by learning in these ways, and phd thesis word, they also have the a mockingbird introduction paragraph, option to explore their education further through programs such as dual-enrollment classes at Colorado Mountain College, and through paid and unpaid internships with local businesses. Phd Thesis Word! What are the outcomes of Vail Ski Snowboard Academy’s innovation? Geoff Grimer, Academic Director for VSSA, explains that when kids “own” their educations, as students at the school do through their self-directed learning, they can truly thrive; and the success of students and ip address, alumni from VSSA supports this claim. The school boasts increasing enrollment, a 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio, and an 80 percent participation rate among parents and guardians in the PTA. Phd Thesis Word! And even as far as test scores are concerned, VSSA students do exceptionally well.
Grimer explains that they score an ACT average of 26, five points above students nationally. Alumni from the essay 3rd grade, school have gone on word, to attend top colleges, including Middlebury, Harvard, and Williams. The athletic outcomes are perhaps even more impressive. Seventy-five SSCV student-athletes have qualified for the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Teams, including 12 Olympians who participated in essay writing 3rd grade, the 2014 Sochi Olympics.
How is Vail Ski Snowboard Academy’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? For young athletes dedicated to their sport, focusing on academics can be difficult. This tendency can lead to unfortunate situations, such as the 20 instances of academic fraud that the NCAA began investigating at colleges over the past year. Phd Thesis! A recent survey of 147 student-athletes shed some light on why many may be struggling in the classroom. When asked how much they valued academics on a scale of 1–10, most student-athletes said 9+, but believed that their teammates would only wallpaper madness essay give academics an importance of 7.8. Daniel Oppenheimer, one of the researchers who conducted this study, explains that this disparity breeds a kind of peer pressure, referred to as pluralistic ignorance, which causes students to act in accordance with the perceived norms (in this case, that teammates ostensibly don’t care about academics) as opposed to their own personal values (that they themselves do care). At VSSA, because athletics are seamlessly incorporated into the school’s academic calendar, and because students are surrounded by motivated student-athletes who care about school as much as sports, they grow in an academic environment that is not subject to the peer pressure that researchers observed in phd thesis, this study. This unique model, which allows students to cultivate their own academic passions in a setting in which they are surrounded by positive role models, could be advantageously incorporated into and contrast essay student athletics on a wider scale. Additionally, elite training academies can also run many thousands of dollars, making such accommodations out of reach to many students.
VSSA found a way to keep student-athletes engaged in phd thesis word, their schoolwork at a low cost to their families — yet another lesson that could be applied in essay writing 3rd grade, schools nationwide. Chief among Vergennes Union High School’s many innovations is the word, option for wallpaper essay, students to participate in the Walden Project. Based on the work of Henry David Thoreau, the project affords students the opportunity to examine the world and discover how they can contribute to word, it “from a developed sense of social, environmental, and personal awareness.” To supplement the curriculum and enhance students’ community perspective, the school also brings in scientists, writers, artists, and others as guest speakers. Beyond this innovation, VUHS has four building-wide initiatives for the 700 seventh- through 12th-graders in attendance. The first is morning meeting, in which students gather with their advisors in groups of 10 to 15 students.
Children stay with the same teacher for seventh and eighth grades, and then move to a different group for on essays, the high school years. The second is callback, in which anyone (student or teacher alike) can literally call a student back to work on classwork that the learner may not have fully understood; there is phd thesis word, time set aside each day for callback meetings. To Start A Thesis Statement! Third are proficiency-based graduation requirements (PBGR), for which students must create and maintain portfolios that document their individual “skills, knowledge, and enduring understanding as an autonomous, lifelong learner.” All seniors present — and must defend — these collections of scholarship prior to graduation. Finally, the word, school emphasizes habits of work (HoW), or standards that students should meet, above and beyond content knowledge. The school provides students with a HoW rubric, and takes students’ HoW grades seriously: These form the basis for essay, decisions about academic eligibility for athletics and co-curriculars. Even if students have sufficient content grades, they may be asked to sit out if they don’t meet the institution’s stringent HoW standards.
The school also requires that students adhere to five guidelines for success: presence, integrity, respect, kindness, and self-challenge. What are the outcomes of VUHS’s innovation? Vergennes students are indeed present, in all senses of the word — and there are stats to prove it. In the 2013–2014 school year, the schoolwide attendance rate was nearly 97 percent. The four-year graduation rate is 91 percent, five-year rate 96 percent, and six-year rate 97 percent. In terms of standardized test performance, VUHS students perform on par with students across the state of Vermont. That said, what they get out of their education — the word, opportunity to cultivate a deep appreciation for the world around them — cannot be measured solely in test scores. How is VUHS’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The school’s innovative Walden Project has received national attention as a highly effective way to engage students who have not always thrived in teaching essay, traditional educational settings. The school is word, also helping drive larger efforts to ensure that high school students achieve financial literacy prior to dr.jekyll and mr. essay, graduation.
What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching VUHS? In 1979, the school’s board ordered the library’s removal of The Wanderers by phd thesis Richard Price, and the restriction of Dog Day Afternoon by Patrick Mann. (The latter ended up in the principal’s office, due to the lack of a “restricted materials” shelf in the library.) These mandates brought a challenge — in list of words to start a thesis statement, Bicknell v. Vergennes — from the VUHS librarian and others. The board’s decision was ultimately upheld by the district court and word, again on appeal. How is Visitacion Valley Middle School innovative? Last year, Visitacion Valley Middle School made national headlines when NBC Nightly News ran a feature on the school. Of note was its meditation program, Quiet Time, which was developed in partnership with the Center for Wellness and Achievement for assignment, Education, funded by the David Lynch Foundation.
In 2007, Principal Jim Dierke instituted two 15-minute periods for stillness or meditation at the start and end of each school day. Word! While there is no obligation to wallpaper madness, participate, all students and teachers have the opportunity to be trained in transcendental meditation techniques for word, relaxation and self-awareness. Additionally, the school offers extensive support services to students as part of its Wellness Center, an essential resource for this vulnerable student body — Dierke explains that most students at Visitacion have a family connection to someone who has seen a shooting, shot someone else, or been shot. The Wellness Center provides comprehensive care to students and their families, including mentorship programs, restorative practice circles after interstudent conflict, individual therapy, family case management, and support groups for different populations, ranging from an all-girls group to ip address, one for survivors of trauma. Visitacion is also the first middle school in which the R.O.C.K. Phd Thesis! (Real Options for City Kids) after-school program was implemented. Its yearlong (and Saturday-inclusive) programming gets students involved in community service, outdoor adventures, athletic competitions, and curriculum enrichment. What are the outcomes of Visitacion Valley Middle School’s innovation? This area within the San Francisco School District has a high percentage of immigrant families and faces troubling gang violence. Eighty-four percent of the student body is wallpaper essay, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and Visitacion students had previously exhibited low attendance and high violence rates. Since the Quiet Time program commenced, however, suspension rates fell from 28 percent to phd thesis word, four percent — the latter of which is less than half of the district average — and expulsions dropped to zero. Teaching Writing! Currently, there is a 98 percent attendance rate.
Teachers are also benefitting from the word, program: Teacher turnover dropped to zero after three years of Quiet Time, and 100 percent of the faculty are compliant with the minimum qualifying standards set by the No Child Left Behind act. A Mockingbird Essay Introduction! While test scores are still below district expectations, students in the Quiet Time program have showed significantly higher improvement on phd thesis word, statewide tests than peers who were not participating in the program. Inspired by the success at list to start a thesis statement, Visitacion, other schools in the Bay Area have begun implementing Quiet Time at their schools and word, observed comparable improvements. How is Visitacion Valley Middle School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Students who live in dangerous neighborhoods or come from at-risk populations face personal challenges that may make focusing on academics difficult. Many school administrators believe a supportive home environment is the most important factor in student success, yet this is not available to many children. The ed space has long grappled with how best to support students facing such struggles, and Quiet Time provides a feasible model. On Essays! The program requires few financial, environmental, and logistical resources, and the benefits that Visitacion’s students have attained through this initiative have motivated many other schools to follow suit. Phd Thesis Word! Visitacion took a chance on implementing a program that emphasizes the importance of holistically caring for students, and in the process, created a model with the potential to to kill introduction paragraph, transform education in underserved communities. Ultimately, this scalable method, which could be easily instituted across the country, could be a way to close — or reduce — the socioeconomic achievement gap. How is Wyoming Indian Elementary School innovative?
Wyoming Indian Elementary School, which is located in the Wind River Indian Reservation, emphasizes the dual importance of cultural connectedness and academic achievement. First opened in 1957, the school revolutionized its approach to word, math intervention in list of words a thesis, 2006. It is one of the few schools in phd thesis word, the state that utilize services provided by First People’s Center for questions on essays, Education, as an unfortunate lack of funding prevents other schools from enlisting the organization’s services. This nonprofit works with teachers to help them understand and phd thesis word, adopt the best pedagogical practices for teaching math to American Indian students through a program called called “Strength in Numbers.” At Wyoming Indian Elementary, students who are falling behind their peers participate in Math Recovery Intervention with a trained specialist, and sessions are recorded to enable educators to questions, identify ongoing weaknesses and phd thesis, gain insight into the strategies that learners use to solve math problems. The method fosters deep conceptual understanding, rather than just rote memorization or completion of questions on essays, basic written mathematical functions, in an effort to word, bring struggling students’ achievement up to grade level. (Some have likened it to the Common Core standards, though this method preceded the standards by about a decade.) The intervention services rely on games and hands-on activities coupled with close, individual attention from writing 3rd grade, highly-trained educators. This approach aims to help learners master math skills and ideas that had eluded their understanding when the content was taught more abstractly.
Classroom educators who have themselves received training in Strength in Numbers note that its success can be seen in students’ ability to phd thesis, apply concepts learned in one area of math to assignment, an entirely new type of problem and, most importantly, to explain how they solved it. Word! This year, Wyoming Indian Elementary was approved for a restructuring plan that further prioritizes individual learning, an questions on essays, initiative that aligns with the successful approach used in First People’s partnership with the school. What are the outcomes of Wyoming Indian Elementary School’s innovation? First People’s Center for Education cites statistics from the Wyoming Department of Education as proof of the program’s success. Phd Thesis! Between 2005 and 2012, the elementary school saw achievement levels on third-grade math assessments rise from teaching writing, 23 percent performing at the Advanced or Proficient level to 71 percent. And while the two most recent years’ test scores recorded a dramatic drop, this is believed to be a function of Wyoming’s adoption of the more rigorous (from a reading-comprehension standpoint) Common Core–aligned annual exams. How is Wyoming Indian Elementary School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The achievement gap has been widening for American Indian students, due in part to large class sizes, lack of Native teachers, and ineffective instructional practices. Given this, the collaboration between Wyoming Indian Elementary and First People’s Center for Education — based on word, a combination of innovative pedagogical practices and individual attention to dr.jekyll compare essay, students — demonstrates the phd thesis, possibilities for success with this method in underresourced schools. Assignment! The Wyoming Indian Elementary model also demonstrates that instructional practices emerging from phd thesis, careful observation of children’s needs enable educators to dr.jekyll and mr. hyde and contrast essay, realize significant successes in addressing the phd thesis word, learning challenges of their students. The Young Women's Leadership School of East Harlem.
How is the Young Women's Leadership School of East Harlem innovative? The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem was founded in 1996 as the first single-sex public school to open in the U.S. since the 1960s. Begun through the work of Ann Rubinstein Tisch and the Center for Educational Innovation, the school's goal was to ip address assignment, bring a rigorous, college-preparatory public middle and high school education to girls living in high-needs communities. Most of the school’s sixth- through 12-grade students come from low-income households, and many will be the first in their families to attend college. Word! The school is committed to empowering girls and developing their competencies in four main areas: college and career awareness, STEM education, health and wellness, and teaching, leadership abilities. It also has a significant community service requirement. Word! Beyond TYWLS’s demanding academics, the school’s leaders focus heavily on the path to college, which is critical for students for whom higher education has rarely (if ever) been a part of their family histories. To that end, TYWLS participates in another Tisch undertaking, known as the College Bound Initiative, through which full-time college guidance counselors are placed in high-needs schools. Counselors work one-on-one with students as early as middle school to teaching writing, help them explore colleges and understand the path to enrollment.
These staff members also teach students about financial aid opportunities and support them through the phd thesis, application process. What are the outcomes of the Young Women's Leadership School of East Harlem’s innovation? One hundred percent of East Harlem graduates have been accepted to college — in all 14 years since the school graduated its first class of seniors in 2001. According to the school’s website, its students achieve four-year college degrees at three times the rate of their peers. The average college financial aid package is close to $20,000 for a mockingbird introduction, TYWLS graduates, and the broader network has raised more than $200 million in financial aid to help low-income graduates pay for college. Those students from the overall network who participate in the College Bound Initiative earn bachelor’s degrees at twice the rate of peers and enroll in a wide array of colleges. The school is considered a great success, particularly given the predominance of underachieving public schools in its surrounding area.
In the now-defunct NYC Progress Report from 2012–2013, the phd thesis word, middle school received an ip address assignment, overall grade of B, while the high school was awarded an phd thesis, A. Likewise, the school’s latest Quality Review describes the overall learning environment in highly positive terms. How is the Young Women's Leadership School of East Harlem’s innovation relevant to compare and contrast, the larger ed space? Through its single-sex environment, rigorous approach to phd thesis, learning, and intensive guidance counseling supports, TYWLS demonstrates that girls from low-income communities can reach high levels of essay writing 3rd grade, achievement in fields that are still dominated by boys. Phd Thesis Word! The focus on college counseling from the middle school years onward — not to mention the school’s impressive acceptance rates — underscores the need for questions, improved training and staffing of counseling offices in public schools in general, and the importance of providing students from high-needs communities with early opportunities to word, envision themselves attending college. More broadly, the success of the East Harlem program has spawned a renewed interest in single-sex education throughout the U.S., with more than 500 public programs open today. Hyde Compare! TYWLS itself has expanded into a network of schools across Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Queens. There are also affiliate schools in Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, Texas, and elsewhere in New York State. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching the Young Women's Leadership School of East Harlem? The school and phd thesis, its students have gotten attention from and mr. hyde and contrast, some high-profile women.
In 2014, Nene Sy, then a senior at TYWLS, interviewed First Lady Michelle Obama at the Women in the World Summit. In 2014, NBC Nightly News covered an annual event known as Brag Night in which career coach Peggy Klaus taught girls to “trumpet their successes” in an effort to raise their confidence and prepare them to describe their accomplishments in job and college interviews. Phd Thesis Word! The school has gotten a shoutout from then–U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, and questions on essays, Oprah Winfrey was the keynote speaker at its 2001 graduation ceremony. How is the Zoo School school innovative? The public Zoo School, which serves sixth-graders only, accepts 60 students from within and outside the Grand Rapids district for an intensive year-long program at phd thesis word, the John Ball Zoological Garden. Dr.jekyll And Mr. Hyde Compare! In addition to following the required sixth-grade curriculum, students feed the zoo animals, raise salmon, sample water, and even go on two camping trips during the year. Students at Zoo School also take classes in word, forestry, astronomy, zoology, chemistry, and physics.
Zoo School courses emphasize experiential and project-based learning. At the end of the school year, students are required to present an individual project, which encourages them to ip address assignment, hone their research and phd thesis, presentation skills. Additionally, like all Grand Rapids Public Schools, the Zoo School practices Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS), a proactive mode of the yellow madness, disciplining children that focuses on teaching social skills and using data to phd thesis, solve problems. What are the outcomes of the Zoo School’s innovation? The Zoo School ranks in the top five percent of Michigan’s schools in its measures for to kill a mockingbird essay paragraph, student growth and achievement. The demand for the lottery-assigned spaces in phd thesis, the school has grown so much that the district has announced a plan to turn the Zoo School into to start a thesis a fully-functioning middle school, serving students in grades six through eight.
The district has recognized the school for helping students develop independence, self-esteem, and creative thinking. Word! To enhance the school’s impact even further, the district is committed to raising $40 to list to start, $50 million in support of the word, Zoo School’s expansion. How is the Zoo School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The Zoo School is essay writing 3rd grade, a real-world example of word, just how effective experiential learning can be. A meta-analysis of 40 years of studies about experiential learning bears out the effectiveness of this mode of instruction. The meta-analysis shows that experiential learning leads to and mr. essay, more positive outcomes than can be found in control groups, or in word, groups engaged in traditional forms of teaching writing 3rd grade, learning.
Given students’ successes after just one year at the Zoo School, an phd thesis word, expansion promises to multiply the positive outcomes. What’s more, because the school is and mr. compare and contrast essay, public, it makes innovative experiential learning opportunities available students across and beyond the Grand Rapids district, regardless of family resources. Given the known benefits of experiential learning, the Zoo School is trailblazing a path for other districts interested in capitalizing on its benefits. As the phd thesis, ed space continues to figure out how to implement a sustainable model of experiential learning in its schools, the Zoo School, which fully integrates experiential learning into every aspect of each child’s education, provides a successful model. Even schools that take place in dr.jekyll, traditional facilities could learn from the Zoo School’s successes and seek to implement offsite programs at zoos and other community spaces. Grades pre-K–8 New York, NY; Palo Alto, CA; San Francisco, CA.
How is AltSchool innovative? Founded in word, 2013 in the Dogpatch neighborhood of San Francisco, AltSchool has a roster of financial backers who would be the envy of any startup: Andreessen Horowitz, Mark Zuckerburg, Pierre Omidyar, and Peter Thiel's Founders Fund. The school was created by former Google engineer and Aardvark founder Max Ventilla, who sought to update the education system to prepare his children to graduate into the world of the 2030s. Ventilla argues that parents wouldn’t accept transportation and a health care system that are stuck in ip address, the 1900s, so he is word, seeking to treat education, which has changed relatively little since the Industrial Revolution, with the same reinvigorating spirit. The school has garnered such attention from investors because of teaching essay writing 3rd grade, its focus on personalized learning and its dedication to developing new software that could be employed widely across the ed space. When a student enters an word, AltSchool, teachers create an the yellow madness essay, individualized Learner Portrait, which details the student’s interests, strengths, and passions. This is then integrated with the phd thesis, school’s learning objectives, which are tailored to students’ individual needs. Once these elements are combined, students receive weekly “playlists,” which detail goals and activities they must complete.
To complete the list, students spend about 30 percent of their day on their devices (laptops or tablets), working on game-based learning applications that help them develop academic skills. In addition to this time, students also work collaboratively on projects and dr.jekyll hyde compare and contrast essay, take weekly field trips, whether these are in-class “trips” facilitated by outside experts who teach a new topic or outdoor adventures to new parts of the city. The AltSchool network consists of microschools, each a single room of 20–25 students in phd thesis, grades pre-K through 8, plus two teachers. In this way, the network is questions on essays, a throwback to the one-room schoolhouse, with which schools were integrated among commercial storefronts. Four new AltSchools opened this fall, and the network now totals eight campuses distributed around San Francisco, Palo Alto, and New York City. Monitoring students is an important part of the AltSchool model, and this is done in a variety of ways. Cameras are installed in phd thesis, classrooms so teachers can evaluate the effectiveness of activities, and there's even an app for parents to questions, follow student progress. Parents, teachers, and students also meet to evaluate students’ portfolios of word, work and modify learning plans. AltSchool is a private B-corporation, or Benefit Corporation, meaning that it in addition to turning a profit (AltSchools are private, for-profit schools), the the yellow wallpaper madness, organization aims to have a positive impact on society, which is part of a B-corporation’s legal documents.
Its yearly tuition currently runs just under $21,000 — a price that, while high, is generally lower than that of top private schools in the areas in phd thesis word, which AltSchools are located. It is also worth noting that 40 percent of AltSchool students are on some sort of financial aid (and teachers do not know which of their students are receiving financial help). What are the outcomes of AltSchool’s innovation? In the two years since its founding, long-term outcomes have not emerged yet — but with the starry profiles of the network’s investors (and immense backing budget), AltSchools are ones to watch in list of words to start, the coming years. While it is difficult to gauge how students will do once they finish at phd thesis, the schools, the reputation that AltSchools have built has made them attractive to to kill a mockingbird essay, investors — with $100 million raised in May — and prospective families alike. The new AltSchool that opened in phd thesis, Brooklyn this fall received 900 applications for the 60 available spots. In testimonials about their experiences with the school, parents explain how kids are thrilled to go to class, and cite the gains they see in curiosity and intellectual engagement at home. List Of Words To Start A Thesis! One mother describes how her six-year-old went from being a timid public school student to word, a thriving AltSchool learner who was excited to receive her own books and bookshelf from her teacher. AltSchool teachers seem to be especially enthusiastic about the network’s pedagogical methods. Whether in testimonials on the AltSchool site or in news articles published in external outlets, teachers often talk about how the AltSchool system really allows them to get to know their students, and the yellow wallpaper madness, how closely they work with engineers who are always at the school, trying to understand how they can improve the phd thesis, technology so that educators themselves can spend more time focusing on students.
How is essay, AltSchool’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The reason that so many investors are interested in collaborating with AltSchool is because the network is looking to do more than create a collection of microschools. The main goal of the organization is to create software that consolidates and phd thesis, facilitates the many facets of dr.jekyll and contrast, K–12 education — from admissions to enrollment to phd thesis word, teaching to connecting with parents. The goal, in the yellow wallpaper madness, turn, is for word, this software to be widely implemented in schools across the country and possibly the world. The AltSchool team is essay 3rd grade, composed in equal parts of educators, engineers, and operators, all working together to see how the product they create works in their own classrooms. The AltSchool network is certainly not the word, only group trying to solve these problems — there are many education technology companies trying to address school needs via streamlined platforms — but it is the dr.jekyll hyde and contrast essay, only organization to have created schools around its product, with the ultimate objective of improving education and the world at large. AltSchool is also innovating the way we think of school networks. Word! As opposed to opening several large schools that need massive infrastructure efforts and expensive land acquisition, the AltSchool microschools, TechCrunch explains, offer low-cost, small-space solutions to the increased demand for schools in dr.jekyll compare essay, urban areas. *This link will lead you to the Dogpatch AltSchool, the first school founded in the network.
To find an AltSchool in your area, use the Noodle school search. How is Avenues’s innovative? Boasting an immersive bilingual program that pairs English instruction with either Mandarin or Spanish, this Manhattan institution — split into phd thesis an Early Learning Center, Lower School, Middle School, and a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, Upper School — aims to prepare children for the global challenges and opportunities of the phd thesis word, 21st century. At the moment, Avenues’s sole location is in New York City, but its leaders hope eventually to establish 20 other campuses across the world, all synced in their curriculum and principles so that students studying in London one semester could easily transition to Buenos Aires for the next, or follow their parents on a trip to Delhi or Mexico City. The first two international campuses will open in Beijing and Sao Paolo in 2017, and 14 campuses are on questions on essays, track to phd thesis, be created by 2021.
Even with its single campus, Avenues is already preparing students for international possibilities with the required World Course. The program, created by hyde compare essay the Director of International Education Policy at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Dr. Fernando Reims, is a component of each grade level at Avenues and enables students to learn about world religions, developmental economics, and phd thesis, more. Eventually, once additional campuses open around the world, students will work collaboratively with peers on global projects. While all of these academic innovations come with a steep price tag — annual tuition is $43,000 — the for-profit private school provides $4 million in financial aid each year. Avenues was founded by former president of the yellow wallpaper essay, Yale University and former dean of Columbia Law School Benno Schmidt, media and education mogul Chris Whittle (who recently left Avenues), and creator of Greenberg News Networks Alan Greenberg. Phd Thesis Word! Schmidt and Whittle had previously worked together to compare and contrast essay, found (in 1992) Edison Schools, a for-profit organization that managed public schools for districts throughout the U.S. and the U.K. — one that is phd thesis word, widely credited with having begun the charter school movement.
What are the outcomes of Avenues’s innovation? Avenues has yet to graduate its first high school class (though it will in to kill a mockingbird paragraph, spring 2016), so it is difficult to judge its students’ preparedness for college and beyond. The demand, though, for what Avenues has offered thus far is clearly high among many families: The school’s enrollment has exceeded expectations (by about 32 percent), impressive success that has allowed Avenues to expand its initial pre-K–9 offerings to include grades 10, 11, and phd thesis, 12. The school’s brochures outline its “primary educational objectives”: core academic skills, global preparedness, an area of specialized study, values, life skills, fitness, and the yellow wallpaper madness essay, entry into higher education. In a great many of these domains, Avenues has already made big strides. For instance, in the academic realm, students apply what they learn through creative projects, such as invention conventions and theater performances in both English and Mandarin. To foster a global perspective (beyond meeting the school's language requirements and taking the World Course), students have dozens of phd thesis word, opportunities to travel internationally, and the school has already led trips to Ecuador and Beijing. As far as specialized study is concerned, students select a subject they will focus on mastering beginning in ninth grade, and ultimately create a related capstone project, such as a thesis or portfolio, in 12th grade. Several parents interviewed for a local newspaper explain that they’re happy with how receptive teachers and to start a thesis, administrators are to feedback — going so far as to alter the schedule of the school’s signature language immersion programming to address parental concerns. Other parents note the success of the program as their kids Skype with friends in Mandarin and are able to chat with native speakers.
How is phd thesis word, Avenues’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? While several universities have set their sights on creating a global network of campuses, this idea is writing, still relatively new to K–12 education — and Avenues is leading the phd thesis word, way with its ambitious plans. Whereas a couple of other Manhattan private schools have opened some international campuses, the scope of Avenues’s expansion is unrivaled. Once it reaches full capacity, this network could allow seamless exchanges not only for students and families, but also for teachers and administrators, thus giving these education professionals the ability to share best practices around the list of words a thesis statement, globe. The possibilities of such international connections are thrilling: Avenues students in Paris and Moscow could compare how their countries commemorate World War II, while a teacher from phd thesis word, Avenues Rio de Janeiro could create a Portuguese language program in Sydney or Seoul. A global exchange at teaching essay writing 3rd grade, this scale could set the standard for future international K–12 educational networks. How is the Center School innovative?
The Center School is a private, nonprofit school that serves students with learning, behavioral, and emotional challenges. It opened in phd thesis word, 1971, the result of a collaboration of educators and parents who sought improved educational experiences for students with learning disabilities. From its initial small staff and student body, it has grown to serve about 100 children and young adults at writing 3rd grade, the elementary, middle, and high school levels; the school also offers a transitional work readiness program. The school is word, committed to providing students with a high-quality education and positive learning experiences to ensure their academic and social growth. Accordingly, its curriculum aligns with New Jersey learning standards and includes traditional academic subjects and electives in such areas as performing arts, information technology, and woodshop. The overall learning approach is both highly personalized and self-paced. Social-skills instruction is woven into the broader curriculum, and the school uses a ticketing system known as “Bulldog Bucks” to encourage and reward positive behaviors.
In addition, it hosts parent workshops throughout the school year to provide therapeutic support to groups of madness, parents and guardians. Word! The school accepts children from more than 50 districts across New Jersey, many of whom have had unsuccessful educational experiences in their local communities. These learners struggle with various disabilities, such as severe dyslexia, oppositional defiant disorder, sensory integration dysfunction, or depression, as well as behavioral challenges resulting from prior bullying experiences. Essay Introduction! The student-to-teacher ratio at the Center School is 5:1, and there is an word, overall student-to-staff ratio of 2:1. What are the outcomes of the Center School’s innovation? Students and parents alike express a sense of relief and gratitude at having found their way to madness essay, a school that is able to address their learning, social, and phd thesis, emotional needs.
Some students return to on essays, their districts after two or three years at the Center School, while others remain until they graduate and phd thesis, enroll in two- or four-year colleges, enter the essay, workforce, or join the military. Phd Thesis Word! The fact that so many districts throughout the teaching essay, state contract with — not to word, mention the fact that so many students endure long commutes to attend — the Center School further attests to its efficacy. How is the Center School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The Center School demonstrates that students with significant academic, emotional, and mental health struggles can, with adequate positive supports, develop the skills and knowledge to dr.jekyll essay, thrive in many settings. By serving children from all over the state without the constraints of word, district boundaries, moreover, this school demonstrates the efficacy of allowing greater mobility for students to on essays, ensure that their learning and developmental needs are met successfully, as well as the phd thesis word, flexibility to permit them to change programs as their learning issues evolve. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching the Center School? The school boasts a FIRST robotics team. It is one of only two special-education schools across the country with a high school–level team. Crossroads School for Arts Sciences. How is Crossroads innovative?
Founded in a set of small Santa Monica bungalows in 1971, Crossroads School was developed by Dr. Paul Cummins, Dr. Rhoda Makoff, and a small group of wallpaper essay, teachers and parents. The school was a pioneer for social-emotional learning and holistic education; Cummins even wrote a book about his pedagogical approach, called For Mortal Stakes: Solutions for phd thesis word, Schools and ip address assignment, Society. The school — whose name was inspired by the Robert Frost poem, “The Road Not Taken” — characterizes its five main commitments as academic excellence, the arts, the greater community, diversity, and the physical well-being and phd thesis word, full human potential of each student.
For instance, the to kill a mockingbird introduction, school is committed to word, giving out $7 million in financial aid to ensure that it is teaching essay 3rd grade, accessible to word, all students who are interested. When it comes to a devotion to the greater community, Crossroads was one of the first schools to a mockingbird paragraph, have community service as a graduation requirement. Phd Thesis Word! At present, students must complete a total of 45 hours of teaching essay writing 3rd grade, service to graduate, including one 25-hour project, one 15-hour project, and 10 additional hours of service. Arts carry equal weight with academics at phd thesis, Crossroads, and students participate in a mockingbird paragraph, “life skills” courses meant to develop self-esteem, responsibility, and decision-making skills. In these classes, students often explore identity, culture, and self-reflection through group therapy (“Council”), writing activities, and guided meditations. During their senior year of upper school, students attend a five-day retreat at the Ojai Foundation. Environmental leadership is word, also a critical component at the school, and all students are required to complete a place-based natural education class, called “EOE” (Environmental and Outdoor Education).
These classes often take the form of week-long excursions, including camping and studying poetry in the Owens Valley. The school recently completed construction on a large Science Education and Research Facility, which includes a native plant garden and a monarch butterfly preserve. The tight-knit community and open curriculum at Crossroads both draw phenomenal teachers, whom students all call by their first names. These teachers are so influential that at times they get write-ups in the Los Angeles Times. For instance, Jim Hosney, a respected film and literature teacher, taught at the school for 25 years, and actress Zooey Deschanel, an alumna of the school, has gone on on essays, record as theorizing that “everything in Hollywood is phd thesis word, directly or indirectly influenced by [him].” It should be noted that Crossroads is one of the few K–12 schools in list to start, the country to offer critical studies in film. Phd Thesis Word! What are the outcomes of Crossroads’s innovation?
The school’s graduates go on to do remarkably well, with 98–100 percent continuing on to pursue higher education. Because the arts are so deeply woven into the curriculum, many graduates become lauded filmmakers, actors, writers, musicians, and visual artists — joining the likes of Crossroads alumni Kate Hudson, Maya Rudolph, Zosia Mamet, and Baron Davis. The Yellow! Throughout its history, the school has accomplished many impressive feats, such as cultivating a renowned chamber orchestra (which played at the inauguration of the Los Angeles Walt Disney Concert Hall) and receiving the Columbia University Scholastic Press Award for phd thesis, several publications. Its holistic approach to student development, which also focuses on encouraging learners to lead active and healthy lives, has led the school to a mockingbird, win several athletic championships, including two state championships in the Upper School. The school's curricular trailblazing has also led to recognition from phd thesis, higher education institutions. The school was one of the first to opt out of the Advanced Placement program and create its own high-level courses, which have been so successful that the University of California system has approved them for Honors credit. How is Crossroads’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space?
Crossroads is a part of the Progressive Education Network, and as one of the first private schools to devote itself to social justice and holistic education, it has served as a model for other progressive schools across the country and as a source of inspiration for educators. For instance, Vicky Shorr, writer, political activist, and co-founder of the Archer School for Girls, spoke about Crossroads founder Cummins's vision: “It's easy to look at the kind of the yellow wallpaper essay, progressive education that has become the norm in top schools throughout Los Angeles and assume that it's always been that way, but it hasn't. Phd Thesis Word! When Paul Cummins founded Crossroads School, in 1971 … private school was for the rich, the white, the privileged. But Paul Cummins thought it was time for that to dr.jekyll compare essay, change.” Crossroads has been among the first of phd thesis word, several schools to ip address assignment, institute various initiatives, from doing away with AP courses in favor of its own rigorous offerings to eliminating cheerleading squads (which students believed encouraged gender discrimination). The school was also one of the first to invite thought leaders to present on and discuss issues of microaggression, diversity, and activism, believing that these conversations are not meant solely for higher education, and that they begin at the root of our learning experiences. DePaul Cristo Rey High School (DPCR) is a Catholic college-prep school that was established in 2011 to serve low-income families seeking a rigorous education for phd thesis word, their children. Essay! Accordingly, DPCR recruits students (of all faiths) who qualify for the Federal Free and word, Reduced Lunch Program, and admits those whose household income does not exceed 75 percent of the median per-capita household income in Hamilton County — a threshold that translates to about $36,800 annually. Beyond its rigorous academic curriculum, DePaul Cristo Rey's Corporate Work Study Program sends out four-student teams to fill the equivalent of essay 3rd grade, a single full-time job. Phd Thesis! Each student works five days per month in writing, jobs at various major corporations, local businesses, and nonprofit organizations in an effort to develop workplace skills and reinforce knowledge acquired in the classroom. The students’ earnings help to defray the cost of tuition, and phd thesis, are combined with other sources of financial aid and family contributions that are determined according to what each household is teaching essay, reasonably able to pay. All students receive a laptop computer and must attend a summer training program to prepare them for work in business settings.
What are the outcomes of DPCR’s innovation? DePaul Cristo Rey graduated its first class in phd thesis word, May 2015, and questions, all members of that class were accepted to college. The network of schools uses the ACT’s Educational Planning and Assistance System (EPAS) to measure yearly student growth. Since opening in 2011, DPCR has consistently ranked among the network's top five schools in reading and English growth from freshman to sophomore year. The network is noted for its superb performance in raising achievement and broadening opportunity for underrepresented students from urban communities; 88 percent of those from the class of 2013 network-wide enrolled in some form of college education (and more recent cohorts have approached 100 percent graduation and enrollment). Graduation and matriculation rates have also steadily increased with every successive year as the model has been refined. How is DPCR’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? DPCR found a novel way to address three educational challenges at once: the need to phd thesis word, integrate real-world professional training with school curricula, the need for ip address, academic rigor, and phd thesis word, the need for affordable educational options.
By partnering with companies, nonprofits, and academic institutions, the school found a way to provide top-notch academic and professional training effectively and affordably for questions on essays, students who would not otherwise have had access to these opportunities — or to the personal and word, professional networks available through both school and teaching, work. What surprising discovery did Noodle find while researching DPCR? DePaul Cristo Rey High School is one of the phd thesis, newest among 30 similar Cristo Rey network schools across the country. Ip Address Assignment! The group is itself extremely young — the first school opened in Chicago in 1996, with the express purpose of serving the needs of families with limited means. Word! Grades 6–12 33 campuses (now or soon to be open) across CA, CT, IL, NJ, NY, and TX. A Mockingbird Essay! How is word, Fusion Academy innovative? Fusion Academy grew out of Michelle Rose Gilman’s work tutoring and dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare and contrast essay, mentoring students in the late 1980s in her California community. By 2001, her academy was fully accredited, providing a nontraditional, alternative, one-on-one education to middle and high school students. Fusion offers a personalized approach to college preparatory coursework for word, learners who want scheduling flexibility, while also focusing on the social-emotional aspects of student development. Students may attend classes year-round, and full- or part-time, according to schedules that are similar to those typical of dr.jekyll compare and contrast essay, college life — that is, from early morning through the evening, Monday through Thursday, with optional programs available on Fridays. Courses take place in classrooms on Fusion campuses, and are structured as one-on-one meetings between an instructor and a student.
In addition to these sessions, students are required to complete their homework at the academy’s Homework Cafe under the supervision of a Fusion teacher who confirms its completion before kids depart. Phd Thesis Word! With a quiet area and the yellow wallpaper, another section that is communal, this space serves the dual functions of a study hall and social meeting area for phd thesis, campus students. Fusion’s innovative ethos permeates each campus. On the Brooklyn campus, for instance, the space is warm and wacky, with drawings and printouts as well as jokes and lesson plans plastered all over the walls. The lighting is low and flattering, and the comfort level high. Despite the academic rigor, students feel at home there, perhaps because of the individualized attention they receive. While Fusion classes meet state standards, they are adapted to students’ individual interests and pacing needs. In addition to traditional core academic courses, the school offers arts programming, physical and health classes, world languages, computer programming, therapy support, extra tutoring, and paragraph, mentoring, although specific courses vary by campus. While Fusion affords students a great deal of flexibility — in terms of word, how many credits they take per semester, or how long they remain enrolled — students who earn degrees are still required to meet the same state standards as their counterparts at traditional high schools. At Fusion, a for-profit private school, teachers and administrators meet quarterly to assess students’ goals and commitment to their coursework and to adjust their instructional approaches accordingly.
Students’ proficiency in teaching writing, their classes is word, measured periodically using an hyde and contrast essay, untimed, online adaptive assessment tool called Measures of Academic Progress (MAPs). In addition, instructors share progress reports with student and parents every three weeks. What are the outcomes of Fusion Academy’s innovation? Fusion attracts kids who need flexibility due to other commitments — like sports or acting careers — as well as those whose original schools did not provide them with the supports needed to phd thesis, address their learning disabilities or bullying issues successfully. Fusion alumni have been accepted to a range of colleges across the U.S., and Gillman has said that close to and mr. compare, 70 percent of Fusion students enroll in four-year colleges. According to a Fusion representative in phd thesis word, New York City, moreover, all but one of the students who graduated in 2015 were accepted to college, and the sole exception was a student who did not intend to pursue higher education.
How is Fusion Academy’s innovation relevant to essay 3rd grade, the larger ed space? The emphasis on tailoring education to individual student needs, creating a flexible learning program, and recognizing that learners’ social-emotional experiences may affect their academic growth speaks to a wider recognition that students’ development in phd thesis, schools is fostered more effectively when is wallpaper essay, it treated in a less compartmentalized manner. Fusion seems to understand that the singular, institutional model of education that has persisted for more than 100 years does not work for all children — and students who attend tend to agree, and to benefit immensely from the one-on-one attention they receive. Fusion meaningfully models the effectiveness of personalized education and provides a paradigm for phd thesis, what that looks like. The Yellow Wallpaper Madness! What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Fusion Academy? Each Fusion Academy has a hand-decorated surfboard unique to that location. *This link will lead you to Fusion Academy in Solana Beach, the phd thesis, first school to wallpaper madness essay, be founded in the Fusion network. To find a Fusion school in your area, use our search tool. Word! How is to kill essay introduction paragraph, Interlochen innovative?
To say that this nonprofit, private, boarding fine arts high school (and its companion summer camp and adult education program) has been successful in honing the phd thesis word, skills of talented performers and of words to start, artists would be an understatement. Interlochen students create exceptional artistic and academic contributions on this campus. Students who attend Interlochen are asked to select one of seven artistic majors: comparative arts, creative writing, motion picture arts, dance, music, theater arts, or visual arts. Phd Thesis! They pursue their artistic passion alongside other artist-classmates, and each program has unique supports to dr.jekyll essay, help budding writers, actors, and musicians pursue their passion. For example, music majors can specialize in a particular instrument, vocal music, composition, or songwriting; and word, this year, the academy’s students will be performing in the New York Philharmonic’s 2015–2016 season. Visual arts majors are taught by both full-time faculty and artists-in-residence, and have access to specialized studios in which they can explore different media, including photography, printmaking, and fiber arts. Comparative arts majors combine interdisciplinary studies in writing, music-making, acting, dancing, and visual arts creation, and students present a project to the community at the end of their junior, senior, and (optional) post-graduate years.
Its academic curriculum, geared toward college readiness, blends traditional courses with artistic studies in an 8:30 a.m.-to-5:20 p.m. school day. Classes are taught by accomplished faculty members; only 10 of the 80 do not hold advanced degrees. In addition to standard coursework, students have the option of the yellow wallpaper madness essay, taking classes focused on ecology, genetics, women in literature, and “reconstruction and the rise of word, modern America.” The school's Intermester program enables students to participate in essay writing 3rd grade, short-term, interdisciplinary programs outside of their chosen focus and in collaboration with peers. Tuition for boarding students stands at $55,000, while day students pay $34,660 (plus additional expenses depending upon the program of study). It is worth noting, however, that the school provided more than $10 million in financial aid to its 496 students in the 2014–2015 academic year alone. Its expense and rural location may suggest that the school’s residents and phd thesis, students are relatively homogeneous, but Interlochen hosts kids from 31 countries and 47 states — a level of geographic and ethnic diversity that rivals (or bests) most colleges. It also invites students to take advantage of exchange programs to various locations in Asia, Australia, and Europe. The school's English language learners (ELLs) have access to resources that provide both linguistic and social support to students new to a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, American life or to word, English-language instruction. What are the outcomes of Interlochen’s innovation? If you’re into to kill a mockingbird essay television, movies, or music, perhaps a list of phd thesis word, names associated with the school will suffice: Josh Groban, Vince Gilligan, Ben Foster, Terry Crews, Ed Helms, Felicity Huffman, Norah Jones, Mike Wallace, Rufus Wainwright, Sufjan Stevens, Dermot Mulroney, Rumer Willis, and Jewel (Kilcher).
And this list doesn’t even include the countless musicians, actors, broadcasters, dancers, entrepreneurs, designers, and inventors whose names you may not know but whose work you’ve seen, heard, or used (like Larry Page, Interlochen alumnus and co-founder of Google). While not all of wallpaper, these individuals graduated from the high school, they’ve all been associated with the word, institution in some way, whether as residents of the boarding school, students at its non-degree-granting college, or participants in its summer camp programs. The Yellow Wallpaper! Interlochen Arts Academy has also turned out phd thesis word, more Presidential Scholars in the Arts than any other U.S. institution (the school itself was the recipient of the National Medal of Arts) and sends grads to top-tier colleges and conservatories every year, such as Princeton University, Sarah Lawrence, Berklee College of Music, and Juilliard. Its mean SAT scores last year were 588 (critical reading), 568 (math), and 572 (writing), while the mean composite ACT score was 26. Dr.jekyll And Mr. Compare And Contrast! The school has also had between two and phd thesis word, four National Merit Scholarship finalists every year since 2010. How is Interlochen’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Despite the ip address assignment, proven benefits of arts education, many schools are cutting funding for such programming, rather than embracing these offerings.
Interlochen has not only managed to word, celebrate creativity and artistry, but the school has also coupled the arts with rigorous academic development. It stands as an example to other schools of the inspiring heights students can reach when they are allowed the space to pursue their passion surrounded by other enthusiastic faculty and classmates. How is the Mountain School innovative? The Mountain School is an alternative school affiliated with Milton Academy. And Mr. Compare Essay! It enables 11th-graders, who hail from public and private schools across the country, to spend a semester of tightly-packed days cultivating the food they eat and working closely with professors in rigorous courses that involve experiential learning and public speaking.
Students develop close relationships with faculty members, since they all live and work together on the Vermont farm. In addition to taking standard courses such as a foreign language (like Spanish or Chinese), physics, and English, one of the required courses is environmental science, which is offered not in the classroom, but outside in the fields and forests. Although students should be mindful of coordinating Mountain School courses so they are in the appropriate sequence (given their home school’s requirements), all courses that students take at the Mountain School easily transfer as AP or honors credits; the Mountain School’s curriculum sometimes even allows students to get ahead of phd thesis, their classes back home. Unsurprisingly, access to technology is minimal at the Mountain School — there is no cell phone service, and there is limited Internet access. The program accepts 45 students from different states and backgrounds and 3rd grade, encourages them to form close bonds with each other. Each student is assigned an advisor, who works with no more than four students per semester. Advisors and students meet at least once a week for half an hour to discuss their experiences in the program.
Admission to the Mountain School is phd thesis, need-blind. While the tuition rate matches that of Milton, the school encourages students to apply for financial assistance if they need it. What are the outcomes of the Mountain School’s innovation? In the last seven years, the seven most common colleges that Mountain School alumni have attended were Middlebury, Yale, Brown, Colorado College, Oberlin, Carleton, and Princeton. Among the greatest benefits of attending the essay, Mountain School is the strong alumni network — and regular alumni events — that graduates enjoy. Additionally, program alumni have access to a unique funding opportunitiy in the form of a grant called the Garden Hill Fund, which sponsers former Mountain Schoolers who create projects for the benefit others. Beyond these tangible benefits, students report experiencing significant personal growth and cultivating strong lifelong friendships. How is the Mountain School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? With each cohort of students, the phd thesis word, Mountain School demonstrates just how effective low-tech learning methods can be.
In a survey of its graduates, the Mountain School reported that most attendees in list of words statement, 2012 had not farmed, camped outside, or lived with a group of peers prior to phd thesis word, attending the program. These experiences are rare for many teens, and while the dr.jekyll hyde compare and contrast essay, ed space tends to phd thesis, embrace opportunities created by technological advances, the list of words to start a thesis statement, Mountain School directs students in a different direction — by helping them get in touch with nature and with one another through an intense living and learning experience. The Mountain School’s impact and word, influence attest to the intellectual, social, and emotional growth that an environmentally-immersive educational approach can facilitate. How is Saint Ann’s School innovative? Saint Ann’s School, an independent (nonsectarian) Brooklyn school for 1,080 students ages preschool through 12th grade, is on essays, letter and number grade–free. School leaders have made this characteristic central to the institution’s very mission: “So that every child will flourish, we eschew grades, rankings, and prizes in favor of word, ongoing dialogue and hyde, teacher reports.” Rather than assigning scores to students, teachers craft — twice each year — highly personalized qualitative prose assessments that capture students’ talents, strengths, challenges, and opportunities. The school is dedicated to phd thesis, helping learners cultivate creative expression, and offers a broad curriculum that includes a range of language classes, performing and fine arts offerings, athletics, interdisciplinary studies, and more. Wallpaper Essay! From printmaking to Mandarin and phd thesis word, Greek, Saint Ann’s courses are designed to spark critical thinking and deepen multidisciplinary understanding. The school also offers a sense of community and stays open seven days per week. What are the outcomes of list of words to start, Saint Ann’s School’s innovation? While students do not receive grades in their classes, they do earn high scores on the standardized tests they take.
The Saint Ann's school profile (no longer available online) provides a detailed report on student performance, and it is impressive. Word! While the school does not offer AP courses, its students do take AP exams. Among the 83-person class of 2014, 29 members were AP Scholars with Distinction, AP Scholars with Honor, or AP Scholars. In addition, 24 percent of students received some recognition for National Merit performance. Median SAT scores are 730 for writing, 720 for critical reading, and questions on essays, 670 for math — all well above national scoring levels. And the school sends a great many students to top-tier colleges and universities. Among the 2014 graduating class, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale got two alumni apiece, Brown seven, Columbia six, and Penn and Cornell one each — to name just a few. Phd Thesis Word! (Saint Ann's students' 2015 college acceptances can now be found on the school's site, as well.) In other words, the writing, lack of GPAs among graduating students does not seem to phd thesis, diminish their college admission prospects.
How is Saint Ann’s School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? With the increasing prominence of standardized tests, Saint Ann’s provides a powerful reminder about wallpaper madness essay — and antidote to word, — the (limited) efficacy of scores and rankings. And Contrast Essay! By considering each student as an phd thesis, individual, and by seeking to cultivate that person’s unique strengths and talents, Saint Ann’s models what a well-rounded education can look like. It also proves that schools don’t always need to to kill introduction paragraph, teach (or grade) to the test for students to phd thesis word, ace standardized exams. Colleges recognize the school’s effectiveness in the yellow wallpaper essay, preparing students for word, postsecondary education — and Saint Ann’s student admissions statistics reflect this. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Saint Ann’s School? Saint Ann’s celebrated its 50th anniversary earlier this month. In recognition of the yellow wallpaper, this milestone, Senator Kirsten Gillibrand sent the word, school a letter, hundreds of ip address assignment, alumni gathered together, and Saint Ann’s issued an archival booklet that included such gems as an early school budget — in which salaries ranged from $500 to $11,500 (the latter for the headmaster). How is the word, school innovative? Shady Hill School’s unique form of instruction is introduction paragraph, called “Central Subject.” Each year, from grades three through eight, students learn about a particular theme by examining it through different lenses. For instance, each year at Shady Hill the third-graders study whales and whaling, the fourth-graders study Ancient Greece, and the fifth-graders study China.
Students cultivate their knowledge of history, literature, writing, and geography in relation to their yearly theme. Additionally, students take other courses, such as math, science, art, and music, with world-class teachers, who are often attracted to Shady Hill for its renowned graduate-level Teacher Training Course. Shady Hill is also committed to faculty and student diversity. The school proactively recruits faculty of color and encourages students to form affinity groups, in phd thesis word, which they can come together with others from similar racial and questions on essays, ethnic backgrounds. Research has shown that affinity groups minimize the isolation that students of color feel, and Shady Hill sponsors the affinity groups Children of phd thesis, Color as well as Rainbow Kids, among others. Teachers also create custom-made multicultural learning materials that speak directly to the school’s student body; they use these teaching tools in lieu of mass-produced, general audience–oriented textbooks. What are the outcomes of Shady Hill’s innovation? Shady Hill graduates go on to attend some of the country’s top high schools, including Milton Academy (with which the Mountain School, another Noodle innovative school, is affiliated) and Phillips Exeter Academy. Noted alumni include filmmaker Maya Forbes, mindfulness expert Ellen Langer, Olympic gold medalist Bob Cleary, and politics and public policy scholar Rachael Cobb. How is Shady Hill’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space?
Shady Hill is helping pioneer an innovative form of ip address, interdisciplinary education within the U.S.: phenomenon-based learning. While this method, in which students examine specific themes through multiple disciplines, has gained popularity in Finland (a country often touted for word, its progressive and successful education system), it has not widely taken off in this country — yet. Shady Hill’s impressive curriculum is helping to change that. On Essays! In the phd thesis word, process, Shady Hill is graduating alumni who are poised for success in ip address assignment, an increasingly connected world, and serving as an inspiration for other schools looking to phd thesis, adopt innovative pedagogical methods. How is Sudbury Valley School innovative? Sudbury Valley School (SVS) was one of the first free, democratic schools to open in questions, the United States.
Since its founding in 1968, numerous Sudbury schools have opened across the word, country. At SVS, learning is entirely self-directed by students; they are free to engage in whichever activities they'd like — from to kill paragraph, reading on phd thesis, their own to forming a band with other students or playing video games — as long as they do not break any rules. Students establish rules during School Meetings, where members of the school community — both staff and students — decide on issues affecting the school, from teaching essay writing 3rd grade, hiring staff members to deciding on the budget. Each student and each member of the staff (who are adults meant to guide students through their learning) has one vote. This democratic setup means that the 200-plus students, who vastly outnumber the 10 or so adults on phd thesis word, staff, can determine how the school is run. Students also take turns sitting on the Judicial Committee, a group of essay, students and staff members that functions like a jury in word, addressing disciplinary issues.
What are the list of words statement, outcomes of phd thesis word, Sudbury Valley School’s innovation? In his 2013 book on the relationship between learning and play, psychologist and Noodle Expert Peter Gray calls Sudbury Valley School “the best-kept secret in American education.” Former students seem to agree. According to teaching essay, the results of a 1986 study, 75 percent of SVS alumni successfully pursued higher education, and phd thesis word, as a whole, benefited from high employment rates. These numbers have only improved over statement, time. The 2005 book The Pursuit of Happiness: The Lives of Sudbury Valley Alumni surveyed 119 graduates about their post-SVS lives. Respondents discussed their experiences in higher education, in word, their careers, and in their relationships with others. Eighty-two percent of respondents reported pursuing formal study after their time at SVS. Those who did not attributed their choice to a feeling of readiness to pursue their professional careers.
Of those who did pursue higher education, many attended top-tier schools such as UC–Berkeley, Wesleyan, and Columbia University; moreover, 80 of the 119 respondents went on to attend graduate school. Graduates also reported the nonacademic influence that SVS had. Respondents wrote that their alma mater had a positive impact on their attitude toward relationships with others, and that it fostered independence and self-realization. Teaching Writing 3rd Grade! How is Sudbury Valley School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Since the founding of phd thesis, Sudbury Valley School, about 40 other schools promoting the Sudbury model have opened around the world. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay! These have helped popularize a combination of unschooling — a movement that removes children from the word, structures of traditional education — and civic education. (In a study of 232 families who practiced unschooling, the reported benefits of this learning model included an ip address, increased sense of curiosity.) The civic education component in particular has established a model for integrating citizenship into learning; students who attend SVS and other free, democratic schools are encouraged to become responsible, active members of society. Finally, SVS models how a private education can be affordable for middle-class families. It and phd thesis word, other free, democratic schools tend to have much more affordable tuition than other private schools, and some even use sliding scales to adjust costs depending on a family's income, a practice that allows them to draw relatively diverse student bodies. Dr.jekyll! How is THINK Global School innovative? With no campus or brick-and-mortar facility to speak of, THINK Global School (TGS) is anything but traditional. The approach it takes blends world-schooling with the peer and faculty network of traditional schools.
Its high school students study in three different countries each year — one for each term — as they work toward an International Baccalaureate (IB) diploma. Instruction is almost entirely in English, though the school offers foreign language classes in Spanish and phd thesis word, Mandarin Chinese. In addition, students have to learn the basics of languages native to the places in which they’re living for the semester. This year, students will travel to Sweden, Bosnia, and Italy. Last year, they experienced educational opportunities ranging from visiting the of words a thesis statement, Acropolis Museum in Athens to taking biology lessons in the Costa Rican rainforest. As students travel, they learn in all kinds of phd thesis word, environments, including city streets, tribal villages, and science labs around the world. Learning is further facilitated by a heavy investment in technology, with each student receiving a MacBook Pro, iPad, and iPhone to complete classwork. These resources are enhanced by a Guest Speaker series, which has put students in touch with influential leaders like Prince Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay, and teaching 3rd grade, World Wildlife Foundation president Yolanda Kakabadse.
Community service is another fundamental component of the TGS philosophy. In each country, students participate in advocacy and charity projects that connect them to the community in word, which they are living. In the teaching writing 3rd grade, past, these have included creating a film documentary of the Japanese earthquake-relief efforts and constructing schools in word, India. In addition to fostering relationships with people around the world, TGS students build close relationships with one another through their travels, as well as with their teachers and advisors. Students are each assigned a personal advisor who works with them to identify passions, arrange academic assistance, and provide emotional support. What are the to start a thesis, outcomes of THINK Global School’s innovation? This program takes global learning to a whole new level: Students are face-to-face with residents of various countries, learning about phd thesis word new cultures and acquiring skills constantly. Assignment! Though local flavor seeps into each semester of study, graduates receive high-quality, comprehensive college prep, and many have gone on phd thesis, to study at elite colleges all over the world, including Georgetown and Harvard in the United States, King’s College in the U.K., and the American University of Paris in France.
On an episode of the school’s podcast, alumni discussed what life is like six months after finishing TGS. They described the necessity of becoming accustomed to a less nomadic academic experience, yet still having an easy and exciting transition to life at their respective universities and list of words to start, appreciating the incredible opportunities afforded to them by TGS. How is THINK Global School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Schools are increasingly talking the talk about global education, but no one seems to be walking the walk quite as much as TGS. Even the most exceptional study abroad programs at the college level do not offer this breadth and depth of international experience. Perhaps the relevance of the THINK Global model to word, the larger education world is its rejection of what we think of madness essay, as school — that is, its way of showing us how limited our conception of education is. Insisting on phd thesis, constant movement, stimulation, and inspiration, its programming flaunts how exciting this approach is. Most schools successfully bring lessons to life by incorporating an experience, such as a field trip or project, into an educational unit; but TGS weaves unending education into three years' worth of enriching encounters that teach students not only to embrace and interact with other cultures, but also to the yellow wallpaper, strive to improve any community they join. How is Alliance innovative? The first school created expressly as an anti-bullying institution, this Milwaukee, Wisconsin charter was founded in 2005 with the aim of educating students in a safe, accepting environment.
Alliance also became the first gay-friendly middle school when it added grades seven and eight a couple of phd thesis, years later. The school’s anti-bullying culture is not the only thing that makes it unique; the 175-student, teacher-led (but student-centered) institution is also democratic, meaning that “students and teachers are empowered to make the school the on essays, best place it can be.” What are the outcomes of Alliance’s innovation? Many students who have endured long histories of bullying and trauma find an accepting, respectful atmosphere at Alliance, where learning can happen because the threats of physical and emotional violence have been eliminated. Tina Owen, the school’s founder and lead teacher, characterized Alliance’s unique contribution to education in a TIME article: “I always felt these kids could survive in other places, but they could thrive here.” And thrive many do. After all, they experience a school environment free from the word, harassment that is prevalent across the country. According to a 2013 report from the Gay Lesbian Straight Education Network (GLSEN), nearly three-quarters of students reported being verbally harassed at of words, school because of phd thesis, their sexual orientation, and one in questions on essays, five reported being physically assaulted in school during the past year primarily because of their sexual orientation, gender expression, or gender. Students at Alliance, by contrast, do not experience this type of harassment. (That’s why some students travel great distances to attend Alliance in lieu of their local schools — or instead of forgoing school altogether.) In part, however, because Alliance’s students have had their educations compromised by word bullying — which often leads to poor performance, missed school, or both — the institution’s overall accountability rating is listed as: “fails to meet expectations.” Bullying, though, is not the to start a thesis, only challenge that many students have faced. According to the most recent report card (from 2013–2014) cited above, 76 percent of the school’s students are economically disadvantaged, and 28 percent have disabilities. In addition, Owen has noted that a quarter of the students are homeless or in foster care, and phd thesis word, 100 percent have been habitually truant at some point. In the case of Alliance, success is rightly measured not just in terms of ip address assignment, test scores, but also in terms of student personal growth and phd thesis, safety, both of which are core to the school’s mission.
Alliance, however, is in the difficult position that many charters find themselves in; according to a 2013 article in The Hechinger Report, “some educators worry that the original premise of charters — to questions on essays, experiment with new ways of word, teaching and to serve the neediest students — could be in to start, jeopardy” due to the increasing emphasis placed on assessment scores. If you ask many students about how their Alliance education has affected them, they respond with praise. Several students were interviewed in a People Magazine article; one, then-13-year-old Kat, whose grades had suffered in a previous school where she was bullied, became known at Alliance as a student who loved baking and songwriting, and word, who earned mostly A’s. Her story is to kill paragraph, typical of phd thesis word, others we have read. For all that it does to enable students to questions on essays, thrive, Alliance has been honored with the Silver Award as a High Achievement Charter School of the Year, the Wisconsin Charter Schools Association’s Platinum Award for Charter School of the Year, and the Fair Wisconsin Organization of the Year Award. How is Alliance’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? While conversations about bullying have made their way to the national level, few schools have taken such active steps to eliminate this scourge altogether. Alliance models what a safe educational haven looks like, and the school has received national recognition for its innovation. In addition, Alliance has garnered significant press coverage, and it (together with Harvey Milk School, also an innovative school on this list) was cited as the model for word, the Social Justice High School – Pride Campus in on essays, Chicago. How is Compass Charter School innovative? Compass is a charter school located in Fort Greene, Brooklyn.
The school was founded in 2014 with two kindergarten and two first grade classes, having received more than 800 applications by phd thesis the time it opened. It will eventually grow to be a K–5 school, with two classes per grade level. Its student body is notably diverse, with a composition of 44 percent African American, 37 percent European American, 12 percent Asian American, 6 percent Latin American, and 1 percent Indian American students. The school grew out of a year-long journey, The Odyssey Initiative, during which three educators set out to identify best teaching practices across the United States. Through a Kickstarter campaign and wallpaper essay, money earned from second jobs, Todd Sutler, Brooke Peters, and Michelle Healy traveled to more than 40 states and visited more than 60 schools, observing, interviewing, and filming teachers, administrators, parents, and classes to learn what works well in public, charter, and phd thesis, private K–12 education. What emerged from this investigation was a set of on essays, principles and practices that — once married to their convictions about phd thesis social, racial, and economic justice — became the foundation of Compass. As they planned their school, Sutler, Peters, and Healy began with the question, “What do we believe about of words to start a thesis statement children?” The answers to this query shaped the pedagogical, curricular, and staffing decisions they made for the school. As educators, they are committed to progressive education that brings direct research and real-world experiences into their students’ learning.
Among the approaches that the founders consider important for children’s education is the structure of looping, in which students remain with the same classmates and teachers for two consecutive years. In this way, educators are able to develop a deep understanding of their students’ academic and social development over time, and can accordingly attune their teaching to each learner’s individual needs and growth. In addition, all Compass classes are staffed by two teachers, one trained in special education and one in general education. This structure enables a collaborative approach and permits all classes to be fully inclusive. The school also provides social, emotional, and behavioral supports, as well as an array of services for children with learning disabilities.
What are the outcomes of phd thesis, Compass Charter School’s innovation? Children spend time investigating the community around their school to deepen their understanding of the topics they’re studying, as well as to foster awareness about and bonds with the neighborhood in which their school is wallpaper, located. The teachers and school leaders use an integrated curriculum that is focused on sustainability, broadly defined to include not just environmental issues, but also justice concerns. Arts, music, and phd thesis, physical education are woven in throughout children’s days, and are integral to compare and contrast, all of their academic experiences. For example, classroom teachers and arts specialists co-plan study units and regularly co-teach classes. Phd Thesis Word! While progressive education is available in many public and private schools, Compass has succeeded in bringing a rigorous, engaging model of it to a racially, ethnically, and ip address, socioeconomically diverse school community. Phd Thesis Word! Although it’s early to draw definitive conclusions about the school’s outcomes, its first NYC School Survey from 2014–2015 shows promising results from parents and teachers alike, with 99 percent and 97 percent positive responses, respectively. List! These figures exceed the citywide averages in each of the six categories assessed. Phd Thesis! Compass’s school day runs from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. from Monday through Thursday, and children attend from list a thesis statement, 8 a.m. to phd thesis word, 1 p.m. on Fridays to allow for extended weekly staff development.
School leaders are committed to collaboration and professional growth among their staff, and dr.jekyll compare and contrast essay, this scheduling ensures that these priorities are a structural component of the school community. How is Compass Charter School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Compass has taken some of the most engaging educational practices available to children in phd thesis word, socioeconomically advantaged communities, and woven them together with principles of equity, empathy, and ip address, caring for community. The result is a school whose parents, teachers, and students are dedicated and phd thesis word, engaged. Compass Charter School’s commitment to academic rigor, social-emotional growth, inclusion, and diversity provides a promising model for public, charter, and private schools alike for what a well-rounded K–12 education could — and should — look like. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay! What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Compass Charter School? By the time Compass opened in word, 2014, the dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare, founders had visited the word, homes of 95 percent of their students in an effort to begin establishing ties with families and forming deep bonds with students. This is to kill, consistent with the school leaders’ belief in understanding the broader lives of their educational community so that they can tailor their teaching to meet each learner’s needs.
Grades K–12 Baton Rouge, LA; Camden, NJ; New York, NY; Washington, D.C. How is Democracy Prep innovative? Democracy Prep Public Schools (DPCS) are a charter network with the motto, “Work hard. Go to college. Change the world!” The first school opened in 2006, the work and word, vision of influential educator Seth Andrews; by 2009, it was ranked New York City’s top middle school.
Andrews set out to create a college-preparatory program for children living in some of the city’s most underserved neighborhoods. He believed it was possible to raise the educational achievement levels of low-income learners while simultaneously increasing civic understanding and engagement in traditionally disenfranchised communities. Essay Introduction Paragraph! The success of the first school led to a growing network that now includes 17 sites — across New York City, NY; Camden, NJ; Washington, DC; and Baton Rouge, LA — serving more than 5,000 students. The network was also awarded a grant by the U.S. Phd Thesis! Department of teaching essay writing, Education in 2012 to expand to a total of 25 schools, and is considering new sites in Alabama, Georgia, Maryland, and Oklahoma. In addition to founding new schools, Democracy Prep has also made a name for itself as a turnaround agent — that is, an organization that transforms a failing school into word a thriving one.
To that end, it became the teaching writing, first charter organization to word, take over the failing Harlem Day Charter School in the summer of 2011; and within one year, Democracy Prep’s newly-renamed Harlem Prep Charter School had stunningly risen from the third percentile of New York City schools to the 96th. Today, the ip address, network has schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, some newly established and others turnaround institutions. As its name suggests, Democracy Prep encourages deep civic engagement, an activity that it has made a central component of the rich curriculum. Students attend school for eight or more hours each day, and the academic year runs for 190 days, 10 more than New York district schools are in session. A child who begins at a Democracy Prep school in kindergarten and continues through 12th grade will have received an phd thesis, additional decade of schooling as a result. Questions On Essays! All children — or scholars, as they are known — are given two hours of math, three hours of phd thesis, literacy, one hour of science, and one hour of social studies instruction each day. In addition, the to kill a mockingbird essay, schools require learners to phd thesis, take classes in areas like art, music, health, and physical education. At the high school level, speech and assignment, debate are among the phd thesis, offerings, as are a variety of 3rd grade, advanced placement classes open to all students.
Scholars must also take four years of Korean language instruction and pass the related Regents exam to phd thesis, graduate. Like many other “No Excuses” charter schools, Democracy Prep sets rigorous standards for learning, uses data to guide instructional decisions, and expects students to questions, adhere to defined community values — which, in phd thesis word, this network, are known as DREAM: Discipline, Respect, Enthusiasm, Accountability, and Maturity. That said, what further distinguishes this network are three specific commitments that are integral to its accomplishments. The first is the intentionality of its efforts to foster civic engagement and to equip families with the tools to play a part in ip address, public decisions affecting their children’s education and communities. For example, each election season, elementary and middle school students run “Get out the phd thesis, vote” campaigns in their local areas. Democracy Prep boasts the youngest people ever to testify in front of the New York City Council and on essays, the New York State Senate and word, Assembly. In fact, the American Enterprise Institute relied on on essays, the network’s experiences to issue a report on civics education. Phd Thesis! Andrews also created a related organization, Democracy Builders, to help drive community engagement by giving families the tools needed to advocate for great public schools for all kids.
Another aspect of Democracy Prep’s approach that sets it apart from other charters is that the dr.jekyll hyde and contrast, network actively recruits students who are English language learners (ELLs) or who have special needs, many of word, whom are poorly served in essay 3rd grade, their local schools. And these students follow same curriculum and phd thesis, must meet the same requirements as others in their schools. Finally, Democracy Prep funds the operation of its schools through local, state, and federal dollars, investing most of these monies in teachers and to kill essay introduction, classrooms while limiting administrative staff. Philanthropic money that the phd thesis, network raises goes to other initiatives, such as expanding the network or covering the the yellow wallpaper madness essay, expense of private facilities. This structure is significant because it supports Andrews’s thesis that it is possible to phd thesis word, finance rigorous, successful, college preparatory schools for disadvantaged students through public sources. Teaching Essay 3rd Grade! What are the outcomes of Democracy Prep’s innovation? In New York City, Democracy Prep schools have achieved noteworthy success; the 2013 graduating class has taken a total of 410 Regents exam and achieved a pass rate of 95 percent.
Democracy Prep Charter High School was awarded an A on the city’s Progress Report in the 2012–2013 academic year, the last period for which this assessment is available. Word! According to the Democracy Prep website, its middle school, Democracy Prep Charter Middle School, received an A from the ip address assignment, New York City Department of Education each year between 2007 and 2013, including in the 2012–2013 academic year, during the advent of the more difficult Common Core–aligned state assessments. Word! With the dual goals of college enrollment and civic engagement, Democracy Prep sets demanding graduation requirements, as well. Questions! Students must receive two college acceptances and phd thesis, pass the teaching writing 3rd grade, U.S. Citizenship Test to receive their diplomas. Significantly, every student in the network’s first graduating class was accepted to 10 or more colleges, with 215 different institutions of higher education offering admission to these scholars. And when Democracy Prep first began in NYC, it surveyed the phd thesis word, school’s parents and learned that only nine percent of them were registered to vote. Wallpaper Madness! That figure had risen to 78 percent by 2013. How is Democracy Prep’s innovation relevant to word, the larger ed space?
Democracy Prep’s focus on civics education as both a domain of instruction and a tool for ip address assignment, transforming communities offers a model for others schools that recognize the need to address systemic inequities and a lack of phd thesis word, citizen engagement. Much of social studies learning in other schools remains largely disconnected from the a mockingbird introduction, experiences of students and word, families, and Democracy Prep has developed an approach that brings these principles to life and empowers children and a mockingbird essay introduction, parents to advocate for change through democratic practices. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching Democracy Prep? Education and hard work are highly respected in South Korea, and Andrews, who taught English there, was influenced by these values. He believes that the word, country’s transformative experience emerging from its state of poverty and disarray following the Korean War can be instructive for Democracy Prep students, as well, which helps to explain the hyde compare and contrast essay, inclusion of Korean culture and language studies in schools’ curricula. *This link will lead you to Democracy Prep Charter Middle School in phd thesis word, Central Harlem, the first school to be founded in the Democracy Prep network. To find a Democracy Prep school in your area, use our search tool. How is e3 Civic High innovative? This San Diego charter, e3 Civic High, is located within a public library.
Not only does the co-location afford resource access to underserved students, but it also makes a statement about the kinds of institutions that schools — and essay, libraries — ought to be. Phd Thesis Word! Additionally, the school is dedicated to providing project-based instruction, cutting-edge technology, and, of course, research-facility access. Its location within the San Diego Public Library further enables the school to offer students opportunities for civic engagement. Ip Address Assignment! In addition to a range of in-depth academic offerings, e3 Civic High extends study abroad opportunities and academic support options, including twice-weekly tutoring sessions. What are the outcomes of e3 Civic High’s innovation? Because the phd thesis, school is relatively new (it opened just two years ago), long-term outcomes data are not yet available. Dr.jekyll And Mr. Hyde Compare And Contrast Essay! That said, early indications are promising. The charter was created with the express purpose of installing a much-needed high-performing school in downtown San Diego.
The school’s very design was created with that objective in mind; and for that accomplishment, it earned a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold award of honor for its sustainable and creative learning environment. It is phd thesis, setting a new standard not just for what a school could look like, or where one could be located, but also for what an institution of learning could feel like for the students who attend. List Statement! How is e3 Civic High’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? This innovative charter school embodies the word, values it teaches. To help cultivate environmental awareness, e3 Civic High is itself sustainable. To give students unparalleled access to resources, it opened within a major urban public library. In the process of establishing a values-driven institution, e3 Civic High also created a new framework for thinking about what a K–12 school is — and what it could be: a school served by and serving a public library. Moreover, e3 Civic High models how thinking creatively facilitates learning. Assignment! That lesson is, perhaps, the most important of word, all for its students — and for the education world at large.
Evergreen Community Charter School. How is list of words statement, Evergreen school innovative? In 2012, Evergreen was one of 78 schools in the nation to be recognized as a “Green Ribbon School,” a title given both for its high performance and its dedication to environmental education and word, action. The K–8 school’s sustainable initiatives include: stream and creek clean-ups, “leave-no-trace” ethics on all school outings, rooftop solar panels, a greenhouse, a composting system, and teaching essay, an aquaculture program. In addition to word, the school's architectural embodiment of environmental values, its programs encourage students to learn holistically by participating in outdoor activities that pique wonder and curiosity in the face of nature. These principles are incorporated through a partnership with Expeditionary Learning, an organization that works with schools like Evergreen and Clairemont Elementary School, another Noodle innovative school, to questions, implement a pedagogical approach based on Outward Bound’s experiential model. In this vein, Evergreen students go on phd thesis, place-based expeditions that allow them to essay paragraph, put into practice what they learn in the classroom, and phd thesis, most classes take an overnight trip at the end of the essay, school year. These experiences help students develop problem-solving skills and independence by phd thesis allowing them to form their own theories and conclusions through self-directed learning.
Older students are asked to think critically about how environmental concerns affect their community and the larger society. They apply this learning as they discuss current events, government, social studies, and business. For instance, seventh-graders have explored agricultural techniques used to grow food in environments faced with scarcity. Students interested in taking this environmental education a step further can participate in the Evergreen LEADER (Learning Environmental Action, Developing Expertise and ip address, Responsibility) program. Phd Thesis! This initiative lasts all three years of middle school, with students selecting an environmental topic of interest in the yellow madness, sixth grade, learning about word it through seventh grade, and creating a project that raises awareness about it in eighth grade. In addition, the school has an established diversity plan, believing that students, faculty, staff, and board members should represent different backgrounds, and that the to kill essay, curriculum should be developed with social justice in mind. What are the outcomes of Evergreen’s innovation? In addition to the Green Ribbon it received in 2012, Evergreen has been recognized twice (in 2010–2011 and 2011–2012) as a North Carolina Honors School of Excellence for having higher than expected growth — this recognition is given to fewer than eight percent of the phd thesis word, state’s schools. This year, the school did not meet its growth goals, but students still scored higher on state tests than the list to start a thesis statement, North Carolina average. For instance, while 80.8 percent of Evergreen students scored at or above proficiency levels in reading, the state average was 56.3 percent (for math, the numbers were 64.7 percent for Evergreen and 51.1 percent for the state average).
Graduates from Evergreen go on to accomplish many impressive feats, from gaining admission to word, schools such as Interlochen (also a Noodle innovative school) and Phillips Academy to traveling around the world, sometimes through initiatives like the Rotary Youth Exchange Program. Graduates also maintain their dedication to sustainable development after leaving the dr.jekyll hyde essay, school. Evergreen’s alumni page notes the word, story of Eowyn Lucas, who won a grant for making her high school cafeteria more environmentally friendly, and that of on essays, Kira Bursky, who created a film called “Tree Hugger,” which was shown at the Cannes Film Festival. How is Evergreen’s innovation relevant to phd thesis word, the larger ed space? It could be argued that with only 78 schools receiving Green Ribbons, the K–12 space is sorely lacking in list to start a thesis, sustainability education. Not only has Evergreen made environmentalism a focus in its curriculum, but it has also found a way to transform its students into environmental activists who take the phd thesis, school’s focus on list of words a thesis statement, sustainable development and apply it in their future lives and larger communities. If more schools cultivated a sense of environmental responsibility in the way that Evergreen has, the world — and not just the ed space — would be a better place. Phd Thesis Word! Grades pre-K–12 (elementary/middle and high schools) New Orleans, LA. How are FirstLine Schools innovative? The FirstLine Schools charter school network has pioneered a number of teaching 3rd grade, educational innovations, including personalized learning initiatives and emphasis on teacher professional development. Still, it is probably best-known for its partnership with chef, food activist, and National Humanities medal winner Alice Waters, who founded Edible Schoolyard New Orleans (ESYNOLA) in phd thesis word, 2006.
The network, which consists of two K–8 schools (Arthur Ashe Charter School and Samuel J. Ip Address Assignment! Green Charter School), two pre-K–8 schools (Phillis Wheatley Community School and Langston Hughes Academy), and one high school (Joseph S. Clark Preparatory High School), serves 2,400 students in a garden- and food-centric environment. Phd Thesis Word! All schools provide students with hands-on experience gardening and cooking the the yellow madness essay, food they’ve grown. Word! The Phillis Wheatley Community School — formerly called the John Dibert Community School — further empowers students and their families with Share Our Strength’s Cooking Matters curriculum, which is to start, based on experiential food education. The collaboration between ESYNOLA and FirstLine Schools has led to phd thesis word, a comprehensive health and wellness initiative that began in 2012, when network leaders implemented more stringent food-quality standards throughout the five schools. The partnership has also extended the food-based education that students receive to include their families, with cooking classes and food-based events that are open to 3rd grade, the community. Additionally, FirstLine Schools began offering free recess workshops in order to promote increased physical activity throughout the day, and free fitness classes are offered to students and their families after school. What are the outcomes of FirstLine Schools’ innovation? FirstLine partnered with the Prevention Research Center at Tulane University to assess the impact of the food-centric curriculum, and found that in addition to phd thesis word, increasing access to fresh produce, the initiative led students to become more involved in preparing food at home.
During its pilot year, FirstLine’s Wellness Initiative garnered all five schools the Gold Award of Distinction for the HealthierUS School Challenge, in recognition of questions, Excellence in Nutrition and Physical Activity. With a focus on the development of the word, whole child, FirstLine Schools have made significant progress in helping students improve academically — beyond their feats in the garden, kitchen, and playground. While there is still progress to be made in increasing the on essays, number of students who perform at the Basic level or above on the iLEAP and LEAP tests, FirstLine students have made impressive strides over the past several years and word, are, in the network’s apt characterization, on “strong upward trajectories.” How FirstLine Schools’ innovation relevant to the larger ed space? ESYNOLA is the first affiliate of the Edible Schoolyard (ESY) program, which launched in Berkeley, CA in 1995. The success of ESYNOLA was crucial for demonstrating that an education grounded in on essays, students’ relationship to food can happen anywhere — and indeed, it helped create a thriving school network in phd thesis word, post-Katrina New Orleans. The success of the list to start a thesis statement, affiliation resulted in the founding of phd thesis word, five other programs in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Greensboro, Brooklyn, and dr.jekyll hyde compare essay, Lake Placid. *This link will lead you to Samuel J. Word! Green Charter School, the first school to be founded in the FirstLine network. Use the to start a thesis, Noodle search tool to find other FirstLine schools in New Orleans. Harlem Children's Zone Promise Academy Charter Schools* How are Promise Academy schools innovative? The Harlem Children’s Zone — and phd thesis word, its keystone Harlem Children’s Zone Promise Academy Charter Schools — takes a community-centered approach to education, believing that by transforming the lives of children at an early age, they can transform a community — in this case, that of West Harlem — and questions, raise it out of poverty. The organization grew out of a truancy prevention program, run through the Rheedlen Centers for Children and Families.
With the leadership of phd thesis, influential educator Geoffrey Canada, who would become President and CEO of HCZ, Rheedlen turned P.S. 194 into a community center, offering excellent after-school and dr.jekyll and mr., weekend programming for young students. Instrumental to HCZ’s growth and success was the subsequent opening of three new institutions: The Baby College, a parenting workshop; Harlem Gems, a preschool program; and phd thesis word, Promise Academy, a charter school. Through these initiatives, it is easy to see how Harlem Children’s Zone enacts change in education from the roots: Not only do preschool-aged kids get the support they need, but so do their parents. And Mr. And Contrast Essay! Canada has gone on record as saying that without ample support, the achievement gap starts at phd thesis word, day one.
Harlem Children’s Zone is the embodiment of his plan to questions on essays, close that gap forever. Phd Thesis! HCZ has continued to list, expand the comprehensive programming that accompanies students at every stage of their lives, from collaborating with local public schools and offering supplementary tutoring to phd thesis word, creating a College Preparatory Program and an Office of College Success. Assignment! These latest additions help to ensure that children who go through the HCZ journey will have full support as they pursue higher education. Phd Thesis! Promise Academy is a cornerstone of HCZ’s educational programming. The students who attend these charters face many challenges: 81 percent qualify for free or reduced-price lunch, and ip address, the majority will be first-generation college students. To ensure that its scholars succeed, the school provides an entire suite of supports: breakfast, lunch, and phd thesis word, a snack during school; dental, medical, and psychological services on questions, the schools’ campuses; data-driven instruction that allows teachers to individualize lessons; and Student Advocates who work with children one-on-one and collaborate with parents, administrators, and teachers to provide guidance to HCZ scholars. Elementary school students begin every day with the Promise Academy creed: We will go to college. We will succeed. This is our promise.
This is our creed. Promise challenges children with rigorous academics, framed by the Common Core standards of learning. Students deepen their arts education through a unique partnership with Jazz at Lincoln Center in which kids play in a jazz band and receive private lessons from renowned musicians. As students move into middle school, Promise places a greater emphasis on phd thesis, social-emotional learning, having students meet in gender-divided groups to discuss issues such as conflict resolution, stress, and self-esteem. In addition, middle schoolers are encouraged to attend offsite activities, such as the Model United Nations Summit, with the aim of encouraging global thinking and engagement. High school, as the creed states, is a time to prepare for essay 3rd grade, college. Through the Bard Early College Program, ninth and tenth graders can take demanding pre-college courses, strengthening their research, writing, and analytic skills. The Academy preps all high schoolers for standardized tests with special courses and one-on-one tutoring, and builds their application portfolios through school sports and special community service projects. In 2013, Promise Academy saw 98 percent of seniors accepted to college, with nearly $1 million awarded in scholarship funds. What are the outcomes of Promise Academy schools’ innovation?
Because the organization has only phd thesis been around for about 10 years, it is difficult to measure its effect on poverty. Questions On Essays! That said, Promise Academy has reported significant numbers in phd thesis, this timeframe: an on essays, overall 92 percent college acceptance rate; 881 HCZ graduates going on to college, and 100 percent graduating; and phd thesis, students receiving nearly $20 million in scholarships. Dr. Roland Fryer of list of words to start statement, Harvard University and phd thesis word, Dr. Will Dobbie of Princeton compared outcomes for list statement, Promise Academy students with those of peers who were not selected in the school’s lottery.
In their most recent study, the researchers found that the charter’s students were 71 percent less likely to have a teen pregnancy and that the incarceration rate of its scholars was lowered by 100 percent. Why is Promise Academy schools’ innovation relevant to the larger ed space? HCZ views education as central to phd thesis, solving larger societal issues, especially those related to poverty. Its model has been lauded by President Obama, who used the Harlem Children Zone’s structure as inspiration to launch a “Promise Zone Initiative” that seeks to assignment, revamp other neighborhoods sorely lacking in education, health, and community support. HCZ is notable for phd thesis word, its all-encompassing view of education, founded on to start statement, the conviction that children can only succeed in the classroom and life when they have support inside and outside these settings. Phd Thesis! The Promise Academies and the Zone’s related programs instantiate this belief by providing services to ensure the mental, physical, emotional, and teaching essay writing 3rd grade, educational well-being of phd thesis word, students from early childhood into young adulthood. Wallpaper Essay! In a system where education is often treated as a process that occurs in a vacuum, Harlem Children’s Zone expands the concept of schooling and phd thesis word, contextualizes it within the larger community, in to start, turn fostering lifelong bonds among its members: The community supports children who will learn, grow, and phd thesis, return to strengthen the neighborhood from list to start a thesis statement, which they gained so much. *This link will lead you to the first Promise Academy that Harlem Children’s Zone founded. Use the phd thesis word, Noodle search tool to find other Promise Academy schools in Harlem. Grades pre-K–12 AR, CA, CO, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, LA, MA, MD, MN, MO, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA,TN, and TX.
How are KIPP schools innovative? Founded in 1994 by questions on essays influential educators Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin, two Teach for America alumni, the KIPP network of phd thesis word, free, open-enrollment public charter schools includes 183 schools spread across 20 states and list a thesis statement, Washington, D.C. The leadership is not shy about the fact that it holds students to word, a high standard; after an in-home consultation, students, parents, and teachers sign an exhaustive pledge called the questions, Commitment to Excellence in phd thesis, which students promise to do their best, teachers pledge to make themselves available to kids and their families, and parents agree to punctuality, nightly homework checks, and open communication with the school community. KIPP schools also have extended school days, weeks (classes on Saturdays), and years (with an academic calendar that extends into late July). Administrators exercise significant autonomy over questions on essays, discipline in a no-excuses system, as well as a relentless focus on excellent standardized test results and phd thesis word, other quantifiable outcomes. In addition to these approaches, KIPP schools also value character development, which it breaks down into questions on essays seven strengths: zest, grit, optimism, self-control, gratitude, social intelligence, and curiosity.
Teachers are encouraged to incorporate lessons about phd thesis character into their classes by pointing out positive examples, modeling positive traits, and dr.jekyll and mr. and contrast, using a character growth card to track students’ progress. Admission to KIPP schools is based on phd thesis word, a lottery system, and the network reports that its schools serve about 70,000 students. Of these, 87 percent come from low-income households, and 96 percent are African-American or [emailprotected] . About 10 percent of students receive special education accommodations and services, while close to 17 percent are English language learners (ELLs). What are the outcomes of dr.jekyll and contrast essay, KIPP schools’ innovation? Due to its prominence in the education world and phd thesis, bold achievement markers, KIPP has been the subject of a major longitudinal study from Mathematica Policy Research since 2008. Madness! The most recent results are from September 2015, and they suggest solid progress.
At the middle school level, KIPP students do better on state assessments in reading, math, science, and social studies than public school peers who started at a similar academic level. For example, after two years of attending KIPP schools, students’ average math test scores increased by phd thesis .24 standard variations — roughly the same as jumping from the 40th to the yellow wallpaper essay, the 50th percentile on state math exams. Similarly, results on reading tests suggest that KIPP students performed .18 standard deviations better than traditional public school peers — the equivalent of a boost from the 37th to the 44th percentile. Importantly, the researchers reportedly controlled for factors like external motivation from parents. They have characterized the study’s findings as large and widespread enough (that is, measuring outcomes across enough students at all grade levels and subjects) to be considered statistically significant and educationally meaningful. KIPP’s own Report Card for phd thesis word, 2014 boasts a 94 percent high school graduation rate (compared to a 74 percent average for non-KIPP, low-income students), an 82 percent college attendance rate, and a 45 percent college graduation rate (the last of these is significantly higher than the nine percent rate for non-KIPP students from similar low-income households). Graduates of the program’s schools have gone on to attend colleges all over teaching writing, the country, including at phd thesis word, highly selective institutions, such as Brown University, the University of Pennsylvania, Duke University, and essay 3rd grade, Rice University. How is KIPP schools’ innovation relevant to the larger ed space?
While the word, opt-out movement has led to increased skepticism regarding standardized test results and a mockingbird paragraph, their relevance to education, the word, fact remains that such outcomes still affect educational opportunities throughout elementary, middle, and high school, as well as future college and to start a thesis statement, career successes. KIPP’s focus on rigorous academics, character-building, and phd thesis, family engagement for students from underserved communities demonstrates that high achievement need not be determined by zip code. Despite these results, KIPP and the other no-excuses charter schools (those characterized by extended days, strict disciplinary policies, and list statement, high academic expectations) are part of an ongoing debate in education reform. Supporters argue that KIPP and phd thesis, schools like it are doing a great deal to serve families who may have few or no successful educational options in their local districts, affording parents the choice of a school that can boast substantial achievement outcomes. Critics of no-excuses charters, however, believe that the schools’ regimented disciplinary methods breed docile graduates who may not know how to flourish in a 21st-century work environment that demands critical questioning and assertiveness. A Mockingbird Essay Introduction! KIPP has distinguished itself from other no-excuses charters, however, by subjecting its student outcomes data to an independent, longitudinal study (the Mathematica research mentioned above).
In general, the network has consistently made efforts to examine its practices and seek ways to improve. For instance, in 2011, 33 percent of phd thesis word, KIPP middle school alumni were graduating from college, a percentage that was only three percent higher than the national average. Since that time, the network has made efforts to the yellow essay, improve college graduation rates (which, in word, 2015, now stand at 45 percent), implementing a new KIPP Through College mentorship program, and continuously monitoring and analyzing its progress. KIPP’s persistent commitment to improvement and of words to start a thesis statement, its willingness to phd thesis, look squarely at its own shortcomings offer a model that other schools, regardless of their philosophies, can learn from. *This link will lead you to the KIPP Academy Middle School in Houston, the list of words to start a thesis statement, first school to be founded in the KIPP network. Use the Noodle search tool to word, find a KIPP school in assignment, your area.
How is Minnesota New Country School innovative? When they decided to phd thesis, create a new charter school, the founders of Minnesota New Country School (MNCS) considered whether or not the components of to kill essay paragraph, a typical high school actually benefited students. They then designed a school that is a clear break from tradition, except for the fact that it is located in a modern-day version of a one-room schoolhouse. Phd Thesis Word! At MNCS, students work in an open environment, and they all have their own workstations and computers. They aren’t taught in classrooms by teachers, and there are no bells segmenting the day, since the founders of MNCS believed that learning shouldn’t be interrupted at the yellow wallpaper madness essay, arbitrary intervals. Instead, students spend their whole day developing their own independent projects (that meet state standards) and earn credit based on the knowledge they demonstrate during presentations to word, their teachers, who are referred to as “advisors.” These projects become increasingly rigorous and include a 150-hour junior project and a 300-hour senior project. The projects encourage students to cultivate their own interests and to become autodidacts while also making them responsible for large deliverables.
Even the school’s administrative structure is innovative because of its lack of questions on essays, hierarchy; there are no principals, and faculty belong to phd thesis word, a co-op that decides how the budget is distributed each year. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Introduction Paragraph! What are the outcomes of Minnesota New Country School’s innovation? MNCS’s outcomes, like the school’s methods, do not always neatly map to empirically high test scores — though the gains that students make are impressive. For instance, though 40 percent of students enter the school at two years below their grade level, they make significant and rapid academic progress, as demonstrated by their national assessment scores. In 2011–2012, MNCS students scored higher than average on the national Measures of Academic Progress, which assesses reading, and on the Hope Survey, which evaluates nonacademic skills such as problem-solving. Performance on state-level exams is mixed, however: While in 2015 MNCS students were on par with students across Minnesota in reading proficiency (59.8 percent proficiency vs. 59.5 percent statewide) on state assessments, they were well below state average in math proficiency (32.4 percent proficiency vs. 60.2 percent statewide).
That said, as this article in phd thesis, The Hechinger Report points out, the school achieves significant success in questions, areas not fully captured by word standardized tests. For instance, MNCS has also proven very effective for students with ADHD. According to that same Hechinger Report article, in 2012 all graduating seniors had plans to attend two- or four-year colleges. MNCS aims to help students develop skills that will serve them well in higher-education settings and far beyond. The school aims to promote innovation by cultivating an entrepreneurial spirit in students. According to and mr. hyde and contrast essay, its director, students have exceptional opportunities to phd thesis word, develop communication and questions on essays, time-management skills, among others, during their time at MNCS. The MNCS model was so successful among students in grades 7–12 that an MNCS elementary school for grades K–6 opened in phd thesis, August 2013.
The elementary school serves 85 kids from 13 surrounding school districts. While these younger students are not in a one-room schoolhouse like their older counterparts, the elementary school employs a pedagogy inspired by the upper school’s project-based curriculum. Despite the fact that it’s only been a couple of years since the elementary school opened, there is already a waiting list for several grades. Essay Introduction Paragraph! How is Minnesota New Country School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? MNCS has model the effective implementation of project-based learning, an instructional method that gets students actively involved in problem-solving activities, contextualizes knowledge, and phd thesis, encourages students to pursue their passions. Teaching! Project-based learning has been the phd thesis word, subject of considerable research. Many believe that it is an questions, effective way to reduce dropout rates among students frustrated with the apparent disconnect between curricula and phd thesis, real-world applications. In addition to a mockingbird paragraph, its demonstration of the effectiveness of project-based learning, MNCS has made a significant impact on the ed space by popularizing the co-op teaching model, in word, which teachers decide how to allocate a lump sum of money they receive to pay for salaries and list to start, school expenses, a practice that affords them ownership over the school’s operations. The Gates Foundation has, drawing on the MNCS example, since invested millions of dollars in creating schools with similar structures.
Richard Wright Public Charter School for Journalism and Media Arts. How is the Richard Wright innovative? Richard Wright Public Charter School for Journalism and Media Arts was founded in 2011 and serves students from grades 8 to word, 12, focusing on producing “well-versed media contributors.” As such, the school’s main concern is on written and spoken communication. Its students receive a classics-based education with specific attention to Latin and Greek texts — the first of its kind in a high-risk area of Washington, D.C. In addition, students take foreign language classes, as well as direct their own learning in journalism-related programs that include writing, television production, radio production, vocal recording, video, and filmmaking. This media learning is put to ip address assignment, practice outside the classroom as well, with students participating in projects like reporting on the Mother’s Day Tea at the White House or creating moving public service announcements for National Save our Sons Night. The normal academic schedule is augmented with after-school activities — generally an hour for “academic camps” and an hour for media programs.
The former is a period in which kids receive extra instruction in core academic subjects and think about their goals for that day; the latter involves researching, writing, and producing media-related projects. Students also get laptops when they enroll for phd thesis word, use both at home and in their classes. The school serves an overwhelming majority of madness essay, students of color (about 99.1 percent of whom are African-American); most come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Without this charter, these kids may lack access to production facilities like those at phd thesis word, Richard Wright, and the school’s highly specialized programs give them the ability to the yellow wallpaper madness, learn marketable media skills. What are the outcomes of Richard Wright’s innovation? Since the Richard Wright school was only founded in word, 2011, it is still too early to determine whether the school truly prepares its graduates to essay writing, be knowledgeable media creators and producers. While the District of Columbia Public Charter School Board ranks Richard Wright in its second tier of charter schools (meaning that it meets education requirements but is phd thesis word, not classified as high-achieving), the school’s performance rose 12 percentage points in a single year, demonstrating a commitment to improvement. Some of the to kill a mockingbird, measurements that affect its achievement designation are based on phd thesis, students’ test scores, and with 64.3 percent of the inaugural student body having a reading proficiency that is at least three grade levels below that expected for their age, the school is only starting to make up for the unfortunate learning deficits these students have faced for years. The D.C. Public Charter School data did show promising progress for teaching writing, the school, too.
In the 2013–2014 school year, 96.5 percent of ninth graders were on word, track to graduate, and list of words, 86.9 percent of students had re-enrolled in phd thesis word, the school, signaling that students are motivated to come back to Richard Wright, which is setting them on dr.jekyll hyde compare, a solid path toward academic and phd thesis word, professional success. As for paragraph, learning essential media skills, the students’ media prowess has allowed them to be guests at the White House several times, whether they cover an event as press with fellow reporters or they attend educational programs like a Careers in Film Symposium. Phd Thesis Word! How is Richard Wright’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? Text-based, audio, and video media are not going away. It's important to develop a sense of media literacy as early as possible, and providing these skills — in combination with a traditional academic grounding — to underserved and underrepresented populations will help to ip address, increase a multiplicity of viewpoints within the next generation of phd thesis, journalists and consumers of paragraph, media.
Richard Wright is the first public charter school to make this its explicit mission; and it aims not only to teach students journalistic literacy, but how to use media in an ethical, intelligent, and responsible way. How is the STAR School innovative? The STAR (Service to phd thesis, All Relations) School opened in 2001 to serve students who are members of the local rural community and Navajo Nation. It is the first public charter school to exist completely “off the grid”; it is powered by the yellow wallpaper essay 245 solar panels and two wind generators. Phd Thesis Word! The school produces enough energy to provide phone service, Internet, and electricity without having to teaching essay, rely on phd thesis word, outside sources.
In fact, STAR Charter cannot rely on external support because of its location bordering the country’s largest American Indian reservation. The school, which also has a “Farm to School” program, practices a place-based curriculum that is writing 3rd grade, grounded in the Navajo tradition of valuing relationships — among the students themselves, with the environment, and with the local community. What are the outcomes of the phd thesis word, STAR School’s innovation? In 2012, the U.S. To Kill Essay Introduction Paragraph! Department of Education recognized STAR Charter as a Green Ribbon School for promoting and practicing sustainability. As the only school in the district, it provides an education to about 130 students in the region who wouldn’t otherwise have access to formal pre-K to eighth-grade learning. The school’s predominantly low-income student body has a 96 percent attendance rate and meets the phd thesis word, state’s annual measurable objectives in reading and math. How is the STAR School’s innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The STAR School provides an example of how even a lack of infrastructure needn’t prevent students from receiving an education.
The school’s ability to the yellow madness essay, generate its own power means it can direct funds toward instruction rather than operational costs. In the process, the school makes the concept of sustainability an inherent component of the learning environment and curriculum. The school demonstrates what it means to be resourceful — literally and figuratively — and in the process, cultivates environmental awareness and phd thesis word, commitment among students. What surprising discovery did Noodle find when researching STAR School? The STAR School’s students will soon expand their environmental awareness beyond the planet Earth. Kiril Kirkov, a Coconino Community College student, received funding from the NASA Space Grant Program at Northern Arizona University to list of words to start statement, bring the elementary school students to phd thesis, the CCC campus twice a month. There, they will be able to work with astronomy experts and use scientific equipment to study the stars.
Grades K–12 (elementary, middle, and high schools) Boston, MA; Camden, NJ; Newark, NJ; New York, NY; Rochester, NY; Troy, NY. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay! How are Uncommon Schools innovative? Uncommon Schools are a three-state network of 44 charter schools geared toward closing the achievement gap for low-income students. To this end, Uncommon Schools aim to phd thesis, help their students graduate from college — and that is why higher education is spoken about early and often, and an appreciation of it is seamlessly integrated into the school structure. For instance, classrooms are named after universities. There are Columbia, Rice, and Williams classrooms, among others; and students learn the songs and histories of their respective classroom schools. At Excellence Girls Charter School, one of the Uncommon Schools in New York and the subject of an earlier Noodle spotlight, students begin writing practice college essays and applications in elementary school. The network’s pedagogical strategies come from the questions on essays, creator of its Taxonomy of Effective Teaching Practices project, Doug Lemov.
Lemov wrote Teach Like a Champion, which analyzed the practices and pedagogical methods of high-performing teachers across the United States. Uncommon Schools train their teachers based on Lemov’s findings and philosophy, and the network holds professional development workshops for teachers from various schools across the country. Uncommon Schools seek to inspire scholars who come from phd thesis, underserved backgrounds. The student body at Uncommon Schools is composed of list to start a thesis statement, 97 percent black or [emailprotected] students, and 83 percent of students receive free or reduced-price lunches. These students take part in rigorous academic and social learning. A typical day at Uncommon Schools is word, longer than average (as is the school year). As students enter the building to begin the day, they are greeted with a handshake by school leaders, a practice that fosters a respectful relationship between teachers and students. Afternoons are filled with enriching activities, such as book clubs, musical theater, and capoeira. Classes run late, with some ending at about 4:00 p.m. What are the assignment, outcomes of Uncommon Schools’ innovation?
The goal of Uncommon Schools is for phd thesis word, students — many of whom are from low-income backgrounds — to earn bachelor’s degrees. And Mr. Compare! And the schools have made impressive strides toward achieving that goal; in 2013, 100 percent of the schools’ graduating seniors were accepted into four-year colleges. Between 2004–2012, 80 percent of alumni were in the process of phd thesis, earning bachelor’s degrees. Additionally, Uncommon students tend to questions on essays, have higher scores than low-income — and in some cases, higher-income — peers in their states and cities. For instance, 34 percent of Uncommon students in phd thesis word, New York City scored at and mr. hyde and contrast, the Proficient or Advanced level in English and Language Arts (ELA) on phd thesis word, their 2015 New York State Exams, as compared to the state average of questions on essays, 31 percent and city average of 30 percent. In fact, Leadership Prep Ocean Hill tied for first place in the state for its students’ math scores on phd thesis word, state tests, with 100 percent of third- and fourth-graders scoring Proficient. Graduates of Uncommon Schools in New York City have gone on to a number of selective colleges and universities, including Dartmouth, Vanderbilt, and Lafayette. The success of the Uncommon Schools’ approach is not limited to New York. In New Jersey, a higher percentage of students at North Star Academy succeed on their NJASK state assessment than their peers across the state — 91 percent of questions, students at North Star qualified as Proficient or Advanced in math, as compared to the 75 percent of the students who achieved one of these levels statewide.
North Star proficiency rates in ELA were also higher than the state average by word 13 percentage points. List! On the four Uncommon Boston campuses, students again scored higher than their peers across the city and state. The most dramatic gains were realized by eighth-graders in math, who earned scores of Advanced or Proficient at word, nearly double the a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph, rate of phd thesis, their peers across the city, and 1.3 times the rate of their peers statewide. How is Uncommon Schools’ innovation relevant to the larger ed space? The 2015 GradNation report, analyzes the country’s high dropout rates, noted that while in most states, 85 percent of middle- and high-income students are graduating high school, that number drops by 15 percent for low-income students. But schools nationwide can learn from Uncommon Schools’ successes: Given that Uncommon students graduate at a rate five times higher than their low-income peers, the network serves as an object lesson in the efficacy of emphasizing college preparation from a young age.
One of the biggest contributions that Uncommon Schools has made to the larger education space is a methodological approach to understanding and creating better teaching practices — a problem whose solution has long been elusive. Using Lemov’s close examination of and mr., pedagogical methods that have proven positive effects, education leaders may develop a better understanding of which practices truly help students thrive. *This link will lead you to the North Star Academy in Newark, NJ, the first Uncommon School in the country. To find Uncommon Schools in phd thesis word, your area, use the Noodle school search.
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Essay On Memory Essays and Research Papers. D for this TOK Essay 4. The traditional TOK diagram indicates four ways of knowing. Propose the inclusion of a fifth way of phd thesis word, knowing selected . from intuition, memory or imagination, and explore the knowledge issues it may raise in two areas of hyde and contrast essay, knowledge. Word count: 1207 Memory is word, a tool people use to process things they come to wallpaper madness essay learn about the world. In psychology memory is described by the term cognitive processes which include perception, thinking, problem solving, memory , language and attention. Cognition , Deductive reasoning , Inductive reasoning 1246 Words | 4 Pages. sTrial Examination History and Memory Essay Stephen Frears 2006 Film The Queen and Tanka Luckins novel The Gates of phd thesis, . Memory consciously represent aspects of history and memory to give the responder a deeper understanding of the ip address events in the texts. The events being the death of phd thesis word, Princess Diana in 1997 and the 75th anniversary of the end of the Great War in 1993. Both composers had a purpose of questions on essays, their texts in which they wanted to portray to phd thesis word their audiences. A Thesis. Stephen Frears being to give audiences. British Royal Family , Cherie Blair , Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 886 Words | 3 Pages.
what research has taught us about why our memories are not always accurate. Memory is believed to phd thesis be an active process which . Questions. selects information to phd thesis word encode and list of words to start store ready for retrieval if needed. From encoding through to phd thesis retrieval memories can be constructed and reconstructed, showing why memories are not always accurate. This essay will aim to explore and evaluate the the yellow research of memory . Phd Thesis. It will aim to provide evidence to support the theory that our memories are not always accurate, and to wallpaper madness essay offset. Alzheimer's disease , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 1558 Words | 5 Pages.
False memories have been defined as either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the way they . happened (Park, 2012). This topic opens many doors for research and raises questions about the reliability and phd thesis word susceptibility of people’s memory . Memory is the mental faculty of retaining and recalling past experiences. A repressed memory is one that is to kill, retained in the subconscious mind, where one is not aware of phd thesis word, it but where it can still affect both conscious. Amnesia , Cognitive psychology , Confabulation 1475 Words | 4 Pages. Essay : how an on essays, event is represented impacts how we come to understand it better ? Thesis Statement: > Ones emotional journey through an . experience from a past historical event often shapes individuals into how they are in word the future INTRO : Ones emotional journey through an experience from a past historical event often shapes individuals into how they are in the future. The emotional impact of these events can be representing and recorded in ip address various ways, such as within the word Smithsonian website. Audience , Audience theory , Emotion 1246 Words | 4 Pages. Memory is our ability to encode, store, retain, and subsequently recall information and experiences in the human brain. Unlike a computer . memory , humans have a cognitive memory system that selectively takes information from the assignment senses and converts it into phd thesis word, meaningful patterns that we store and and mr. hyde essay access later as needed.
These memory patterns, then, form the raw material for thought and phd thesis behavior, which in turn enables you to recognize a friend’s face, ride a bicycle, recollect a trip six flags, and. Cognitive psychology , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 2005 Words | 5 Pages. ?2. Memory Slessor presents memorable ideas through his exploration of paragraph, memories , their ability to word temporarily transcend time, . their relation to of words death and the finality of death. In his poems ‘Five Bells’, and phd thesis word ‘Five Visions of Captain Cook’, Slessor provides the reader insight into his prominent thematic concern of writing 3rd grade, memory's ability to temporarily suspend time and the strength and potent nature of these memories . Slessor also explores concepts of one’s memories of the phd thesis deceased creating a false immortality. Botanical garden , Death , James Cook 1211 Words | 2 Pages.
for being a very simplistic view of on essays, memory . They saw short term memory as a store that had many individual sections inside it. Word. . This was supported by patient KF who had epilepsy, the doctor wanted to try and remedy this by removing his hippocampus. This surgery was done, however instead of fixing his epilepsy, it damaged his short term memory , yet he still had his long term memory intact. In the multi-store model it states that in order to have long term memory , one needs to have gone through the. Alan Baddeley , Baddeley's model of working memory , Hippocampus 950 Words | 3 Pages. How have texts studied in this elective challenged your ways of compare essay, thinking about ‘History and phd thesis Memory ’? Make detailed to your prescribed text and 3rd grade . at least ONE other related text of phd thesis word, your own choosing. “That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of paragraph, all the lessons that history has to teach.” Perhaps in phd thesis word recognising man’s failure to take heed of a mockingbird introduction paragraph, his fellow man, Aldous Huxley was recognising that humans lack the capability to learn vicariously. For in phd thesis history, through. History , James Smithson , Psychology 1178 Words | 4 Pages. Memories “Kang, over here!” Dylan, my best friend, called me when I was looking for my friends after my mother had sent me to the railway . station and left with her “5-years old” car.
Aware of the sound, my eyes immediately darted to him and then the paragraph other chums. Suddenly, a grin of happiness flitted across my face. We had already planned to have a cycling activity at phd thesis the Taman Botani Negara a few days ago as soon as the previous examination ended. And finally the day had come. Using the tickets. Bicycle , Cliff , Cliffs of Moher 866 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Magical Memories. ?Harvey Pearce Elizabeth Baker English 111-FW01 January 24, 2015 Magical Memories The night before Christmas, the smell of warm homemade . To Start Statement. chocolate chip cookies baking for Santa filled the air. Our tree stood so tall and was covered with colorful bows and bright twinkling lights; the fragrance of phd thesis, fresh pine was simply divine.
As the bright beautiful sun began to set, I knew that it wouldn’t be too much longer before Christmas was finally here. Essay. Bedtime came and so did the rain, but I snuggled. Chocolate chip , Chocolate chip cookie , Eye color 1103 Words | 4 Pages. In contrast to documented evidence, personal history or memory inevitably reflects a one sided biased view of phd thesis word, history. Evaluate the ip address proposition . in relation to your prescribed text and at word least one related text. Personal history or memory inevitably reflects a one sided biased view of to kill essay paragraph, history. However through an analysis of word, multiple texts it can be seen that neither documented evidence (history) or personal memories are completely reliable.
Despite this, a study of the to kill introduction paragraph poems “In Thai Binh (Peace). Alzheimer's disease , Denise Levertov , Emotion 974 Words | 3 Pages. ?Glenda Echegyen ESOL 840 Unit 2 3 12/03/2014 My Biggest Childhood Memory . No matter how much suffering you went through, you never want . to let go of those memories Haruki Murakami. As Murakami said, there is a memory in my mind that even though it causes pain in my heart to remember, it is something I don't want to let go. This event in my life occured when I was 5 years old and lasted until I was a teenager. In June 1995, a month before my 5th birthday , I woke up in phd thesis my bed and found a letter. 2006 albums , Debut albums , Family 944 Words | 3 Pages.
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Throughout D’Augiar’s episodic novel, The Longest Memory , set in America’s Southern States during the 1800‘s, the reader is exposed to the . brutal treatment of slaves and the emotional, physical and mental turmoil which slaves experience. Ip Address. Through the inclusion of anecdotal recounts from the slave characters such as Whitechapel, Cook and phd thesis word Chapel D’Augiar heavily enhances our understanding of the immorality of slavery, however also through non-slave Lydia. The reader is exposed to and mr. hyde compare distinctive different. Abuse , Human rights , Religion 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Memory Box At one point in my life I was in the business of collecting. If it meant anything at all to me I found a way to add to phd thesis my endless . pile of other items I had accrued over the yellow madness the years. Each item marked a specific period of my life. Phd Thesis. I have had fascinations with everything from magic to stamp collecting and my basement is evidence of questions, this. I have accumulated so much “stuff” over the years that at first it seems difficult to narrow the important things down to just 4 or 5. However, there. Apple Inc. , Ayn Rand , IPod 1641 Words | 4 Pages. Outline of Memory MEMORY The ability to retain information over time –Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, . and recovers (retrieves) MEMORY The ability to retain information over phd thesis time –Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and of words a thesis statement recovers (retrieves) THREE STAGES/TYPES OF MEMORY •SENSORY •SHORT TERM (WORKING) •LONG TERM THREE PROCESSES •ENCODING •STORING •RETRIEVING Stages of phd thesis word, Memory •SENSORY (IN RAW FORM) –The first stage of on essays, memory –Stores an exact copy of incoming.
Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 701 Words | 5 Pages. our MEMORY . A flow of events must occur before we can say “I remember”. Memory is “an active system that receives, stores, . organizes, alters and recovers information” (Lieberman, 2004). In general, memory acts like a computer. Incoming information will be encoded, it is like typing data into a computer. Next, stored the information that we typed into the system. Finally, memories must be retrieved in phd thesis order to be useful. According to Parente and madness Stapleton (1993), they stated that “ memory is a.
Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 831 Words | 3 Pages. In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the . outside world to reach our senses in phd thesis the forms of chemical and the yellow madness physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into word, the encoding process. Ip Address Assignment. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over word periods of time.
Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that. Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 1409 Words | 5 Pages. Psych101: Memory “If we lose our memory , we lose ourselves. Dr.jekyll And Mr.. Forgetting is one of the phd thesis symptoms of death. Without . memory we cease to be human beings.” - Ivan Klima These were the words said by the famous Czech novelist and playwright, Ivan Klima, during his speech at a conference in Lahti, Finland in 1990. Memories tell the story of to kill essay introduction paragraph, our lives. From the moment we first met our bestfriend, our first day in school, our first heartbreak, ourglorious victories, our failures, our special time with. Amnesia , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 897 Words | 3 Pages. Memory ‘ Memory ’ labels a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we retain information and reconstruct past experiences, . usually for phd thesis, present purposes.
Memory is one of the most important ways by which our histories animate our current actions and experiences. Most notably, the human ability to conjure up long-gone but specific episodes of our lives is both familiar and puzzling, and is a key aspect of personal identity. The Yellow Wallpaper Madness. Memory seems to be a source of knowledge. We remember experiences and. Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 1843 Words | 3 Pages. are many things to help this common problem. By studying what Ive learned about memory and learning, I will use this information to assess my . own study habits and phd thesis word make them more effective. Encoding information in short-term memory is stored according to the way it sounds, the way it looks, or its meaning.
Verbal information is encoded by sound, even if it is written rather than heard. Visual encoding in short-term memory is greater than encoding by sound. To help with studying, a student should look. Declarative memory , Educational psychology , Hippocampus 1092 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Computer Memory Section #41930 Carmine Didominic March 21, 2013 March 21, . On Essays. 2013 Over the last seventy years computers have been around for our personal use either for entertainment, business, or school purposes. Today, the majority of the world has had a computer or owns one. Phd Thesis. Computers have drastically changed its look ever since they were produced in the 1940’s. Many types of software has been developed to the yellow wallpaper essay keep computers.
Computer , Computer data storage , Computer memory 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Watson conceived that self-analysis failed to recognize the framework of function of consciousness throughout the phd thesis word first 50 years of ip address, psychology (Wozniak, . 1997). Watson recognized that the phd thesis only true facts that followed from the self analysis were in teaching writing 3rd grade memory , response time, and bodily modification. Watson believed in the flavor of philosophy. The zeitgeist in psychology had adapted and word there was discontent between both structuralism and functionalism (Wozniak, 1997). Psychology was prepared for modification. Cognition , Cognitive science , Consciousness 1529 Words | 4 Pages. Memory Fundamentals processes relating to memory 1. Encoding – the process by which information is initially recorded in . the essay writing 3rd grade memory 2. Storage – the maintenance of phd thesis, material saved in the memory 3. Retrieval –when the material in the memory storage is located, brought into awareness and 3rd grade used. Three kinds of phd thesis word, memory storage systems ( Memory Storehouses) 1. Sensory Memory – the list to start initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant 2. Word. Short-term memory – which. Alzheimer's disease , Amnesia , Declarative memory 1386 Words | 6 Pages.
Essay Memories from a Sinking Ship. Memories from a sinking ship The chapters “ Memories of essay 3rd grade, a sinking ship” and “The forgotten” is about a boy named Roy who lives . alone with his mother because his father is dead. It’s all about Roys’ life and it’s from his point of view. In the first chapter “ Memories of word, a sinking ship” Roy stays at his grandmother in Chicago. Ip Address. The first time the mother leaves Roy with the phd thesis word grandmother, she is out with a rich boyfriend in Mexico. The second time she leaves him she’s going to see a friend who had a. 1094 Words | 3 Pages.
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Memories are better than diamonds and nobody can steal them from you” by phd thesis, Rodman Philbrick, The Last Book in the Universe. If we think about what life is made up, we can say that memories build life. We save all the wallpaper madness important and happy events that occurred in our lives as well as the most sad and worst moments. Phd Thesis. It is said that the brain is the. Episodic memory , Hippocampus , Implicit memory 2479 Words | 8 Pages. ? Memory summary Daniela Holguin PSY/211 June 9, 2014 Bonnie Bartol Memory summary In this course we are . learning the of words to start a thesis process of phd thesis, memory . The memory is set up in three different stages; each individual stage retains information a little bit longer than the prior to of words to start it. The first step in the memory storage is Sensory store, in which it processes and phd thesis consists in all the information it receives to be received into the sensory system of your body. This information is stored less than. Chronology , Economics , Long-term memory 368 Words | 2 Pages. QUESTION: The strength of memory and therefore the ease with which it is ip address, retrieved (remembered) seems to depend on the strength and . processing of initial input.
Present a detailed discussion of the statement using your knowledge of the structure of science and any example from the Chemistry, Physics or Biology Teaching and Learning Activity. Memory is considered to be a social process and can be defined as the behavioral change that may be triggered by an experience as well as encoding, storing. Long-term memory , Memory , Memory processes 2054 Words | 6 Pages. Briar Rose Essay To understand the universality of human nature we can explore common traits and characteristics, many of which are . prevalent in Jane Yolen's novel, Briar Rose. Yolen produces a very powerful and complex novel exploring the emotional aftermath of the Holocaust. Phd Thesis. Yolen has intertwined the and mr. compare and contrast essay facts of the phd thesis word Holocaust with the story of Briar Rose, a traditional fairy tale, in order to the yellow wallpaper madness speak about the Holocaust without having to go into the historical detail of the experience. Yolen whose. Fairy tale , Family , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages. Human Memory 207, Do Flashbulb memories differ from other forms of memory ? Our past is preserved in word a . variety of wallpaper essay, memories of very different nature (Salaman, 1970) There. Cognitive psychology , Declarative memory , Emotion and memory 2317 Words | 7 Pages. They never remove the phd thesis purse from under Sook's bed unless making a deposit or a ten-cent withdrawal on Saturdays.
She allots Buddy ten cents to go to the . picture show Christmas Memory Everyone has memory of the questions on essays holidays that sticks out in their mind. Some are have sad memories of the loss of a loved one. Word. Some have happy memories like the on essays . each Saturday. Sook has never visited one before, but asks Buddy to go instead to come back and tell she the stories of the picture show. After dinner, Sook and. A Christmas Carol , A Christmas Memory , ABC Stage 67 864 Words | 4 Pages. Memory and phd thesis the Different Types of Memory. Memory and the Different Types of Memory Abstract This paper explains the differences between the each type of . memory . Research will also show the the yellow roles of each memory system and how they pertain to memory . Word. This paper will concentrate on each area of memory and will explain the essay introduction problems of forgetting.
Memory and the Different Types of Memory Memory can be defined as a “processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information. There are three major processes involved. Interference theory , Long-term memory , Memory 782 Words | 3 Pages. To start with is to understand human memory is a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we reconstruct past experiences and, retain . information usually for present purposes. Memory is one of the word most important ways by which our histories define our current actions and experiences. Most notably, the human ability to conjure up long-gone but specific episodes of our lives is both familiar and puzzling, and is a key aspect of personal identity. Memory seems to be a source of knowledge. We remember. Cognition , Concept map , Educational technology 1934 Words | 5 Pages. were, I probably would have that severe scarring and that could have weighed heavily in my life in on essays the future and phd thesis word how I saw it.
I’ve realized that one . little mishap can have a lasting impression whether it’s physical scars, mental scars or just memories . I’m glad I do have that family support and love because I now use that when it comes to my children and to kill a mockingbird introduction their upbringing. I can only hope they will carry that on like I did. To this day, I like to look back at that time when I was a child and. English-language films , Family , Fear 788 Words | 2 Pages. Psychology Essay How essential is memory to us? Why is this term highly verifying to people in the world?
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Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an phd thesis, author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of teaching essay writing 3rd grade, daily life, recollections, and phd thesis word reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . Madness Essay. certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements.
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? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and word the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is dr.jekyll and mr. hyde and contrast, a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in word addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to wallpaper madness essay protect his family. Phd Thesis Word. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind.
Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an wallpaper madness essay, . essay supported with reference to phd thesis word the academic literature that answers the ip address following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. ?SENIOR MEMORY BOOK ENGLISH IV During this school year you will write a series of essays FOR CREDIT which will culminate in . Phd Thesis. a book known as the Senior Memory Book.
It will consist of your memories and thoughts from your entire life. This Senior Memory Book will be due for 150 points of EXTRA CREDIT in late April. NO STUDENT IS EXEMPT FROM THE MONTHLY ESSAYS which will count towards quarterly grades. Dr.jekyll And Mr. And Contrast Essay. ONLY STUDENTS DESIRING EXTRA CREDIT FOR THE 4TH QUARTER WILL TURN IN A COMPLETED BOOK. ALL.
Book , College , Friendship 641 Words | 2 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by phd thesis word, a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 3rd Grade. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for word, upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration.
Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the teaching Rights of Man and word of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to to kill a mockingbird essay introduction paragraph help you write an phd thesis, acceptable academic- level essay . . This is questions on essays, not the only way to organize and develop an word, essay . And Mr. Hyde And Contrast Essay. It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of phd thesis word, you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.
? Easy as 1,2,3. 1. Read a few of our sample essays on your topic 2. Develop your own ideas 3. Your paper will practically write itself . Essay on A Childhood Memories I forced the door open and was blinded by sunlight and dr.jekyll and mr. hyde compare and contrast choked from all of the word dust that had settled in the room. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Paragraph. As I entered, the phd thesis word wooden floors slightly give way. To Kill Introduction Paragraph. Rusty nails poked out of the floorboards and old water stains have made designs on the walls. Phd Thesis Word. Woods were really rusty and at any given day this house would collapse. Claustrophobia , Fear 1742 Words | 4 Pages. Identity Reside? : Tommy Vladek Personal identity theory is a theory that questions our existence philosophically: it asks who we are and how do we know? In . the questions on essays essay “Will Tommy Vladek Survive?” John Perry described a controversial topic on identity by analyzing an essay called The Meeting by Frederik Pohl and C.M.
Konibluth. In the essay there were two boys -Tommy Vladek a destructive boy, who was mentally challenged but healthy-bodied and Sam a normal boy, who had an accident that damaged his body. Bugatti Veyron , Cognition , Hippocampus 2029 Words | 8 Pages. ?Photography what we changes what we remember “Photography brings back the memories again” The best way of reminding old . memories is seeing old photographs which we take those pictures can be sad or of full of joy which can bring smile on your face or bring tears in your eyes. The price of an image should be commensurate with how and where the image was taken. Although there are some phenomena in memory that are poorly understood, it is generally accepted that an item studied as a picture will. A picture is phd thesis, worth a thousand words , Alois Alzheimer , Alzheimer's disease 1206 Words | 4 Pages. ?Psychology Essay 1- ) Outline one theory of assignment, how emotion may affect one cognitive process? This essay will give a short summary . of word, one theory that may affect one cognitive process, in this case memory . First of teaching essay, all the cognitive level of analysis it's how mental processes in phd thesis the brain develops the information. It includes how we take the information from the outside world like daily activities and how we make sense of it but most important what use we make of the information. One theory of how.
Affect , Affective neuroscience , Cognition 696 Words | 2 Pages. The Persistence of Memory by ip address assignment, Salvador Dali is word, a very surreal painting, which at first appears to snapshot of something someone might see if . they were having hallucinations on to kill psychedelic drugs. Everything seems vague and distorted, departed from reality. There are several items that stand out in the painting and lead me to word the conclusion that the main theme of this painting is time. Dr.jekyll. We all worry about time, from first thing in the morning thinking about making it to work on time. Clock , Horology , Meaning of life 720 Words | 4 Pages. Carter Introduction: This essay is word, going to look at how the Multi Store Model of Memory works and writing how it compares with The . Word. Working Memory Model. It will also look at three theories of questions, forgetting (Cue Dependent, Interference and Trace Decay) and phd thesis word show the evidence that supports or criticises the models and theories. The Multi Store Model of the yellow wallpaper madness essay, Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) describes memory as a flowing through system in phd thesis terms of information. The multi store model of memory itself has its fair share.
Decay theory , Interference theory , Long-term memory 2062 Words | 5 Pages. Memory , Thinking, and Intelligence Amy McKenzie Winkle November 7, 2010 Psychology – Mr. Hacker Week 4 Individual Project The human . memory is a very complex phenomenon. Madness. The memory is considered to be a cognitive neuroscience. It is made up of four parts: sensory, short term, working, and long term. Phd Thesis. Many factors impede or enhance the information flow throughout each step of the process. I will also explain proactive and questions retroactive interference in phd thesis word this essay . Dr.jekyll Hyde And Contrast. Finally, I will give you some strategies.
Cognitive psychology , Implicit memory , Long-term memory 785 Words | 3 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and phd thesis Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of essays : Exposition - gives information about hyde compare and contrast various topics to . the reader. Phd Thesis Word. Description - describes in detail characteristics and to kill essay introduction traits. Phd Thesis. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic.
Narrative - tells a story, usually from and mr. compare essay, one person’s viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the phd thesis word story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by compare and contrast essay, someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.
For . Word. example, we speak of and mr. compare, people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in phd thesis your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to teaching essay register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Language and phd thesis Communication 06 January 2010 Keeping the brain young You hear the same complaint all the wallpaper time as people get older: “My memory . is terrible.” Is it all in the mind, or do real changes take place in the brain with age to justify such grumbling? The depressing answer is that the brain’s cells, the neurons, die and decline in efficiency with age.
Professor Arthur Shimamura, of the phd thesis University of California at Berkeley, says there are three main ways in which mental function changes.
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