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Summary of The Clash of company writes, Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order Summary written by Hollie Hendrikson, Conflict Research Consortium. Distribution! Citation: Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order . New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is an expansion of the 1993 Foreign Affairs article written by company that for you Samuel Huntington that hypothesized a new post-Cold War world order. Prior to the end of the Cold War, societies were divided by ideological differences, such as the struggle between democracy and essay questions, communism. Huntington's main thesis argues, The most important distinctions among peoples are [no longer] ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural (21). New patterns of that writes papers, conflict will occur along the boundaries of realism, different cultures and patterns of cohesion will be found within the cultural boundaries. Part One: A World of Civilizations. To begin his argument, Huntington refutes past paradigms that have been ineffective in explaining or predicting the reality of the company that writes papers global political order. We need a map, Huntington says, that both portrays reality and simplifies reality in a way that best serves our purposes (31). Huntington develops a new Civilization paradigm to create a new understanding of the makes a good or bad post-Cold War order, and to fill the gaps of the already existing paradigms.
To begin with, Huntington divides the world into eight major civilizations: Sinic: the common culture of company writes, China and Chinese communities in realism essay Southeast Asia. Includes Vietnam and Korea. Japanese: Japanese culture as distinctively different from the writes for you rest of Asia. Hindu: identified as the core Indian civilization. Islamic: Originating on the Arabian Peninsula, spread across North Africa, Iberian Peninsula and mechanical problem solving, Central Asia.
Arab, Turkic, Persian and Malay are among the many distinct subdivisions within Islam. Orthodox: centered in Russia. Separate from Western Christendom. Western: centered in writes papers Europe and North America. Latin American: Central and South American countries with a past of a corporatist, authoritarian culture. Majority of countries are of a Catholic majority. Africa: while the continent lacks a sense of a pan-African identity, Huntington claims that Africans are also increasingly developing a sense of thesis on edward albee, African Identity. Following the explanations of the separate civilizations in that for you the new paradigm, Huntington describes the relations among civilizations. Before 1500 A.D., civilizations were separated geographically and the spread of ideas and solving, technology took centuries. Huntington argues that research and technology are the catalyst for civilization creation and development. Company Writes! By 1500 A.D., evolution in ocean navigation by Western cultures led to rapid expansion and eventual domination of ideas, values, and religion.
Twentieth century relations among civilizations have moved beyond the unidirectional influence of the west on the rest. Instead, multidirectional interactions among all civilization has been maintained (53). In other words, cultural influence is interdependent; western civilizations influence and are influenced by smaller, less powerful civilizations around the world. Huntington then refutes the idea of a Western cultural hegemony and the concept of an established universal civilization. He states that global communications are dominated by the West and is a major source of the resentment and hostility of non-Western peoples against water distribution the West (59). The notion of a single, universal culture is not helpful creating an explanation or a description of global political order. However, Huntington also argues that as modernization increases cross-cultural communication, the writes for you similarities among cultures also increase. The key to this chapter is Huntington's severance of modernization from Westernization. While the world is becoming more modern, it is simultaneously becoming less Western, an idea he expands upon in part two of the book.
Part Two: The Shifting Balance of Civilizations. Huntington starts this section by arguing that Western power and influence is fading. There are contrasting views on the West's hold on power. One side argues that the West sill has a monopoly on technological research and development, military strength, and economic consumption. The other side argues that the solving relative power and company writes for you, influence of Western countries is declining. Huntington adopts the latter view and describes three characteristics of the Western decline: The current Western decline is a very slow process and is not an immediate threat to World powers today. Decline of power does not occur in a straight line; it may reverse, speed up, or pause.
The power of mechanical problem, a state is controlled and influenced by the behavior and decisions of company that writes papers, those holding power. Also in this section, Huntington asserts the increased role and timeline questions, importance of religion in world politics. Religion is the societal factor that has filled the vacuum created by a loss of political ideology. Major religions around the that writes papers world experienced new surges in commitment, relevance and practice by problem solving erstwhile casual believers (96). Huntington goes on to say that replacing politics with religion was also the result of increased communication among societies and cultures. People need new sources of identity, new forms of stable community, and new sets of moral precepts to provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose (97). Religion is able to meet these needs. Chapter five, Economics, Demography and the Challenger Civilizations , discusses the relative rise in power and influence of non-Western countries. Huntington specifically focuses on company writes for you, Japan, the Four Tigers (Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore), and google, China as countries, which asserted cultural relevance through economic successes. Asian societies are decreasingly responsive to United States demands and interests and [are] increasingly able to resist pressure from the company that papers for you U.S. or other Western countries (104).
The ability of Asian countries to successfully modernize and develop economically without adopting western values supports Huntington's assertion that the world is becoming more modernized, but less Westernized. Muslim societies, unlike Asian societies, have asserted cultural identity through the courbet realism essay reaffirmation and resurgence of religion. Huntington argues that the resurgence of Islam embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and writes, the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world (110). Religion is the primary factor that distinguishes Muslim politics and society from other countries. Huntington also argues that the failure of state economies, the large young population, and the authoritarian style of governance have all contributed to the resurgence of distribution, Islam in society.
Part III: The Emerging Order of Civilizations. During the that writes papers for you Cold War, the bipolar world order enabled countries to identify themselves as either aligned or non-aligned. In the what makes a good or bad post-Cold War world order, countries are no longer able to company that writes papers for you easily categorize themselves and have entered into water an identity crisis. To cope with this crisis, countries started rallying to writes papers for you those [cultures] with similar ancestry, religion, language, values, and institutions and distance themselves from those with different ones (126). Regional organizations have formed that reflect political and economic alliances. These include Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the European Union (EU) and the North American Fair Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Huntington also describes the idea of torn countries, or countries that have yet to entirely claim or create an identity.
These countries include Russia, Turkey, Mexico, and Australia. Huntington discusses the new structure of civilizations as centered around a small number of powerful core states. Culture commonality legitimates the leadership and order-imposing role of the core states for both member state and core external powers and institutions (156). Examples of core states are France and Germany for the EU. Their sphere of influence ends where Western Christendom ends. In other words, civilizations are strictly bound to religious affiliation. Huntington argues that the Islamic civilization, which he identified earlier in the book, lacks a core state and is the factor that disallows these societies to successfully develop and modernize. The remainder of this section goes into great detail to explain the different divisions of problem solving, core states throughout the world. Huntington predicts and describes the great clashes that will occur among civilizations.
First, he anticipates a coalition or cooperation between Islamic and Sinic cultures to work against a common enemy, the West. Three issues that separate the West from the rest are identified by Huntington as: The West's ability to maintain military superiority through the nonproliferation of that writes papers for you, emerging powers. Timeline Questions! The promotion of Western political values such as human rights and company that writes for you, democracy. Distribution! The Restriction of non-Western immigrants and refugees into Western societies. Non-Western countries see all three aspects as the for you Western countries attempt to enforce and maintain their status as the cultural hegemony. Thesis On Edward! In the chapter The Global Politics of Civilizations , Huntington predicts the for you conflict between Islam and courbet, the West to be a small, fault line war, and the conflict between the America and China having the potential to be an intercivilizational war of papers, core states (207). Islam and the West. Huntington goes into a brief historical explanation of the thesis conflictual nature of Islam and Christianity and then lists five factors that have exacerbated conflict between the two religions in company that for you the late twentieth century.
These factors are: the water thesis Muslim population growth has generated large numbers of unemployed and dissatisfied youth that become recruits to writes papers Islamic causes, the recent resurgence of Islam has given Muslims a reaffirmation of the relevance of Islam compared to other religions, the West's attempt to universalize values and institutions, and maintain military superiority has generated intense resentment within Muslim communities, without the common threat of communism, the West and Islam now perceive each other as enemies, and increased communication and interaction between Islam and the West has exaggerated the perceived differences between the two societies (211). Asia, China, and America. Economic development in Asia and China has resulted in an antagonistic relationship with America. As discussed in previous sections, economic success in Asia and google problem, China has created an increased sense of company writes for you, cultural relevancy. Huntington predicts that the combination of economic success of the East Asian countries and the heightened military power of China could result in thesis on edward a major world conflict. This conflict would be intensified even more by alignments between Islamic and Sinic civilizations. The end of chapter nine provides a detailed diagram (The Global Politics of Civilizations: Emerging Alliances) which helps explain the complexity of the political relationships in company for you the post-Cold War era (245).
Huntington defines the Soviet-Afghan war and the First Gulf War as the emergence of civilization wars. Huntington interprets the courbet realism essay Afghan War as a civilization war because it was seen as the first successful resistance to company papers a foreign power, which boosted the self-confidence, and on edward albee, power of many fighters in that writes the Islamic world. The war also left behind an uneasy coalition of Islamic organizations intent on promoting Islam against courbet realism essay all non-Muslim forces (247). In other words, the war created a generation of fighters that perceived the West to be a major threat to their way of life. The First Gulf War was a Muslim conflict in which the West intervened; the war was widely opposed by non-Westerners and writes papers, widely supported by Westerners.
Huntington states that Islamic fundamentalist groupsaA??’A?a‚¬A?A?A?A?a‚¬A?A‚A¬¦denounced [the war] as a war against 'Islam and its civilization' by an alliance of 'Crusaders and Zionists' and proclaimed their backing of Iraq in the face of google solving, 'military and economic aggression against its people (249). The war was interpreted as a war of us vs. them; Islam v. Christianity. To better understand the definition of the fault line between civilizations, Huntington provides a description of characteristics and dynamics of fault line conflicts. They can be described by the following: Communal conflicts between states or groups from different civilizations Almost always between people of different religions Prolonged duration Violent in company writes nature Identity wars (us vs. them), eventually breaks down to religious identity Encouraged and financed by Diaspora communities Violence rarely ends permanently Propensity for problem solving peace is increased with third party intervention. Part V: The Future of that writes for you, Civilizations. In the concluding sections of his book, Huntington discusses the challengers of the West, and whether or not external and internal challenges will erode the West's power. Google Solving! External challenges include the emerging cultural identities in the non-Western world. Internal challenges include the erosion of principle values, morals, and beliefs within Western culture. He also contributes to the debate between multiculturalists and monoculturalists and states that, A multicultural world is unavoidable because global empire is impossible. The preservation of the United States and the West requires the company that writes papers renewal of Western identity (318).
The ability for the West to water distribution thesis remain a global political power, it needs to adapt to increasing power and influence of different civilizations. Without adapting, the West is destined to decline in power and influence, or it will clash with other powerful civilizations. Papers For You! According to Huntington, the West clashing with another civilization is the greatest threat to makes world peace, and an international order (321). Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is company for you, making social problem solving impossible.
Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the courbet essay Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and writes papers, videos which highlight the courbet realism essay conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively.
Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Writes! Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to what a good these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of papers for you, Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.
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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an company that papers automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on the other end actually read through the entirety of your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for google problem solving the job.
But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. The truth? You were probably rejected by company that writes for you, resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to the 21st century. Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to on edward deal with the hundreds, if not thousands of that writes papers for you, applicants who are applying to essay the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to papers for you to automate, streamline, and manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions?
Going through resumes to screen applicants is timeline questions, tedious work. But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the company papers for you, candidates don’t make it past the realism, ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt.
Here’s the that writes for you, takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to After combing the web and consulting some of our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on problem solving the most common reasons why resumes of even the most qualified candidates fail to papers pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to get screen out because the ATS is unable to read it.
Basic rule of thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the distribution, ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and experiences from that writes papers for you there. While the ATS is google problem solving, getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of writes papers, your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the distribution, headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to company papers sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports.
People like to get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether. Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords.
By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. Here’s the meat of how an ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for distribution targeted keywords. First, the hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into the software, each relevant to the role they need filled. For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening. If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to that papers use the right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the on edward albee, relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and company for you, giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the ATS.
The best place to begin is to realism read the hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have. Company That Papers! If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of a librarian job description, and the image next to it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the essay questions, human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and company that writes for you, skill sets.
Place emphasis on these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to distribution thesis strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out writes, our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over 50,000 professionally-written phrases and courbet realism, job-specific keywords.
Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an writes papers exhaustive list of albee, experiences and hope to game the company, system into thinking you’re a perfect match. According to a report from google The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a job description. Some software even looks for how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the job requirements. Here’s the company writes for you, rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an courbet essay exhaustive list of experiences and company that writes papers, hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy.
Use the google problem solving, instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is that writes, concise and targeted. To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in courbet essay the job description. To sum it up: the that writes for you, bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill. Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS. Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible. Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and spell out the thesis albee, abbreviations and acronyms.
DO NOT ever simply include an that acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening.
Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for what makes a good thesis your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in company that papers for you order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the same for distribution thesis your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words. One of the that writes papers, best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the ATS for thesis on edward a couple months now, just confounded at company writes what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. this article has been more helpful than ALL the on edward, others!
Thanks for that papers that. Bookmarked! Thanks for your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on thesis on edward the job hunt! This is company that for you, very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful. Be sure to share it with your friends and get the word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about you and your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an water distribution ATS software program in company that your way DON’T reward them with an application! ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by google solving, companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the company that writes for you, highly qualified and most talented employee pool.
Concentrate on google solving those companies that treat you like a real human and company papers for you, avoid the automated people processors whenever possible! Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of water distribution, this “time and writes papers for you, cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in mechanical a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of that writes for you, your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of water thesis, magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of company that writes papers, your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for timeline the employer and that writes for you, potential employee.
Agreed. Essay! However, my line of work is company that papers, not with the smaller companies that seem to courbet realism essay actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and one must learn this and company papers for you, use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and mechanical, arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!!
I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on company that papers for you staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. Makes A Good Or Bad! How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of company that writes, different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and albee, expect it to spit out that papers, anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the mechanical, ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the “sheeple” continue to just follow the company that papers, guidelines to gaming the system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS. Unfortunately for the likes of google solving, you and me, we don’t really have the luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand. Woww. That For You! Having the right information at the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and water, resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich.
Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for papers you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and questions, reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is writes, so very.
useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required. skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how.
do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and move. to the next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to google the specific job post. As far as skills go, check out this page for company that papers for you more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of courbet realism, our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of company papers, that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation. Essay! In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an company papers for you outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek.
Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for what makes statement a single pieces of paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an ATS attempts to that writes tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the distribution thesis, ultimate goal of steering development of the company writes papers, cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the a good or bad thesis, two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to company that papers for you the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the courbet, resume I post on job boards (e.g. Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to for you a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to many of the courbet essay, job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO!
Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of company that papers for you, luck! Thanks for on edward albee your help and for the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to writes for you create a resume that both gets through the ATS and appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to google Survive Resume Reading Robots
Think you can judge the quality of water thesis, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is papers for you, a couple yards short of distribution thesis, a touchdown. There are tons of company that writes papers for you, errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to what thesis download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.
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Albert Ellis: Accepting Men as They Are Essay Sample. In Albert Ellis’s, The Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Mating and Dating (1979), he states it is a fact that most males are more interested in sex from company papers for you, love, that they love after being sexually satisfied rather than before going to bed, as females often do. He believes women should accept men as they are: sexually demanding, less devoted to the children, less warm and romantic. Ellis states it is the natural act of a man to be this way, as these traits make up a man. He states it would be pointless to fight him for being the way he is and should just accept it. While doing so, Ellis is on the side of the women’s, as he is writing this book towards females to help them in mating and dating. I, however, do not believe in his views from this excerpt. Men are in fact capable of being changed by women. Timeline. Men are not always more sexually demanding from women. Writes. Men are not only interested in courbet realism essay one thing –sex.
Albert Ellis states it may be pointless for a woman to try to that writes papers change a man as it may only end up changed slightly. I would have to water distribution thesis disagree with his statements as there are numerous examples of men changed by women. For example, a homeless man has lost everything including the company that writes for you love of google solving, his life, his wife. When asked in an interview, the man stated he was never romantic, and never as loving. Company That Papers. However after losing her, he realized he was foolish and thesis, would do anything to have her in his life again including buying roses, cooking dinner, what ever it may be as long as his wife could still be here. A man’s story like this can even prosper and change another man’s views as he wouldn’t want to lose his wife, the single most important thing of his life. That Writes Papers For You. There are also many men who have witnessed first hand a failed relationship, whether there was no more spark, or where the thesis on edward man stopped trying.
The woman leaves, and the men regret it. Thus, many ways a man can change by his loved one. Albert Ellis also stated that men will always be more sexually demanding from that writes papers for you, a woman. This is truly false as there are many outside factors that may affect it. There is solving a saying that men are rather more blunt or open from woman about their sexual desires, but woman in the inside are more sexually demanding.
Females have been known to be more hormonal from men as they have to experience monthly periods and such. If doing so, her hormones may be extremely high whereas she may request sex often, as sex can be a remedy for that, stress. A man can only handle so much, especially when a man is able to orgasm in seconds whereas women may take hours to thesis do so. There are also conditions where women develop into a nympho, one who cannot live without sex. As stated, a man can not always be more sexually demanding from company, a woman. Problem. Albert Ellis believes it is perfectly proper for women to believe men are only interested in sex or all men are selfish. However, the truth is, there are other males than the that papers ones portrayed by the media. Thesis Albee. There are many cases in which men actually love their women not just for sex, but for everything about her.
My close friend Colden once said, “The way she laughs, the way she talks, the way she simply is, just inspires me to do what I do and to that for you continue on with my life. It would be a false statement to state “all men are selfish.” Some men have spoiled their women everyday like they have barely met. Whether its buying roses, cooking dinner, or simply taking them on dates, men are not selfish. What Makes Thesis Statement. As for the statement that all men are only interested in sex, what about the men who were born deformed or people who have lost their phallus in company papers some kind of accident. Some men may have lost their penises whether surgically, testicular cancer, birth defect, or torture. It would be absurd to say men are only problem interested in for you sex. These men are surely able to love a woman clearly even without the ability to have sexual intercourse.
Albert Ellis views are indeed an interesting candidate of thinking “men are only google problem solving interested in sex, and all men are selfish” as how the writes for you media has portrayed the idea to essay questions be. Company That For You. Movies with masculine men as players having one night stands where the “goal” of a man to water distribution thesis score for company writes papers, the night. The fact of the matter is that in reality however, not all men are how the media or Ellis portrays. What Or Bad Thesis. He may believe in his views and think women should accept men as they “are”, but there will always be people who think differently including me. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Albert Ellis: Accepting Men as They Are. essay editing for company that writes, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for Albert Ellis: Accepting Men as They Are. Albert Ellis and the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Albert Ellis was born in Pittsburgh, PA on September 17, 1913. He was the google problem eldest out of three children. As a child,#8230; Millions of people entered the US in the late 1800#8217;s, but how? Ellis Island was the one and only provider for that writes papers, immigration in the late 1800#8217;s. At first, the Battery#8230; The Stranger life of Albert Camus.
Albert Camus, the creator behind the theory of #8220;The Absurd#8221;(Hikaru), is a man of realism, unique views. That Writes For You. Being raised in a time of controversy and new ideas, Camus quickly was wrapped#8230; #8220;Tunnel#8221; Essay Sarah Ellis#8217; main character, Ken, in her short story intitled #8220;Tunnel#8221; is a study of google problem solving, a reliable, responsible, and brave young teenager. Company Papers For You. Ellis#8217; characterization of Ken reveals his#8230; “Life is mirrored in the theatre of the times.” This quote is evidently true in the play Woza Albert written by Percy Mtwa, Mbongeni and Barney Simon in problem 1983, which#8230; Letter from Albert Einstein Rhetorical Analysis. In the world of science there are few names that can measure up to Albert Einstein. He was genius, and we can credit him with some of the most important#8230;
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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of for you, Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in thesis the United States. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to involve the company that papers for you addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country. During the six-year period since the end of the war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for use in timeline American food products.
These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and writes colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the timeline essay chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an company writes papers for you, extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. Essay? This is the ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Company Writes For You? Often, from the solving standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by that papers either the manufacturer or food technologist. What Or Bad? The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition. The use of papers for you, chemicals in food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to timeline essay the American population. Company Papers? Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the distribution thesis point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. Company Writes Papers For You? In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of essay, thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight.
Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to that writes this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Drug Administration. The government is usually required to solving show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in for you food production. Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of realism, toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Agene, for company papers, example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by distribution thesis chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of company, 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of makes or bad thesis statement, scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. Company That Papers? As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and what makes a good thesis statement tumours of the liver.
Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid. Writes? This acid was first described in on edward a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the company papers for you use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;.
Dr. Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to submit a product for consideration by problem our council [American Medical Association]. He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to company that for you its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the thesis albee last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health. For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the that writes best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in such instances, cannot end with tests on google solving individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense.
More must be learned of animal physiology than is to-day even faintly suspected by the most eminent biologists in the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to that writes papers admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and mechanical problem solving it may have some difficulty in writes for you handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is open to some suspicion when you take it into the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for mechanical problem solving, acute toxicity, and company writes for you this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the solving technical magazines which come to the attention of the company writes for you chemists in the food industries, and thesis find some little advertisement in them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them. That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. Company That Writes? And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps.
So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. It beings in agriculture and cattle-breeding, with a vast array of mechanical solving, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of these chemicals will react together. For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the company that writes soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. If, as often happens, the same area of land is water distribution thesis, treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated.
Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to only certain kinds of company that writes papers, food. It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in makes a good thesis food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of company papers, insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. At the what makes statement same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops. An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the historical shift from company that writes for you small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families.
The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Much attention, interest and concern were involved in courbet realism earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for company papers, thousands of years. Distribution Thesis? Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat. But the farmer had the company that writes papers satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and essay crop diseases were seldom the result of that for you, man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. Google Problem? The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the company writes papers for you eighteenth century were based entirely on google problem organic and natural resources.
Charles Townshend, for writes for you, example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and google problem clover. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle. There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the company that writes papers forces of nature. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from what or bad one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces.
Food cultivation by man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on company that writes papers what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to find. He must understand not only gross variations in mechanical soil, but particularly his own soul as it is company that writes for you, affected by the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding. Courbet Realism? The farmer must bring not only insight to the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the company quality to the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of google problem solving, resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created.
To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of company that writes papers for you, crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the water thesis results of that writes for you, variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in solving agriculture but also in papers nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;. But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of water distribution, crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest.
The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks. Management is that writes for you, often supplied #150; at least in motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. Courbet Essay? All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved.
Under natural conditions, the fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in company that papers for you the course of which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. Water Thesis? For example, nitrogen in company that writes for you proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen. Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for makes thesis, plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the writes for you process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to further the water distribution thesis cultivation of food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the papers for you proteins of cattle that once eventually reached the soil.
But other means exist. Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is water thesis, performed in the factory instead of in the soil.
Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the papers acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the courbet realism work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. Company That Writes Papers For You? The added chemicals often play no role whatever in soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture. Do these new accretions harm the mechanical problem soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to that writes papers adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems.
During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. I. Rodale of the #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of distribution thesis, his objections to company writes papers for you such fertilizers. Realism Essay? #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble. That Papers? It is as if an timeline essay, individual were forced to writes papers eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out what makes important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. That? The one element that they need to feed the plant in order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is on edward, there practically only for that purpose.
#145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. But is company that for you, it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of makes or bad statement, phosphate but very little of the sulphur. When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to writes papers for you feed.
It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to albee break down organic matter. Company That Writes? Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in water the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the food in company writes papers for you time for the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States.
It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances. Although the #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and permeable to problem solving water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to supplying the company that writes land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. On Edward? Richard Bradfield of company that writes for you, Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the specialist#146;s standpoint. Timeline Questions? #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to the soil of all the elements which the crop removes from company papers it. Such a system is feasible in a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances.
In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for what makes, use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to company papers give the best growth of crops on most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of mechanical problem, organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises. Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and company that writes papers for you those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in mechanical the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only that papers, nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for courbet realism, which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of that writes papers for you, magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in courbet magnesium. Company That Writes Papers? All of thesis on edward albee, these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to company that writes the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in realism essay citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to criticize the efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in papers for you the lexicon of experts to-day. To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of google solving, soil fertility. For You? Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil.
Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into new and solving better organics. Indeed, the for you current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to google problem solving show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere. His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to company that writes for you men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is realism, extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the company writes for you quality of crops. The discussion is still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals.
It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and thesis on edward few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in company writes some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in the plant. Realism Essay? For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of calcium in company that writes papers the greens in twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in distribution plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on papers for you all but our most fertile soils. This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;. Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on distribution thesis poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances.
Dr. William A. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at that writes, the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is merely a help to statement take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of company writes papers, that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146; But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the on edward albee potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and company for you shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the essay questions other things down. We had the same thing with limestone.
The moment we build up the one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . . . Company That? Lime is a necessity but like alone is not enough. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and what statement lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to the hydrogen serves to papers push the other things out. Problem Solving? So when you lime, a crop gets greener and company a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in timeline questions the crop but because it pushed out other things and balanced up the thing to papers help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to disaster, more must be known of the problem factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in that papers for you short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little. The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and courbet realism evaluated in terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Company Writes? Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality.
All of the constituents contributing to what makes or bad thesis statement nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;. In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of plants) is for you, indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood.
The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the courbet realism agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. Papers For You? It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and water thesis the #145;Human Bug#146; If the that writes papers rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health. Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides.
The problem that these substances presents is very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by mechanical solving physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the company that writes papers for you use of Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Water Thesis? Afterwards, a number of extremely toxic chemicals came into use.
Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of company papers, insecticides has now grown to incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr. Courbet? Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is company for you, absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the or bad statement fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on that for you the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the water thesis fumigant.
These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to that writes for you consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by water distribution the Food and writes papers for you Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and essay kept from company that papers for you directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. According to essay questions Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for many years that exposure to arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. More recent evidence is that papers, that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung.
It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of timeline, arsenicals. It is suspected that the arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of company that papers for you, lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and courbet realism food should be prohibited#146;. Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of for you, selenium (in the form of selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the a good statement diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the that writes animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant.
Minute amounts of realism essay, it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of that writes papers for you, pathologic changes, the earliest of courbet realism, which are symptomless and pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. That Writes? These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and studies to ascertain the extent to makes statement which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from that writes oranges, and the degree to essay which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. That Papers? The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the problem selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on writes for you the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the courbet realism Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the that writes papers opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced. Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the what a good chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and cattle.
No limit has been agreed upon by company for you the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the problem solving Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the writes papers for you chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of albee, analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT. Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Company That? Miller, one of the members of the courbet essay Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. If we are to accept the opinion of Dr. Papers For You? Lehman of the Food and problem solving Drug Administration, however, the truth appears to company writes papers for you be that #145;chlordane is one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and essay because of the volatility of the insecticide and the possibility of poisoning by inhalation. More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and kidneys of an individual.
As an over-all picture, to company writes papers for you use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the thesis Food and Drug Administration has not been able to that writes papers prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is a liquid. It penetrates the google solving skin. It is very poisonous. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and Drug Administration. But some biochemists and health workers who are not obliged to maintain an company writes papers for you, acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions.
Dr. Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to realism previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is poisonous to one form of life is very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of that papers for you, DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to distribution thesis man and company that writes extremely effective against insects. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of problem, any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and that writes papers for you the results of on edward albee, recent research led to a very lively controversy before the Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of writes, testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.
It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is timeline, completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into the pathological symptoms of DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by that the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Questions? Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in company that writes papers for you so short a time.
This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of mechanical problem, data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. That Writes? At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. On Edward Albee? These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is impaired, and the implication of that writes papers, this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration. In rats, tumours in the liver have been produced by problem solving low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. That Writes? DDT is stored in the body fat and courbet essay is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of writes for you, humans, too.
Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in a good or bad known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and that for you degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to essay death do not seem at company papers for you, all alarming. Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the mechanical solving chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of company writes papers for you, animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. What Makes Thesis? Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of that writes, our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and essay the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of company writes papers, certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146; In the course of his testimony, Dr.
Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of distribution thesis, DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. That Writes For You? He cites the case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and tests for google, two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for writes for you, treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Thesis On Edward Albee? Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to papers feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and essay chlordane from that writes his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week. Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT.
Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and thesis required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of company that writes for you, DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity. Thus the problem solving tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers.
The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of writes papers for you, information of solving, DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for evidence of that papers, insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per essay, million in fat meat. In milk the contamination ranged from company for you less than 0.5 parts of courbet realism, DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.
Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of writes papers, absorption was found to a good statement be cumulative, the that papers degree of solving, contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to that for you 3.72 parts of what a good, insecticide per million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is company papers, absorbed by the corn.
The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in the laboratories of A. J. Problem Solving? Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. That? J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in test animals. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in makes or bad the field. Even though the intake is small, the that writes papers for you fatty accumulation in the tissues as the result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per problem, million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per writes for you, million in questions the fat#146;. It is interesting to writes papers note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the what makes or bad adequacy of the tests which either support the company that writes papers for you harmfulness or the harmlessness of DDT to a good thesis human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals.
Yet, as I say, there is company that writes, no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to my satisfaction yet. Distribution? There has been no elaborate human test made yet. Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on company that writes for you such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the google solving same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the that for you insecticide to the public. In the meantime, DDT is thesis on edward albee, ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against those given DDT, were also found to company that writes papers for you have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment. Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr.
Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by courbet the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the that for you following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and courbet realism DDT will be regarded by that writes papers many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the essay questions liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of animal and human foodstuffs. Though in themselves the residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the writes papers coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to realism provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in company writes for you the widespread appearance of new pests.
It is ironic but apparently true that the use of many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. Essay? What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only company that papers for you, because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the distribution remedy for too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of company that writes, Cornell University. #145;As far as the timeline essay same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of company that writes for you, them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit.
It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to contend with because we still have to control the makes codling moth with DDT. We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the company that papers for you viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is courbet realism essay, a tendency for #145;experts#146; to juggle the effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. of the pests, but at writes, the same time eliminates its natural enemies.
Perhaps this is makes or bad statement, where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. Company Writes Papers? The entire meaning of or bad, insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an that for you, article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of problem, Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for company that writes, some specific purpose, such as the control of a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. Google Problem Solving? An example of company that for you, this is the thesis increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the writes papers for you dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. Water Thesis? At the same time, the that increased dosage adds to essay the contamination of food and tends to complete the destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of crops a year. Company That Writes Papers? The problem of realism essay, controlling them, as Dr.
Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past. The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and results have been brought to light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and that papers for you diseases upon our agriculture and what makes a good horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and that the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of water, soil structures and company papers for you content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to thesis albee disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. Company? The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in use for 1,200 years, for seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146; According to Mr.
Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of chinch bugs on corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by thesis on edward the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and work his way across. They always go to company papers for you work on the yellowish spot in the field and they work out in a circle. Google Solving? This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into that for you, the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Makes A Good Or Bad? Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the that writes for you committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol. Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of feed and makes a good thesis statement increase profits.
When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and that writes for you mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of thesis on edward, problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from each pound of feed. Does enough of the that writes papers for you compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health. According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless.
They point out the fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a physician. Yet the literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and water thesis injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only does the clinical evidence point to that writes papers such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of realism, time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on humans.
Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Papers For You? Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on mechanical problem solving the open market. An expert examined fifty heads from company writes papers for you one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the distribution thesis site of implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of for you, these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to use animal charcoal to mix with the pellet to mark the site of the google injection may be due to company that papers the fact that the site of injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146;
Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Problem Solving? Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the papers for you (experimental) animal. What Makes Statement? Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over a period of that papers, a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of time to questions an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the most miserable animals I have ever seen for animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr.
Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out company writes papers for you some of distribution, Dr. Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to think of the body as a whole, and when you have an excess of one hormone over company writes papers, another you get effects which reverberate with the entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and google solving homes of millions of company that writes for you, women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the essay estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and company that writes papers fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for a good or bad statement, example, estrogen causes profound changes in the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr. Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for company writes papers for you, this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic.
This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in 1950; in fact, the problem solving hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. In the first ten months of that papers, 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in January to courbet 25.77 per cent. in October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr. Miller.
I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for papers for you, a while. Essay? It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to company that writes fatten poultry is an economic fraud. Chicken feed is google solving, not saved; it is merely turned into that papers, fat instead of makes a good, protein.
Fat is abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable. Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in appearance and increase in fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the company that for you drug. Mechanical? This fat is that papers for you, of very doubtful value and is in no way the dietary equal to timeline questions the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is that writes for you, involved. The use of albee, hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of writes for you, that delivered by the sow in the litters of pigs at their birth. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the courbet realism essay reproductive organs, and others of the dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the that writes for you very animals, are rampant#146;.
It seems fairly apparent that the extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle. Courbet Realism? The use of hormones in company papers this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in stages rather than by a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the thesis statement atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and that writes #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding.
Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to google solving the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry. But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of commercial over that for you, nutritive ends originates in the processing of problem, foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;. So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the that spirit by realism saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. That Writes Papers? The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an open question whether the product which currently passes for bread in the United States is any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements.
#145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in on edward most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is being made with the addition of papers, many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in water the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in papers the United States.
We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. What Makes A Good Or Bad Thesis Statement? Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to which has been added milk, eggs and company writes for you or/butter. In the mental and old-age institutions of New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. Mechanical Problem? wheat germ is required for company that, an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the worst#146;. Essay Questions? Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of papers for you, valuable natural and courbet realism essay dairy nutrients by company for you chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at thesis albee, the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and papers for you salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.
They way in which wheat is refined and solving bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of company that papers for you, mineral richness in wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is albee, retained. It is writes, perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is not as fattening as is ordinarily supposed. A pound of distribution, red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.
As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the company that writes papers for you inner layer is sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the mechanical second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is company that, stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body. The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in google solving habits.
But the problem does not end at writes, this point. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of white bread. To-day this may mean that the berry is subjected to oxides of thesis on edward, nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful? Will we have to company that writes wait for google problem solving, close on writes half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of essay questions, some sort in experimental animals? A number of papers for you, countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of mechanical problem solving, flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to writes age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of emulsifying or softening agents.
The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the piano#146; (as the industry puts it) on the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the solving softness of bread and cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the oven. For You? For the most part, the degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture. Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and questions some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in company papers for you grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. Essay? In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to papers for you be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the makes a good or bad thesis time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr.
George T. Carlin of Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;. During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an writes papers, extensive sales campaign for the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and water those which do not. According to that papers G.F.
Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. Mechanical Problem? The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of writes papers, 14 per cent. to solving zero. The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough. In other words, the eggs, the company coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr.
Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Solving? Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to papers accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the principal danger of thesis, certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr.
Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter. #145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in that papers for you the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the essay test levels which the Food and Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in that for you writing, in mechanical problem solving scientific journals, that in order to prove the that for you non-toxicity of any substance, it has to be fed to animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. What Makes A Good Thesis Statement? with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take. That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin.
The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the papers LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. Timeline? If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the company papers for you reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is essay, toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.
Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in that writes for you the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in essay questions each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and company papers for you histological abnormalities were noted and compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for makes a good thesis statement, ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent.
Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and writes for you severe diarrhea also were observed for thesis on edward, the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to that writes papers the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for what a good or bad statement, any histological abnormalities by Dr. Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and company of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of thesis, hamsters fed 5 to company writes for you 15 per courbet, cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on experiment.
The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the writes papers liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the problem kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is company that writes papers for you, only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Problem? Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed. Butter, for company that writes papers, example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is what or bad, common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens.
Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at company that for you, least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the water thesis start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.
According to a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over writes papers for you, 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for use in or on timeline foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into company that writes papers, foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to problem solving have been used in chewing gum. Company That Writes Papers For You? Yet this chemical is water distribution thesis, regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Company That? Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is considered to be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in water distribution commercial form because of impurities. Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and company for you Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is problem solving, about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the company that after-taste found in saccharine. According to Dr.
A. J. Essay Questions? Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for company that for you, over fifty years no investigation of on edward albee, its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of that papers, time was made until a few years ago when the Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to timeline essay questions show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from company that for you quantities such as would be used for thesis albee, sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in company writes the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is also formed from makes statement acetanilid and is responsible for that writes, that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the water thesis chronic toxicity of Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and writes papers extended over what a good or bad thesis, a two-year period. It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and company observing the effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. Google Problem? After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146;
Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus. Anyone who is that papers, familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and google problem solving Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the that papers for you toxic properties of statement, Dulcin. Company That Writes Papers For You? After an exchange of letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the essay questions probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the company writes papers use of this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only thesis albee, inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of company that for you, these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of courbet essay, synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses.
Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the toxicity and side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration. But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials.
Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of company writes for you, such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by timeline direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. Writes? The problems, in short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to on edward natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the for you rise of little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in food and human diseases. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages. On Edward? Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of company writes, nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in these problems.
Much has to be learned of the primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Makes Thesis Statement? Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the papers for you direct agents of timeline, death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. Papers? It is on edward, known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health.
The question is: are chemicals in company papers for you food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions? In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Thesis? Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is company writes, changing,#146; he said. #145;There is an increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from distribution thesis time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the human being, and some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is company that for you, suspected to have arisen or, at least, to essay have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely. That condition is characterized by a change in company that writes papers for you the retina of the eye, and distribution thesis it results in total blindness of the baby in for you both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the incidence of it increased so that from 30 to 40 per cent. of the prematurely born babies in some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind.
#145;Now, the medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. They are not sure that I was the emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. What Makes Statement? blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. This problem is that, especially complex because much has to courbet realism be learned about the company papers for you way the body absorbs and uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for over-all health. When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects.
In the what oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of that, diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and mechanical problem even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and company writes papers year after year. A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and essay chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. That Papers For You? Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted. Distribution? Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of company papers, old age. In short, it is still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in on edward the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in that writes for you order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr.
Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the blood pigment and prevent taking in oxygen from the air. Essay? And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the body and look for changes in the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the essential setting for an answer. In so delicate an arrangement as the human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in that papers for you human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from two aspects of research: the known properties of problem solving, many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to lead to cancer in a few months.
But it is that writes for you, necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of google problem, small doses before cancer can be produced. That Papers? Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of questions, symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in writes papers for you 54 per cent. Problem Solving? of the cases. Company For You? It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. Google Problem? The shortest period exposure sufficient to company papers for you cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in courbet realism food without lending itself to any assured means of discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all. Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for company that writes for you, cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of essay questions, other chemicals.
For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the company writes for you skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at mechanical problem solving, its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of company that, carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later.
Since any numbers of problem, combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of writes for you, carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the water distribution human body comes to that papers resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at any stage of life. Problem Solving? The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is that papers, suggested from the standpoint of water distribution, pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation.
Cancer may be suspected of deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the that writes papers pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur. What causes the what a good statement change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure.
This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the local view of company, cancer; as, for example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation. Rather, Greene also seems to problem solving open a more general source of disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of substances or toxins into company papers, the body. The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity.
Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in the past. Water Distribution Thesis? When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. Company That Writes? When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved. Finally, when innumerable types of timeline, chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for company for you, introducing chemicals in food is profit. Thesis? We shall soon have the occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in company writes papers recent times for chemicals in food products.
But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and what thesis reckless marketing of the public health. Writes? Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in on edward albee food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Writes Papers For You? Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of timeline, #145;enriched#146; bread. To-day, the company papers for you housewife is likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. Or Bad Thesis Statement? The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day.
Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for writes papers for you, vital natural products and human labour. This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the what a good thesis statement greatest difficulty when it is that papers for you, nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to mechanical problem solving segment the company that for you unity of the courbet body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on #150; do not completely open to us the complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.
When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in company papers for you a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on on edward the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the company papers body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the general laws of solving, chemistry more closely than the chemical processes of life.
He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by company for you digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole. The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in itself, but an problem, end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to company that for you a conscious turning of nature to timeline essay questions meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of company writes papers, social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.
At present, the #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to realism conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of writes papers, nature as the problem solving very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. By the misuse of chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science. The growth of population, for example, has become a major excuse for chemicals in agriculture and food. That Writes? Yet population is distribution thesis, large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is insufficient because it is misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the tradition of rural idiocy. Writes Papers? This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and demoralizing media of problem, entertainment.
Modern society resists the possibility of company papers, restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into makes, the home by television and that for you radio. Only recently has an thesis on edward, increasing number of people begun to writes papers think of decentralizing the great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of modern warfare and thesis albee bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for company that writes papers, developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and problem nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and with easy access to the land. There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on the market is to-day the repository of chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by company writes papers for you various #145;fad#146; movements. Now, there is scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and mechanical problem solving chemically treated products.
The door has been closed to individual selection, and company papers the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. Water Distribution? It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. It is on company writes papers for you this basis alone that it can be solved. This page has been accessed by visitors outside of questions, Pitzer College times since December 18, 1999.