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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Some people believe in heaven, and some in hell and others believe that your life force is carried away to another part of the creative, universe. But the Hindu religion believes in something a little different. Hindu’s believe in reincarnation, which play’s a big role in their society. Jfk Assassination Essay? It also affects the way they live out their lives and view things. Hindu’s also believe that when they come back they can be something more than they were or something less of what they were in their life, which can be connected to creative college Karma . Karma plays a big role in reincarnation and their lives. Reincarnation and Karma are not just rules to live by but a way of life. Hindu’s devote their whole lives to their religion and well being.
We can write a custom essay on Karma for you! Reincarnation plays a big role in Hindu society. Reincarnation is known as the transmigration of the soul. Slavery? For the Hindu’s religion is not an alternative to the world, it’s a means of improving one’s existence in college essays, life. An Essay Slavery? It is thought that the individual reincarnates under conditions created through the history of their lives and creative, past behaviors. Each incarnation provides opportunity to siue be born into a higher place in life. This will only happen if the person has been righteous, which is the result of doing your duty in the proper manner. Righteousness is the result of doing one’s duty in creative college essays, a proper manner. The Hindu’s believe that no one is born equal. It is thought that a person reincarnates again and again till the person is perfect and reunites with its source, which can take up to millions of years to accomplish. Hindu’s also speak of a type of heaven and hell were a person goes not for an eternity only until they have learned their lesson.
Either it being joy or suffering, after they have done that then they return back to siue Earth. Creative College? Reincarnation is based upon life on essay earth not suddenly emerging, but evolving gradually over creative college time. Jfk Assassination? (Kingsland 46) You may think what causes the soul to enter a higher or lower state of existence. There level of existence is determined by creative, Karma. For Hindu’s Karma is a necessary law of application essay, nature. It decides the quality of ones further life. A person who has done good things is reborn into a good life in creative college, their next birth. But if a person has done bad deeds or evil thoughts and spoke bad words a person is reborn as an animal. An Essay About? Karma applies to creative what happens in a person’s present life. A deed that a person in their current life come back to them in a form of good fortune, either in one’s present life or in their future existence. A person can pay “Karmic” price for an evil deed one has done. His deed will come back to haunt him in one’s present life or future.
A person of low statues may be reborn as priest, or a king, or an bernardo's gcse coursework, animal or even a worm. A person’s higher or lower sate of existence is determined by a law called Karma. Karma is defined as the law of deeds or works. Creative College Essays? Karma determines an bernardo's english coursework, individual’s thoughts, words, and deeds which all have ethical consequences that establish the creative essays, quality of their future existences. Karma decides the quality of a Hindu’s future life. Karma is defined as “the act” or “sum of a person’s actions in de montaigne, one of his successive states of creative, existence, viewed as deciding his fate for the next”. (Wangu,38) There are three different kinds of Karma. The first has begun to bear fruit in life. Almost nothing can be done about these consequences, which must be endured or enjoyed. This might explain why bad people appear to prosper while good people have problems. Perfectionism Essay? The second is karma that affects the future.
Lastly there is Karma that has built up but not used. To use this Karma one has to perform ritual prayers to receive this unused Karma.(Kingsland,46) Hindu’s ultimate goal is release from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth.(Mann, Numrich, Williams,69)Cremation has long bin the method of disposing of the essays, bodies of the jfk assassination essay, dead. Hindu’s believe that the soul is creative immortal but the body is not. Hindu’s view life as moving through many stages and sparknotes, cycles. Karma and reincarnation is thought to creative not have a beginning or an end, but a continuous cycle. Karma encourages Hindu’s to be a good person because if they don’t they will suffer for their poor actions in the future.(Wangu,103)The goal of practicing Hindu is to liberate themselves from constantly changing karma and reincarnation, and to find release of the cycles of rebirths and redeaths and gain existence in the realm of the Gods.
The Hindu knows that the maturing of the soul takes many lives, and that if the soul is immature in the present birth, then there is hope, for there will be many opportunities for learning and growing in future lives. Every person is responsible for keats, his or her acts and thoughts, so each person#8217;s karma is entirely ones own. Creative College? (Kingsland,46) Hindu’s are continuously trying to make themselves better people mentally and spiritually. There are four rules, which Hindu applies to their life, this allows for better Karma. 1st a person must always perform their duty, which they must do to the best of their ability. If you were a parent your duty would be to provide a home, warmth, food, clothes and bernardo's gcse, an education for your child. In return the child would have a duty of being thankful to his parents by working hard, having a good education and respect for the people who have provided for him. Also one must earn their money honestly to provide for one’s family. Another thing would be to live life to the fullest, but to do that in moderation. Lastly one would always strive to creative college better one’s reincarnation. If all of this is done one will have good Karma and a positive reincarnation.
There is about a reason why Hindu’s thrive for college, a good reincarnation. 1st Hindu’s want to bernardo's gcse english move up the animal chain. For example starting out as an insect and through many improvement work their way to be a human and eventually becoming a priest. The reason for all of college, these reincarnations is to attain knowledge and understanding. Hindu’s ultimate goal is to achieve up to a state of knowledge were one does not have to reincarnate anymore.
According to the Bhagavad-Gita: “Just as man discards worn out clothes and puts on new clothes, the soul discards worn out bodies and wears new ones.” (2.22) This quote basically sums up what the whole thought of reincarnation is. In the process of reincarnation some souls join God while others reincarnate and gcse english coursework, transform into creative, other beings. This process can take millions of years to accomplish. Slavery? One may also find that if a person was not good or had done bad things, that person would not reach god as quickly as other beings. Hindu’s also speak of a heaven and hell, were a being is sent in either place for creative, the deeds that the being has done on Earth. If a being was good and fulfilled good deeds then that being would spend time in heaven and it would be a reward for their actions. If one was bad their being would spend time in hell were they would be punished for their bad deeds. After one has learned their lesson their being returns to Earth and perfectionism, tries to live the life that have this time to be good so they may be rewarded in heaven and not be punished in hell. Some Hindu’s believe that Karma means deed and every deed one does has a consequence.
Judgment of ones Karma is solely placed in the hands of god. It is said in college essays, the Bhagavad-Gita “As you sow, so shall you reap”. This is where the slavery, saying “what goes around comes around” comes from. They both are sending the same message. Sometimes Karma can give instant results for your deeds.
Accumulation of good deeds brings closer to god and will also give a person a higher spiritual plane of existence. Creative Essays? The bad karma will produce misery and essay, one will emerge as a lower life form such as a plant or insect. (Anand,4) Ones ultimate goal is to reach Moksha which means the infinite bliss. It is what all Hindu’s thrive to reach. One must practice in mediation and gain spiritual knowledge. Essays? Yoga is also helps people reach Moksha. A person’s practices may become so intense that one devotes their whole life to siue finding god. Once Moksha is reached ones soul aligns itself with god. (Anand,5) In conclusion reincarnation and Karma is a big part of Hindu life. It is kind of an equal balance.
Karma effects the reincarnation of the future in a positive or negative way. There is much to learn from the Hindu religion. Many frown upon it and some think of creative, it as a cult, but it is thought of as a very unique way at on john, looking toward life. Hindu’s are thought to be the hardest working people to try reach god. Reincarnation and Karma are not just rules to live by but a way of life. Creative College Essays? Hindu’s devote their whole lives to their religion and well-being. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Karma topics are traced by essay, plagiarism detection systems.
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College Essays - Top 147 Essays That Worked - Study Notes
lky business plan Lee Kuan Yew Global Business Plan Competition (LKYGBPC) derives its name from Singapore’s founding prime minister, who developed the country’s defining business plan bringing the Asian city onto the global stage. It is this spirit of intelligence, entrepreneurship, innovation and ambition the competition enshrines as it invites the creative college, brightest minds from the world’s most entrepreneurial universities to come together to tackle the challenges of the 21’st century. The competition is a platform for Singapore to critical keats engage with the global innovation entrepreneurship community, and creative, showcase our innovation capability and ambition to the rest of the bernardo's gcse coursework, world. This year participants are invited to propose innovative technology/data centric products and services that address the opportunities and challenges a smart city faces in the following areas: The submission will be evaluated based on the following criteria: The submission will be evaluated based on the following criteria: Innovativeness of Business Idea Commercial Feasibility Impact of Idea - Market, Societal Impact Sustainability Capability to college Execute. Easts meets West: A Dialogue on Startups Venture Capital @ SMU Which region of the essays sparknotes, world will the next unicoms emerge from?
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Infocomm Media Development Authority of college Singapore. National Research Foundation Singapore. Ministry of National Development. Singapore Technologies Electronics. Founding Managing Partner. Matrix Partners China. Mr. Simon Dale has been Vice President of Asia Pacific Japan at MapR Technologies, Inc. Of Michel Sparknotes! since March 2017. He is responsible for driving sales excellence business execution for the MapR converged data platform in Australia New Zealand, India, Greater China, Japan, Korea and South East Asia. Prior to creative joining MapR, Simon was a member of the senior executive team at SAP Asia Pacific where he launched and managed several traditional software and cloud services businesses. With a 25-year career in the technology industry, Simon has worked extensively across Asia Pacific and Japan introducing new products and services to markets as well as building and developing new sales teams.
With a 25-year career in the technology industry, he has worked extensively across Asia Pacific and Japan introducing new products and services to markets as well as building and essays, developing new sales teams. Simon specializes in launching and growing new businesses in the enterprise software space in Asia Pacific; now at the centre of the shift to using 'big data' at the core of the digital economy. Foo Kim Peng is college, currently the Executive Director of iSpace Innovations Asia Pacific, a seed and essay, early-stage venture capital fund. Creative Essays! He is also the Managing Director of Kerydh Pte Ltd, which focuses on business consultancy and investments. He was formerly the Chief Executive Officer of TransitLink, Director in the Land Transport Authority of Singapore and an essay slavery, General Manager of Stelcomms Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of ST Electronics. Also he retired as a Colonel after serving at essays, the Singapore Airforce as a former pilot. In the SAF, he was a trained executive coach and has been coaching mid-level officers for senior appointment. Kim Peng has extensive experience in developing and managing high technology products and systems especially in bernardo's gcse english, defence, communications, e-payments and public transport industries. Robert Chew is a former partner of Accenture.
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He was conferred the an essay about, Public Service Medal in 2013. As Head of Infocomm Investments Pte Ltd, Dr. Alex Lin leads a team of investment professionals to develop the infocomm start-up ecosystem in Singapore, through strategic investments in promising companies. For last 10 years, Alex had been actively building companies, mentoring entrepreneurs and investing in promising start-ups. He held entrepreneurship and investment related roles in several organizations working closely with Singapore universities promoting creation of rapid-prototyping capabilities and incubators. He invests and coach’s young technology startups from ideation to college essays maturity.
Regionally, Alex led several technology infrastructure investments in China, such as technology park development, and High Temperature Conversion of Waste installations. Prior to his investment and perfectionism essay, mentoring roles, Alex was the creative college essays, Chief Technology Officer and Senior Vice President of bernardo's gcse english coursework Operation Technology in creative, SembCorp Logistics, where he led teams of professionals in sales acquisition and maintenance of technology infrastructures. Before joining SembCorp Logistics Ltd, Alex started Asia first wireless ISP, and successfully expanded regionally to China and Indonesia before merging into essay larger incumbent telco in the territories. Alex also started and exited several technology-based companies. Alex is active in community service especially in college, the entrepreneurship development space. He is an active member of Action Community for Entrepreneurship (ACE), and ACE grant review panelist. He is also an gcse coursework, engaging speaker promoting innovative thinking amongst aspiring start-ups and at hackathons in Asia. Alex obtained his Electrical Computer Engineering degree at University of creative college essays Wisconsin (Madison) and Doctorate at Stanford University. Dr Soh is Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Quality Service Manager for Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH).
As COO, Dr Soh is responsible for the management and operations of one of Singapore's largest general hospitals with 1600 beds including various off-site facilities and community programmes. His portfolio includes support operations, clinical operations, planning and development and corporate services. TTSH is the leader in Lean Healthare Process Improvement Clinical Practice Improvement, Patient Experience, and IT Automation. Dr Soh leads many of these initiatives and the hospital's transformation towards creating value for patients and staff. Dr Soh obtained his medical degree from the National University of Singapore and his Masters of an essay slavery Public Health (Health Care Management) from college Harvard University. Critical Essays On John! Effective August 2008, he has been appointed Adjunct Associate Professor at the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Dr Soh completed his Senior Executive Programme at London Business School in 2010. Dr Soh is also certified in Clinical Practice Improvement Programme (CPIP) by National Healthcare Group (2005), Lean Healthcare from Belmonth University Graduate School (2009), Leading Innovations in college essays, Healthcare Education by Harvard Macy Institute (2009), and Value Measurement in application essay, Healthcare from Harvard Business School (2012). A strong believer of Continuous Learning and college, Importance of perfectionism Influence Relationships.
The combination of entrepreneurial and essays, corporate experience with a technology background brings a unique set of qualities to manage uncertainty in today's world. Dr Rajan has gained expertise in sales marketing covering gas turbines, healthcare equipment to new materials for cross industry applications. He possess commercialization experience with deep knowledge in intellectual property with over 30 published articles and 358 academic citations. He has a strong record of bernardo's gcse english coursework building and maintaining relationships across all levels as well as excellent interpersonal and communication skills and ability to work with non-obvious. Dr Rajan holds an MBA in Strategic Management from Temple University and graduated with a PhD in Engineering from the National University of Singapore. He also holds a professional diploma in essays, Asia-Pacific Marketing from the Marketing Institute of Singapore. Supratim Bose is Executive Vice President and an essay about, President, Asia-Pac, Middle East and Africa (AMEA)for Boston Scientific and a member of its Executive Committee. In this role, Supratim oversees the Company’s business and growth opportunities across Asia-Pacific, the world’s fastest growing region, plus the creative, Middle East and Africa.
Before joining Boston Scientific in January 2012, Supratim was Founder and jfk assassination, Chief Executive Officer of Singapore-based Bose Consulting Group, which specialized in strategic management consulting services for creative the healthcare industry. Previously, he worked for an essay about nearly 30 years at Johnson Johnson, where he concluded his tenure as Company Group Chairman of its Medical Devices and Diagnostics (MDD) business. In this role, he managed Johnson Johnson’s MDD companies throughout Asia-Pacific, including Japan, having pioneered its entry in all emerging markets in Asia, including China, India, and Vietnam. During his tenure, he also created the company’s research and development capability in the region and led the development and growth of local talent. Supratim earned a B.S. in Chemistry/Physics, a M.S. in Biophysics and a Master in college essays, Management Studies from the Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies at the University of Bombay. He served as a a member of the Board of Directors at Quattro Vascular Pte Ltd and Trireme Medical, and member of the Advisory Board at siue, Singapore Management University’s Lee Kong Chian School of Business. He continues to creative teach at the Nanyang Business School, Singapore, as a visiting faculty member.
Paul is an accomplished entrepreneur who has successfully co-founded and jfk assassination essay, grown six companies to profitability across a variety of industries, exiting twice. His first exit was with Indio, an integrated marketing communications company that was acquired by Dentsu. His second was with Vertex Solutions, a customer service and technical support company granted Pioneer Status by the Philippine’s Board of Investments that was acquired by Alorica. Paul is also a Partner at college essays, Siemer Ventures, a cross border, early stage fund and leads its investments from Singapore. De Montaigne Sparknotes! He has led the investment into creative and/or sits on the Board of Directors of AppAddictive, Ayannah, Frenzoo and TradeSparq. Prior to the partnership with Siemer Ventures, Paul was Managing Partner at Tholons Capital, a seed stage investment firm that focused on IT-enabled service companies that leveraged the two leading outsourcing destinations in the world, India and gcse english coursework, the Philippines. He was also President for creative college Asia for Tholons, a leading boutique advisory firm focused on the globalization and outsourcing of services.
Tholons works with buyers, suppliers, investors and government and trade organizations around the world that seek to benefit from the globalization and outsourcing of technology-enabled services. Paul started his career in Brand Management with Procter Gamble where he led one of its flagship brands to achieve record levels in revenue, share and profit as well as image ratings. He graduated with a BS in Management Engineering from the Ateneo de Manila University with a Joint Minor in International Management from the University of Antwerp, Belgium. He is also a member of the critical, Entrepreneurs Organization (EO) and is part of its Asia Bridge Forum (ABF). Julian was appointed as the Head of creative SPH’s newly created Digital Division in March 2015. He is siue application, responsible for spearheading the Company’s strategy and growth in the digital space. Before this, Julian was the Chief Executive Officer of 701Search Pte Ltd, a regional online classifieds joint venture company between SPH, Norway’s Schibsted Classified Media and creative college essays, Telenor. Responsible for the strategic development and growth of the company in Southeast Asia and Greater China, he grew the jfk assassination, business from a start-up in a single location to a regional company with a strong footprint in the region, in a span of seven years. In 2007, Julian was the Chief Operating Officer of SPH Search Pte Ltd, an online local search and directory business.
Before that, he was in college, the Corporate Development Division of SPH where he played a pivotal role in developing strategies and business plans for SPH’s push into the Internet and mobile worlds. Julian graduated with First Class Honours in Economics from the London School of Economics and Political Science and earned two Executive Masters of Business Administration (EMBA) degrees from de montaigne sparknotes INSEAD and Tsinghua University in 2009. Mr Khoong is the Chief Digital Evangelist of the Info-communications Media Development Authority (IMDA), a statutory board under the Ministry of creative essays Communications and Information in Singapore. As CDE, he promotes Singapore’s international thought leadership as a Digital Hub. He has more than 30 years of experience in both industry and on john keats, government, and held various senior management positions in the technology sector. He has strong cross-cultural management experience, having managed global operations in creative college essays, Singapore, Europe and USA. He led various nation-wide transformational initiatives, such as Singapore’s Next Generation Nationwide Broadband Network and Wireless@SG, the world’s largest authenticated, federated free WiFi service. Prior to essay IDA, Mr Khoong managed a global business division in Mentor Graphics Corporation (USA), where he was responsible for creative college essays business development, product development, customer support and consulting services.
Mr Khoong has also served in Singapore’s Ministry of Defence as a Programme Director, building simulators, and command, control and communications systems. He also serves on various professional organisations, such as the Singapore’s Engineering Accreditation Board, and sits on several university industry advisory boards. Slavery! He is college essays, a Fellow of the Singapore Computer Society. Internationally, he is member of Wireless Broadband Alliance’s Global Connected Cities Council, and a jury member of Intelligent Community Forum. Koay Peng Yen leads the Transportation Third-Party Logistics Practice in slavery, Southeast Asia and is a member of the firm’s Industrial and Aviation, Aerospace Defense practices. Based in Singapore, Peng Yen specializes in senior executive searches for the maritime, offshore and aviation sectors.
As a former senior executive in the aviation and maritime industries, he brings a direct perspective on essays clients’ leadership challenges and requirements. Prior to joining Spencer Stuart, Peng Yen was group CEO of Tiger Airways Holdings, a company listed on the Singapore Exchange. He successfully led the organization’s restructuring by refocusing on about its home market, pursuing a brand franchising strategy and decisively exiting unprofitable units. Earlier, he was executive director of Pacific Carriers Limited, a maritime and offshore services company, and concurrently the managing director of PaxOcean Engineering, an offshore and marine engineering company. Peng Yen also served as group CEO of creative college essays IMC Corp Limited, a pan-Asian industrial, maritime and logistics organization. In addition, he held various senior executive positions with NOL Group’s container shipping and logistics company APL, including that of president of Greater China, based in China, and senior vice president of Transpacific, based in the U.S. Peng Yen has served on international joint-venture boards with a range of organizations, including global energy, logistics, shipping and airline companies. Peng Yen holds an M.Sc in ocean systems management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Mr Lam Wee Shann joined Land Transport Authority in Feb 2017 to perfectionism lead a newly formed technology industry development group. The group is responsible for creative college essays overall coordination of technology efforts as well as to develop land transport industry, in particular, in the manpower development area. Before being appointed to his present post, he set up the jfk assassination essay, Futures Division in creative college essays, Ministry of essay Transport in Oct 2013. College Essays! Futures division generates foresight to shape the future of transport for Singapore, which include strategy formulation and the translation of foresight research into actionable policy insights. He had also served as the Director (Communications and Community Engagement) in the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore from 2009, where he was in charge of media relations, community engagement and about slavery, organisation of key events such as the Singapore Maritime Week. Prior to his stints in creative college essays, the transport family, Wee Shann was with the english, Ministry of creative college Defence and the Singapore Armed Forces.
During his time in the Singapore Armed Forces from 1998 to 2002, Wee Shann assumed various command and essays keats, instructional appointments. He was subsequently posted to the Ministry of creative college essays Defence HQ, where he held various appointments including Head Personnel Planning Branch in Officers’ Personnel Centre, Army Representative in critical on john keats, Human Resource Transformation Office and Head MINDEF Human Resource Department. He held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel when he left Ministry of creative Defence in 2009. Wee Shann studied at University College London on a Ministry of Defence scholarship, and graduated with a Bachelor of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Honours). Wee Shann also holds a Masters in Telecommunications from the same university. Ms. Chiet Ping Chong serves as the Managing Partner at perfectionism essay, GreenMeadows Accelerator as well as Small World Group Incubator Pte Ltd. Ms.
Chong is involved in early stage incubation of technology companies under the National Research Foundation Technology Incubation Scheme. She worked for 33 years at Hewlett Packard and her last position was Senior Vice President of Operations HP Asia Pacific. Her experience includes the areas of supply chain, logistics, process and creative college, information technology re-engineering. Siue Application Essay! She also led the mega merger of HP and Compaq Operations across the whole of Asia Pacific where there were major changes and creative college essays, consolidations made to organisations, workforce, factories locations, business processes and IT systems. Ms. Chong has been Independent Director of critical essays on john keats Ascendas Funds Management (S) Limited, Manager of creative college essays Ascendas Real Estate Investment Trust since November 1, 2015. Ms Chong holds a Diploma in application essay, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Singapore Polytechnic. Mr Alvin Tan is the Head of Group Information Management and creative essays, Technology for Ascendas-Singbridge, responsible for providing the vision and leadership for essay developing and implementing information technology initiatives that are aligned to creative essays Ascendas-Singbridge’s strategic objectives.
He also manages all aspects of information management systems and IT infrastructure to support business operations. Before joining Ascendas, Mr Tan was a Partner with IBM Global Business Services. An Essay! Working for other companies like Accenture, Ernst Young, and NCS, most of his career has been in implementing large-scale business and IT change programmes for multinational corporations. College Essays! Prior to IBM, Mr Tan worked for about 6 years with a major conglomerate operating in the Asia Pacific and Latin America regions as the General Manager for creative Business Transformation. During this time, he setup and managed the operations of a large shared services organization based in KL providing IT, Finance and essay, HR services to the various business groups in this conglomerate.
Mr Tan holds a Bachelor of Science (Computer Science) degree from the creative, National University of Singapore. He also has an MBA (Investment Finance) from the University of critical on john Hull. Dr Lee Shiang Long was appointed President, Singapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics) in April 2017. Creative College! Since joining ST Kinetics in application, March 2016, Dr Lee has served as President, Defence Business Group, ST Kinetics, overseeing the company’s key pillar of creative growth in the defence business. He was also Deputy Chief Technology Officer, Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd (ST Engineering).
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During his career with the SAF, Dr Lee was awarded the Public Administration Medal (Military), Silver. Dr Lee holds a PhD in Mechanical Engineering and a Master in Mechanical Engineering from Nanyang Technological University. Creative College! He also holds a Master in Business Administration from Cambridge University, a Master of jfk assassination essay Science in IT from National University of Singapore, as well as a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from creative essays Singapore Polytechnic. Mohammed Dogar has more than 14 years of experience in European and Global technical marketing, project management and engineering in about slavery, electronics and semiconductor segments. A dedicated professional, Mr Dogar has a rich experience of working with market leaders to small-medium size enterprises and industry standard bodies globally. Mr Dogar has attained considerable achievements in developing new markets/regions on a global basis and building customer partnership with successful strategy execution. His experience also spans across delivering smart world green solutions for industrial and college essays, consumer based electronics segments. His expertise in business development and essays de montaigne, planning has made him a global team leader for microcontrollers and energy efficient green solutions inc. College Essays! promotion strategy and lunch planning, with a global market focus with USA, Japan, China, Singapore, Taiwan Korea to devise common marketing key product/customer development strategies. Richard Goh is currently the Executive Director of Nuri Properties Pte.
Ltd. and is responsible for the management of the real estate assets of the Gajah Tunggal Group. He is concurrently the about, CEO of Bali Turtle Island Development, a 500ha resort development in Bali and CEO of Aurora Development Pte. Ltd., a mixed-use development project in Jakarta in partnership with GIC. Prior to Nuri Properties Pte. Ltd., Richard spent 9 years with GIC (Real Estate) where he held the positions of Head of Southeast Asia, Hongkong and Taiwan; and Head of Retail for Asia. Creative College Essays! Before GIC, he was Head of Asset Management for Mapletree Investments Pte. Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Temasek Holdings. Mapletree is a leading real estate company based in Singapore.
From 1995 to 2006, Richard was with the Kuok Group of Companies and was responsible for of michel sparknotes various real estate investments including some manufacturing plants. He started off his career as an college essays, engineer in Sembawang Projects Pte. Ltd. and a contracts engineer with the Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore. Richard holds a Bachelor of Engineering Degree (Mechanical) from the National University of Singapore and an LLB from the siue application essay, University of London. Shirley Wong Managing Partner, TNF Ventures. Shirley Wong is an entrepreneur with more than 20 years of experience in the IT industry. Creative College! She co-founded Frontline Technologies Corporation Ltd in bernardo's gcse coursework, 1994 and it was listed on the Singapore Exchange in March 2001. Under her stewardship, the company has grown from a team of 8 to 5000 workforce spread across 11 countries in Asia Pacific. The performance of the company caught the attention of essays British Telecom Global Services which subsequently acquired it. The company was renamed as BT Frontline Pte Ltd.
Shirley was appointed Managing Director of BT Frontline Pte Ltd to stabilise the acquisition. Shirley serves in several infocomm industry board and committees, including being the siue essay, Chairman of Singapore Infocomm Technology Federation (SiTF), board of creative essays Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, board of Singapore Science Centre, Co-Chair of Cyber Security Awareness Alliance, member of application Malaysia Singapore Business Council and Council member of Temasek Polytechnic IT School Advisory Council. She is also active in college essays, the start-up scene. She has worked with a number of start-ups and is helping them to about secure funding, access resources, build market connections and go to markets. She is incredibly passionate about creative essays, entrepreneurship and is excited to gcse help build the start-up community in creative college, Singapore. As the Managing Partner of TNF, Shirley will be looking out for high potential start-up that has tenacity and essay, capability to creative essays make things happen. She will be matching start-ups with the respective investor mentor to ensure that proper guidance and resource is made available for them to be successful. Michael Seibel CEO, Y Combinator.
Michael Seibel was the cofounder and CEO of Justin.tv and critical essays on john keats, Socialcam. Socialcam sold to Autodesk in 2012 and under the leadership of Emmett Shear, Justin.tv became Twitch.tv and sold to Amazon in 2014. Before getting into college start-ups, he spent a year as the jfk assassination, finance director for a US Senate campaign and in 2005, Michael graduated from Yale University with a BA in political science. Justin Kan Partner, Y Combinator. Justin Kan is an American Internet entrepreneur and investor. He is the college essays, co-founder of live video platforms Justin.tv and Twitch.tv, as well as the mobile social video application Socialcam.
He is essay, a partner at venture capital firm Y Combinator. College! His attempt to broadcast his entire life at Justin.tv popularized the term lifecasting. Kan also started a Reddit-style electronic music discovery platform, The Drop. He also contributes to essay the technology news site TechCrunch and co-founded Kiko Software, the first ajax based online calendar, with Emmett Shear. Kan graduated from Yale University in 2005 with degrees in physics and philosophy. David Su Founding Managing Partner, Matrix Partners China. David Su is a founding managing partner at Matrix Partners China, focused primarily on creative college essays mobile Internet, software and medical technology investments. David has been investing in China since early 2000 and his investments include Baidu (NSDQ:BIDU), Bona Film (NSDQ:BONA), Focus Media (NSDQ:FMCN), Kanghui Medical (NYSE:KH), AAC Technologies ( 2018.HK ), Heptagon (SIX:AMS), Kingnet Games (SZ:002517), Nanjing Kingfriend Biochemical (SS:603707), Didi Chuxing, Youzan Mobile, Reach Surgical. Before Matrix, David was a founding general partner of TDF Capital and KPCB China. Prior to joining the venture capital industry, David worked at Lotus Development, IBM Software Group for more than seven years and was last responsible for Lotus’ software and services business in Greater China region. David graduated with a Bachelor of Applied Science in Computer Engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Professor Lui Pao Chuen Advisor, National Research Foundation, ex-Chief Defence Scientist, DSO. Professor Lui Pao Chuen was appointed to the newly created post of Chief Defence Scientist, Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) in essay, 1986. He retired in 2008 after serving 41 years in creative, MINDEF and 22 years of service in the appointment as Chief Defence Scientist. He graduated from the perfectionism, University of Singapore in 1965 with a degree in creative essays, Science, majoring in Physics. An Essay About! In 1971, he was awarded a postgraduate fellowship by MINDEF.
He elected to go to college essays the US Naval Postgraduate School and application essay, graduated with a Master degree in Operations Research and Systems Analysis in 1973. In 1975, he was appointed Special Projects Director .In 1984, he was appointed acting Director, Joint Operations and Plans Directorate of the Ministry of essays Defence, in additional to his appointment as Director, Special Projects Organisation. In 1986, he was made Senior Director to set up the Defence Material Organization with the amalgamation of the Material Management Organization and the Special Projects Organization. He was also appointed to the newly created post of Chief Defence Scientist. Prof Lui was on the board of directors of various Government-linked-companies and Government agencies. Currently, he is holding several appointments including the Director of Singapore Technologies Electronics Ltd since 2004, Chairman of jfk assassination Singapore Technologies Dynamics Pte Ltd since 2000, Chairman of college essays Jurong International Holdings Pte Ltd since 2001, Chairman of Sembcorp Design and Construction Pte Ltd since 2006, Chairman, Board of Directors, ATREC Pte Ltd since 2006, Director of Singapore Technologies Kinetic since 2008. Perfectionism! He was also a board member of college essays several agencies and institutes including the Tropical Marine Science Institute and siue, CRISP in NUS since 1996, NUS High School Board of Governors since 2006, Executive Committee for Environmental and Water Technologies since 2006 and Public Utilities Board since 2007, member of Governing Board, Centre of Quantum Technologies, NUS since 2007 and member of the creative, Economic Development Board since 2008. Paul Santos , Managing Partner, Wavemaker Partners. Paul Santos is Managing Partner at about slavery, Wavemaker Partners and leads its Southeast Asian office.
He is an experienced entrepreneur and early stage investor. He co-founded 6 companies and sold 3 of them. He has made over essays, 50 investments in Southeast Asia including Luxola (acquired by gcse english, LVMH), Pie (acquired by Google) and ArtofClick (acquired by Xurpas). Paul sits on creative the Board of of michel de montaigne Directors of the Draper Venture Network (DVN) and on the Advisory Board of the Singapore-MIT Alliance for essays Research and Technology (SMART) Innovation Center. 14 August 2017 - After an arduous process of much deliberation and of michel de montaigne, debating over the various qualified entries, our judges have finally nailed down their decisions to the following 32 teams! Congratulations, once again, to the selected teams which will be competing in the Finals in Singapore during September. Remember to check our Facebook page for more updates on current happenings! 14 August 2017 – Congratulations to all teams who made it to the next round!
After much deliberation, the Top 40 Finalists for creative college the Lee Kuan Yew Global Business Plan Competition have been selected and we're happy to have entries from leading universities like Harvard, MIT and University of Cambridge. These will be the teams flying in during the week of 11-15 September for the competition, be sure to check our Facebook page for the finalists results. 1 August 2017 - Finalist Announcement Date: We apologize for the delay as we're processing the scores to keats make sure we've got the creative college essays, best teams covered. The first batch of finalists has been contacted and essays de montaigne sparknotes, we are still deliberating on college essays the rest. We'll make the siue application, announcement by 14th August 2017 when we have selected all the finalists. Thank you for your patience.
1 August 2017 – Check out our public events held on the 14th 15th September 2017. College Essays! Join us at our public events and perfectionism, get a chance to meet the creative essays, world's most powerful start-up incubator CEO, Michael Seibel as well as finding out who emerges as the grand winner of this year’s competition! Register at - Public Events Page. 1 August 2017 – We are pleased to announce our newest silver sponsor for the competition : Toyota Tsusho Asia Pacific Pte Ltd. 1 August 2017 – We are pleased to announce our newest prize sponsors for the competition: • Wavemaker- Wavemaker Smart City Investment Grand Prize. 14 June 2017 - Submission Deadline Extended to 26 June 2017. We are extending the entry deadline for a short period of time in order to allow participants who register last minute to complete their entries.
It is essential that all entries comply with submission guidelines and are complete in all respects. 14 June 2017 - Finalists Announcement Date. The Finalist Announcement will now be made on: 28 July 2017. 2 June 2017 – We are pleased to announce our newest sponsors for the competition: Amazon Web Services – Amazon Web Services Prize. 16 May 2017 – We are pleased to jfk assassination essay announce our newest sponsors for creative college the competition: PSA unboxed - PSA unboXed Port and Supply Chain Innovation Prize Wavemaker- Wavemaker B2B Enterprise Investment Prize KPMG- Corporate Service Prize Mundipharma. 16 May 2017 - Learn more about bernardo's, Smart City Health in our video series here. 9 May 2017 - More FAQs have been added. 2 May 2017 - Learn more about smart city innovations in our video series here. First episode is now available for watching. 2 May 2017 - Details of the prizes is now available. More information will be added soon.
24 April 2017 - ????????????????????? ????????? 10 April 2017 We are pleased to announce that David Su , founding managing partner of Matrix Partners China, will be judging at the Lee Kuan Yew Global Business Plan 2017. David leads his firm’s investments in consumer internet, Mobile and medical technology. To date, he has invested in many leading companies, of which 9 of them become “unicorns” of more than $1B in value, the latest being Youzan, that was recently listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 10 April 2017 NEW addition to subthemes in the following Smart City categories:
Mobility: Crowd Management Congestion Management Services: Smart retail and cyber security Living: Smart production/manufacturing. Copyright 2017 Singapore Management University. All Rights Reserved.
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Of The Most Creative College Essay Prompts From 2014–2015
The Christian Humanism Of G. K. Chesterton: Truth and the Paradoxical Imagination. In recent decades conservative Christians have decried what they call secular humanism, a creed that undermines the religious and moral foundations of this culture. As a result many are persuaded that humanism and creative Christianity are incompatible, that a person could not possibly be both a Christian and a humanist. This is a terrible mistake. The roots of english coursework, Christian humanism go deep. They reach back to the writings of ancient church fathers such as Basil of Caesarea and John Chrysostom, St. Augustine, and Pope Gregory the Great. In the late medieval period and the Renaissance a new wave of Christian humanism spread in college, the writings of such important figures as Dante, Erasmus, and Thomas More. In recent memory, G. K. Chesterton stands out as one of the most forceful voices of that tradition. Critical Essays Keats! And it is to Chesterton that I principally want to turn here in order to demonstrate what Christian humanism looks like and suggest why we might need new expressions of it as we enter the third millennium.
Recently, Mr. College! Gregory Wolfe edited a volume entitled The New Religious Humanists wherein he brings together a broad range of essays by contemporary writers whose work challenges the dominance of the secularist world view. Wolfe argues that in the history of Western culture religious humanism has made only infrequent appearances and has rarely occupied center stage. He explains that it is a mode of thought that tends to arise when cultural cohesion is threatened by large social and intellectual upheavals. He regards the time in which we live as such a moment. Chesterton responded with Christian humanism to what he judged to be a serious breakdown of the fundamental moral suppositions deposited by biblical faith and the classical tradition. He believed that this declension was due to the loss of conviction in the culture about the reality of the perfectionism Incarnation, that is of God truly having become a human being in Jesus Christ with all the import that that has for human existence. For Chesterton, the doctrine of the Incarnation is the hinge that holds together what is, for the Christian, a vision of the creative essays world that is essentially paradoxical. And he is astonishingly adept at employing this vision in his cultural criticism and Christian apologetics. The Incarnation sheds light where sin deceives and despair darkens the human horizon.
Sin causes us to experience spirit in opposition to matter, faith in conflict with reason, life defeated by essays, death. But the essays Incarnation reveals these apparent contradictions as paradoxes. Contradiction may signal futility, but paradox is pregnant with the possibility of resolution and harmony. Paradox, says Chesterton, is the essays on john keats ally of Truth. The good news of the Christian Gospel is that God who is Spirit became flesh, infinite being became finite existence, the immortal One became mortal man in college essays, order that death might be undone and humanity might be drawn up into spiritual life. God in his being and act unties the deadly Gordian knot of sin.
The errors of pagan religion and the falsehoods of secularism are exposed by the Incarnation and replaced by its truth in paradox. Essay! This divine and human truth opens a way to salvation for creative college, man other than an escape of the soul from matter and time or the desperate embrace of essay, mere flesh and finitude in a courtship with personal extinction. True humanism, argued Chesterton, is creative essays theocentric and not anthropocentric. Most important, Christian humanism honors the fact that, though created from the essay dust, the human being is the sole creature that God has made in his very own image and likeness. It answers humankind's need to be redeemed from a fallen condition in which this image has been tarnished, and in creative college, which death works like the rust that destroys even the most beautiful statue. God is at the center of everything, and God in Jesus Christ draws the human race back to that center. That is application essay how human beings become fully human and inherit eternal life. God in Christ affirms our enfleshed and historical existence and gives meaning to it in spite of creative college essays, death. Within human culture and through the elements of this material world, bread and wine, oil and water, flesh and blood, the siue application essay incarnate Son, the Only-Begotten of the Father, saves us body and soul from sin and death.
God has given Christians compelling reasons to labor with him within and through this physical world to redeem the entire creation. And these Christian facts, Chesterton argued, are the inspiration of Christian humanism. Such a humanism contrasts sharply with man-centered philosophies of life that embrace matter to the exclusion of spirit, or reject the material world in a flight to something called spiritual. Secularist humanism is creative not necessarily atheistic, but it is--in whatever form it takes, whether militant or mild--a symptom of the breakdown of the Christian paradoxical imagination. Chesterton believed that the collapse of this wonderful paradoxical vision of man in gcse coursework, his relation to both heaven and earth lay at the source of the creative modern crisis of meaning. Indeed, what makes Chesterton still instructive for us today is that he lived at a moment in history that marked the end of english, modernity and was on the cusp of post-modernity. Modernity was the result of college, a five hundred year process in essay, which the dual Christian truth about the creative college degradation and dignity of human existence, illuminated by the Incarnation, held together by the paradoxical imagination, was split apart. Secularist humanism emerged from this fractured truth and has not known how to put it back together, even when there is the desire to essays sparknotes, do so.
It seems doomed, rather, to fly from creative college, one pole of that truth to the other. Essays On John! On the one hand, it seeks to affirm, through some form of idealism or other, the divinity of college essays, human life--but abandons the perfectionism essay doctrine of the Incarnation . On the college essays other hand, it is drawn toward the opposite an essay slavery pole of naturalism and relativism and forgets the crucial differences between finitude and sin, and distinctions between error and contravention of higher law. Chesterton's life straddled the creative college nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This gave him the vantage to see the line that was being crossed in his day. The old idealistic liberal humanism born of the Renaissance and Enlightenment was giving way to essays sparknotes, a militant, anti-theistic secularism whose logical outcome is nihilism. The secularist variety of humanism is especially subversive and damaging to Christian faith because it is parasitic.
It exploits and expends the moral capital of Christianity and college essays is incapable of replenishing that capital. Of Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes! In Orthodoxy , his great classic work of Christian apologetics, Chesterton observes that secularist humanism is college using, and using up, the truths that remain out of the old treasury of Christendom; including, of course, many truths known to pagan antiquity but crystallized in Christendom. The deposit of moral truths set adrift by a disintegrating Christendom is essays of michel sparknotes thus gradually degraded--reduced to ideological half-truths and sappy clichs. Consider how secularist humanism uses--and abuses--the distinctly Christian virtue of charity. Instead of the selfless seeking of another's good, charity becomes sugary sentiment. It is invoked to creative college, deny that forgiveness entails judgment and repentance, or that sin even exists. In due course, secularist humanism may rob or empty all of the virtues of their true and vital meaning. Eventually, even ordinary religious folk will catch on and give up believing in perennial norms of human conduct communicated by Scripture and the Church. The final outcome of this kind of process may be seen in what has been done to the religious notion of the dignity of human life.
Uprooted from its biblical ground and bernardo's gcse english the garden of the essays Church, its deep human meaning preserved in the Christian doctrine of the imago Dei is forgotten. Secularist humanism embraces this desiccated concept of human dignity and essay invokes it, ironically, nay tragically, to justify acts that contradict traditional moral teaching. What can the dignity of human life mean when the existence of God is denied in the most practical ways at essays, every level and in every sphere of essay, society? Thus, today, abortion and creative physician assisted suicide are justified by growing numbers of people as the essay appropriate means to honor and secure the dignity of college essays, persons. Chesterton says that the humanism of the secularist leads morality down a perilous road, a road he tells us in Orthodoxy that is paved with pragmatism and essays of michel sparknotes relativism.
Man is told to think what he must and creative essays never mind the Absolute. But precisely one of the things he must think, adds Chesterton, is the Absolute--otherwise the whole of the rest of his world is an illusion. Both pragmatism and an essay relativism make nonsense of the human sense of fact. The road they pave leads to the devil's version of the Emerald City where nothing is what it seems, words are no longer tools of truth but instruments of raw power, and the moral compass is given up because there are no true poles of essays, good and evil or right and wrong. This suicide of thought, as Chesterton calls it, leads inexorably toward the denial of the perfectionism essay existence of the good or anything that is really permanently human. In 1905, in a book entitled Heretics , Chesterton anticipates with uncanny prescience what postmodernism at the turn of the college essays twenty-first century boldly declares. Modern morality, he writes, seems only capable of making a case for itself by pointing out the english coursework horrors that follow breaches of law. Pre-marital sex may be inadvisable because one risks pregnancy or, worse still, Herpes or AIDS.
One probably shouldn't lie because lying undercuts the college social trust that is the precondition necessary for getting what one really wants. All of siue, these prohibitions are subject, of course, to alteration or negation if means may be found to avoid the bad consequences. In other words, modern morality is consequentialist. More than that it is college essays morbidly consequentialist, having lost a sure vision of the goodness of goodness. Images of car wrecks, pictures of people dying from AIDS, and perfectionism essay photographs of aborted fetuses won't necessarily stop people from drinking and driving, engaging in casual or unprotected sex, or escaping the inconvenience of college essays, having a child by having an perfectionism, abortion. At the Creation, God did not say: I will make the seas with clean water not polluted water and the land arable and not desert because it would be a disaster for the environment otherwise. He made the seas clean and the land inhabitable because it was good that they be so. A vision of the good has far greater power to move men and women to do the right thing than all the ugly and terrifying images we may conjure up to frighten them into doing it. There is this great gap in modern ethics, Chesterton concludes, which is the absence of vivid pictures of creative essays, purity and spiritual triumph. He continues in Heretics:
A young man may keep himself from vice by continually thinking of disease. He may keep himself from it also by siue essay, continually thinking of the Virgin Mary. There may be question about which method is the more reasonable, or even about which is the more efficient. But surely there can be no question about which is the more wholesome. In response to these trends and wrong turns, Chesterton draws up a defense of our humanity with both feet firmly planted on the unmovable ground of the Christian doctrine of the Incarnation. In other words, he expounds a Christian humanism. The task of this Christian humanism is to defend our humanum against a philosophy that would persuade us that human nature is without form or essence and that our doings have no more significance than the mold that grows in college, the shower stall. Chesterton once said that he was about the task of rallying the essays of michel de montaigne really human things. Doing this he thought depends upon creative essays the recovery of bernardo's english, dogma against an anti-dogmatic secularism. In Heretics Chesterton explains:
Man can be defined as an animal that makes dogmas. Creative! As he piles doctrine on doctrine and conclusion on conclusion in the formation of some tremendous scheme of philosophy and essays sparknotes religion, he is, in the only legitimate sense . . . becoming more and more human. When he drops one doctrine after another in a refined scepticism, when he says that he has outgrown definitions, when he says that he disbelieves in creative, finality, when, in his own imagination, he sits as God, holding to jfk assassination essay, no form of creed and contemplating all, then he is by that very process sinking slowly backwards into college essays the vagueness of the vagrant animals and the unconsciousness of grass. Trees have no dogmas. Turnips are singularly broad-minded. The secularists contradict themselves. They oppose dogma dogmatically and deny their own humanity in doing it.
They claim to practice empiricism but deny the testimony of lives lived in faith. The seeds of suspicion they sow can grow, however, into fresh seedlings of belief. This is not only humanly possible, this is necessary in order that we retain our humanity. Truths turn into dogmas the instant that they are disputed. Thus every man who utters a doubt defines a religion.
And the scepticism of our time does not really destroy the beliefs, rather it creates them; gives them limits and their plain and about defiant shape. . . . We who are Christians never knew the creative essays great philosophic common sense which inheres in that mystery until the anti-Christian writers pointed it out to us. The great march of mental destruction will go on. Everything will be denied. Everything will become a creed. It is a reasonable position to deny the stones in the street; it will be a religious dogma to siue application essay, assert them. It is a rational thesis that we are all in creative college, a dream; it will be a mystical sanity to say that we are all awake. Fires will be kindled to testify that two and two make four. Swords will be drawn to prove that leaves are green in summer. We will be defending not only the incredible virtues and sanities of human life, but something more incredible still, this huge impossible universe which stares us in the face. We shall fight for sparknotes, the visible prodigies of the invisible. We shall look on creative essays, the impossible grass and the skies with a strange courage.
We shall be those who have seen and yet have believed. Chesterton's turn to dogma is not what it sounds like to the ears of secularists, modern and post-modernist. An Essay About! He is not saying we must believe in dogmas or else. He is not forcing dogma down our throats. Nor is dogma an irrational bulwark against progress. Rather, dogma ultimately emerges and prevails precisely because human beings cannot live, prosper, and progress in a world in which there are no truths. This is the last paradox to which Chesterton draws our attention.
Dogma comes with risks. Dogma can lead to bellicose combat over many truths and many gods. Creative College! For in a sinful world dogma combats dogma and Truth is the elusive prize. Nevertheless, dogma, the right dogma, can elevate us to god-likeness, in essays, the image of the one triune God, in the unity of his Truth, revealed in creative college essays, the flesh of one man who lived two thousand years ago. Contrary to so much of what claims to be Christian in our culture, we are called to de montaigne, believe not in order to gain peace but to know and live the Truth. Dogma is on the way to Truth; but it is hardly the stuff of peace. The first and last lesson of Christian humanism is this: We, by our own efforts alone, cannot sew together the cloth of peace from our sinful and tattered human nature.
Real peace, like real humanity, is a gift and creative essays a transcendent thing that we will enjoy only when we wholly accept and do faithfully obey the God who has become human.
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60s music essay 0 , 1 , alrasesepa 6 , 14 . Music In The 60S Essay Help. Essay on Music Of The 60s #8212; essays research papers Essay on Music Of The 60s . No Works Cited Length: 1357 words (3.9 double-spaced pages) Rating: Purple Open Document Example research essay topic Music Of The 60s #8212; EssayChief.com research essay sample on music of the 60s custom essay writing folk music , music , music styles, pop music , popular music , rock music , woodstock music . Creative College. Revolution of music in the 1960s Essay #8212; 1646 Words | Bartleby Music has continued to change throughout each decade, but the 1960s was the The Influence of Protest Music during the of michel sparknotes 1960#039;s And Beyond Essay examples . The Sixties and Protest Music | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of By 1969 Darin, in a leather jacket with buckskin fringe, was writing songs of that summarized the anti-war music and movements of the 1960s and beyond. Black Soul Of The 1960s Music Essay #8212; UK Essays 23 Mar 2015 In the early 1960s before the British invasion black soul music , Doo wop, This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay A BRIEF HISTORY OF POP AND ROCK MUSIC IN THE 1960#039;S Essay by Jack Madani Eventually rock artists came to be expected to write and even produce their own songs , becoming responsible for everything about how their records In general there were four main pockets of early 60#039;s pop:. Creative. Music of the critical Past vs Today#039;s Music | Teen Opinion Essay #8212; Teen Ink Go back in time a few decades, to the 60s , 70s, and creative college, 80s. some artists to try and expand their music into more than just one topic of “love”, and try writing a song 1960s Essay Examples | Kibin Wrong, the music of the 1960s was a message of an essay slavery, protest, hope and college, open-mindedness. The music of this decade not only application spoke for a culture but a lifestyle. Rock Introductory Essay Rock . Introductory Essay . Charles F. Creative Essays. McGovern, Associate Professor of American Studies and History, of musical groups plugged in and began writing their own songs . The rock music of the 1960s often challenged political authority.
Analytical Essay #2 | The British Invasion However, one of the on john huge anti-war songs during the 60#039;s surprisingly wasn#039;t a rock in many other contexts as well, as the many verses span a variety of topics . Bob Dylan: An Impact on American Society in college, #8212; Dartmouth College. Gcse English Coursework. 10 Apr 2001 The 1960s was a decade of creative college, liberation for music , public opinion, dance influenced Dylan to write music that would in turn evoke changes within . write . Bernardo's Gcse Coursework. I just react and put it down on paper …what comes out in my music BBC NEWS | Americas | Vietnam: The music of creative college essays, protest 1 May 2005 Skip to main content Access keys help And songs were an jfk assassination important part of that protest. In the creative essays early 1960s , the essays de montaigne sparknotes folk- song movement was already well-established with artists like Joan Baez and creative, Bob Dylan reaching a 1960s Folk- Rock Overview #8212; Richie Unterberger 1960s Folk- Rock Overview. This essay appears in essays on john keats, theAll Music Guide. In the early 1960s , any suggestion that the college folk and rock #039;n#039;roll worlds would intertwine were already addressing more personal concerns on the mid-1965 tunes Help American popular music #8212; Wikipedia The field of pop music developed tremendously during this period, as the increasingly low price of recorded music The era of the modern teen pop star, however, began in the 1960s . See media help . Is the Music of the critical essays on john keats 1960s Really the Best Ever? | HuffPost 3 Apr 2013 The #039; 60s witnessed an unparalleled burst of musical creativity, ranging from cassette tapes, for example — made #039; 60s music more available. The Beatles and college essays, Their Influence on bernardo's english Culture #8212; IS MU When I was thinking about what to write about society in the 1960s (which is, of .. College. Even though the Beatles#039; music is not the primary topic of this essay , I find it. Of Michel Sparknotes. MUSS2725 Music , Culture, Politics: the Sixties #8212; Leeds for Life This module will look at creative essays the music , culture, politics, and art of one of the most demonstrate the development of research and essay - writing skills; #8212; develop an critical essays keats Beatlemania: The Defiance of a Generation | PopMatters 11 Nov 2009 By the #039; 60s both teenage culture and rock music were in their second coming. By writing the music themselves, the band was able to capture 79.02.03: Student Protest in the 1960s About mid- 60s rock dominated the scene with bands such as Jefferson .. of King with those of Malcolm X, students write essay supporting one or the other. College Essays. 5. The Importance of Reggae Music in the Worldwide Cultural Universe When reggae emerged in the late 1960s , it came as a cultural bombshell not only to Africa, Alpha Blondy, Tiken Jah Fakoly and Lucky Dube being perfect examples . About. Thus, my paper will examine the impact of Jamaican reggae music on the The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties 14 Jul 1988 It#039;s also plausible that the Beatles stood so far above the musical Nobody could sing and nobody could write , he said, and in essays, any case, Music in the Civil Rights Movement #8212; Civil Rights History Project.
African American spirituals, gospel, and folk music all played an essay important role a piece of paper that said, #039;They#039;ve found the bodies of Goodman, Schwerner, Paper 14: Musical Countercultures of the 1960s — Faculty of Music Paper 14: Musical Countercultures of the 1960s musicology and issues of historiography in college, the twentieth-century, the following topics will be covered in detail: Rock Music Research Essay Topics | Study.com Research two commercial rock bands of the 1960s such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles. Essays. Write and essay comparing and college, contrasting their musical style Analyse the essays of michel de montaigne nature and extent of social and cultural transformations The 1960s were a time of college, great social and an essay about slavery, moral change throughout Britain. I will be exploring these topics further in the course of creative college essays, this essay and . Based on the blues music of America that many British soldiers were exposed to during Songs of the gcse coursework Civil Rights Movement #8212; AXS 18 Jan 2016 Until the creative essays early 60s the an essay slavery song was mostly performed in the white southern folk style. College Essays. John Coltrane was moved to essays of michel de montaigne, write “Alabama” after the Sixteenth Street .. Thanks to Brian Ward#039;s essay “People Get Ready”: Music and the The Vietnam Conflict: The Rock #039;n#039; Roll War | Paola Sarappa | Blog 18 Aug 2011 Also, some phrases were used in the context of the college essays war. For example “ Rock -and-roll” was used for “lock and load”, referring to the procedure for gcse english Protest and Rock n#039; Roll During the Vietnam War #8212; Inquiries Journal In the 1960s , several now-influential artists appealed to the disaffected counterculture#039;s emphasis on peace and love, especially with the creative essays sliding approval rates Culture in The 1960s #8212; Shmoop The #039; 60s . Bell-bottoms and incense, long hair, free love and psychedelic rock —the 1960s are commonly reduced to a set of easy-to-replicate images, phrases, British Invasion | Origins, Groups, Facts | Britannica.com 18 Aug 2017 British Invasion, musical movement of the mid- 1960s composed of British began performing and bernardo's gcse, writing up-tempo melodic pop, fiery rock and. .
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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Creative College! Anna Karenina and Tess of the D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an on john keats unfair existence’ deals with the problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. Creative College Essays! The project is an attempt to find some answers about the women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and dominated by men.
The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. The first one is an introduction into keats the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to its highest point of development and also the dramatic inequities between men and women. The next chapter concentrates on Tess’s life and tries to determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to investigate if Tess of college, D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.
The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on essays on john, Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of college essays, D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era?
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society. Critical Essays On John! The Victorian age it was first and foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into a modern society with the reign of college, democracy and industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the majority of England’s people had houses in the countryside; few of them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in mines or ran deadly machinery in factories. The political and legal power was in the hands of a few people- men who held land. ‘By the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of England’s people were town or city dwellers. London, the jfk assassination, capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of creative, it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by english the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of college essays, railway was built.
England became the glory of the nineteenth century. But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for the workers, the employ of young children in essay, the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and lots of hours of hard work. There were few laws to improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age. More than half the population was children and many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and creative college essays, perceptions. Perfectionism Essay! It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world. It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work.
In what concerns the political aspects of the college, Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ‘By the end of the century, there were public hospitals for bernardo's english coursework, the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for creative college essays, people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and bernardo's english coursework, the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and investments. Creative! This class hierarchy was accepted and understood by the entire population. Class had distinctive signs in manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in jfk assassination essay, specific areas and creative, thought of essays on john, themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to the rules for college, their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the critical on john keats, same behavior like someone for a class above- or below- your own. Creative Essays! What is important to mention is the fact that the of michel de montaigne sparknotes, middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ‘Within the middle class, those with the highest social standing were the professionals (sometimes referred to college essays, as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at the upper levels of governmental service, university professors, and the headmasters of an essay slavery, prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and widely read by college the people of every class and essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and creative, struggles against doubt. Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and jfk assassination essay, free from creative, errors. New ways of essay, thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith.
In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and creative, perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and perfectionism essay, children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of creative college essays, slavery: after the critical, wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth. He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in which women had no chances for emancipation.
This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for retrieval. Signals of dissent were controlled by college essays husbands, fathers and even brothers. The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for her survival. She was somehow forced to depend on man, to beg for existence and for love. ‘Barred by law and siue, custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and sexual thought before the wedding. An indecent behavior was accepted in men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences. Marriage was seen as a duty of women, the complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in creative essays, their lives, an occasion for entering the society, a way of answering the community’s requests. Jfk Assassination! Giving birth to children was the creative college essays, biggest realization in a couple’s life, the ‘crowning achievement of a woman’s life’ . Critical On John Keats! Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to see the creative college essays, sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to jfk assassination essay, the descendants and creative essays, not as a source of pleasure. Sex for of michel de montaigne sparknotes, another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and changed the husband’s image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and thus was unfit to be a mother at creative college essays, all.’ Women weren’t allowed to essays sparknotes, have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the same goals as their husbands, to stay far away from the social life and to be preoccupied with the house and college, the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to be entirely centered on the home.
She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the backing of the gcse, law. College! The children remained in the man’s custody. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the application, woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is associated with pictures of over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms. In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and college, not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and doing another.
This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the Victorian era the society was transforming fast and lots of people could not understand the society’s mechanism. Essays! The nobility, in creative college, the past at the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and used the perfectionism essay, poor to achieve his goals. Children were working in the mines lots of hours and were a viable force for the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. Creative College! In what concerns the essays, Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes.
It’s the beginning of a new way of writing prose, the creative college, lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only jfk assassination ideas but ideas wrote in a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of college essays, great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and essay, religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. ‘Up the still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed. The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town;
At the church on the hill-side’ And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. College Essays! ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction.
Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the of michel de montaigne, role of democracy benefactions and believed that the college essays, population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the masses to glory. Essays Of Michel Sparknotes! The spiritual freedom was a value important for college essays, Carlyle and bernardo's gcse english coursework, he succeeded through his writings to highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to essays, denounce the essays of michel sparknotes, abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the creative college, writer’s duty to speak out against the abuses and inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for of michel sparknotes, the lost of human characteristics. Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and is a threat for the humanity. Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the Children’ is a criticism against the jobs in mines offered to creative essays, the young children. He describes the conditions in the England mines and essay, wrote about the hard life children had to endure in the depth of the creative college, mines.
In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and also than novel theatre. The predominant figure of gcse english, this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about social changes and he raised questions about the veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of personal reflections. Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Essays! Robert Browning is famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to english, capture the beauty of life and creative college, the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch. In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the values and the principles of the culture and life. William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. During the 1890s the an essay, decadents are the creative college, most important figures in the English literature. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the most talented and controversial figure being Oscar Wilde.
The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress. They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and this idea is perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. Siue Essay! They also rejected the idea that literature and art have to creative college, play important ethical roles and literature can offer the reader models of excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for jfk assassination, the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. Creative Essays! It was the preferred form of writing to application, describe and college, analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the middle class. Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations.
Dickens is regarded as the critical essays on john, greatest novelist of the Victorian period and one of the creators of the most well-known fictional characters. College Essays! His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by sparknotes his critics. William Makepeace Thackeray is creative college essays famous for his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon hypocrisy and avarice. Essays! The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns. Essays! Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the about, conventions but dare in their own way. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the creative, pseudonym Lewis Caroll and is the an essay slavery, author of Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated children’s book. At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of art and literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in a short period of creative college essays, time these writings were published and sold in their complete form.
Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. He was kept mostly at home being a sick young. After his completely recovery he started to explore the an essay slavery, countryside he lived in observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes. Creative! He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in application essay, ‘Under the Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the creative, complex routine that shaped his knowledge at essay, this period: ‘To these externals may be added the peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the creative essays, scholar’s life, and the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of perfectionism, one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from six to eight in the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in the company of his father as first violin and college, uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in a remote dwelling among the essays de montaigne sparknotes, fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to the school of Dorchester. After the age of teen he become more healthy and strong and creative college, he could participate to jfk assassination essay, the Greek and creative, Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. Essays De Montaigne Sparknotes! When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and essays, galleries, enjoying every journey and observing attentively all the attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the of michel de montaigne sparknotes, opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. He visited the International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the Victoria and Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at creative college essays, the National Gallery during his lunch period, and keats, enrolled for French classes at King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at creative college essays, a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to attend the University and enter the church. ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to the writings of a wide range of essays on john keats, contemporary thinkers, including the work of John Henry Newman, the leader of the essays, Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in critical essays on john, 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes.
But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of Christianity as negative and passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the last century’ and he was influenced by his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the creative college essays, humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and bernardo's coursework, he won his first earnings from writing but Hardy returned to poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. ‘Determined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to college, develop a vocabulary of his own, and recorded observations of people and scenes for possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in 1865 and 1866 and application essay, remained unpublished many years. Creative Essays! The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found. Critical Keats! In this time the young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to Him’ series of poems, and in college essays, the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the relationship is siue essay recorded in the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and creative, sexuality in essay, Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. College Essays! Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001.
4. Perfectionism! Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman? Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the creative college essays, aspirations such gifts justify, and their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the conventional ruined maid of fiction and a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of jfk assassination, d’Urbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891.
This was an original method of Hardy. Essays! First, the author published his novels, serialized, in a magazine, and then, the novel is published in the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the author reveled in de montaigne sparknotes, a candid manner the Tess’s suffering and he is full of creative college essays, empathy and sympathy for the young girl’s history. It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher.
The novel’s plot and also the heroine were full of sexiness. Episodes full of passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure. All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the most debatable episodes. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and was somehow forced to modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to keats, contemporary reviews. Creative Essays! Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the closest to the original version of an essay, Hardy’s novel. Creative College! Probably the jfk assassination, readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to creative college essays, print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age. After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the essay, ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of marriage.
His heroine, Tess, is a victim of an archaic society which does not accept the woman’s mistakes. This society is entirely dominated by men and accepts only the men’s actions full on injustice, immorality and college essays, decadence. Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the validity of the Victorian age values. About! It’s a significant discrepancy between the college, standards applied to men and the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the public humiliation and essays keats, the lack of respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct. No presumption of innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in creative college, a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the short and tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to womanhood. ”Phase’ is an interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the siue application essay, customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of creative essays, change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the jfk assassination essay, lunar cycle. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the creative college essays, Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and the Seven Pillars of Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of fulfillment in the Genesis story of Creation; the day of bernardo's, rest from labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically.
The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of Prince. In ‘The Chase’, when she is sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in. She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of college essays, Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Perfectionism! Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to creative college essays, help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at siue application essay, home and struggled to creative essays, make Alec understand that she is not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of lies and a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and essay, the life he can offer her. College! ‘Of all things, a lie on this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the english coursework, best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in love with.
She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for creative essays, a misery life, it can be the ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to offer to his British readers an example of essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, morality, integrity and creative college essays, honor. Jfk Assassination Essay! Hardy transforms his heroine into a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. ‘Yet, in breaking the creative, popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by essays of michel some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind. The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to such an end. ‘ On the Phase the Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in her soul and her mind she can start over full of confidence and hope for creative essays, the future. The heroine is prepared to perfectionism essay, embrace the new and unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare.
Is for creative, the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and does not know how to react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully. Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the critical on john keats, heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of college, distance and defense she realizes that in perfectionism, Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and creative college, isolated from the community she lives in but the girl knows that isn’t the right moment. Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, strong feeling for her. ‘The Consequence’ is the essays, title for the Phase the Fourth. Perfectionism Essay! Tess is college essays living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the ugly truth about her past. ‘She makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door.
The cycle of intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable. Essay! Tess’s resolve is challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for creative college essays, Tess. Angel has to face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the young lady who he is de montaigne supposed to marry with. Creative! Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in what concern the Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and siue, his parent’s opposition. Creative Essays! ‘Indeed, his idealization of Tess is partly the cause of her failure to confess. The more he elevates her (she is a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to tell him that she’s none of essay, these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of sorrow and pain. Tess revealed Angel all the truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for college essays, his past and bernardo's, have a happy marriage with. Phase the sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is now a ‘preacher’ and is religious converted. The meeting between Alec and Tess is unwanted by the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for his soul.
Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is creative college essays changed, he succeeded to communicate with the divinity and is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again. Jfk Assassination Essay! In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the love for God with a sick love for Tess. The sexually desire is creative essays stronger than ever and succeeds to transform the man into critical essays a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is essays too late. ‘In accordance with the fulfillment of the seventh day of essay, creation, Tess will now rest. Creative! Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to critical essays on john keats, face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and creative, pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Where Christ’s words were ‘it is done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the victim of the inevitable fate? Could the heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by bernardo's gcse english coursework the society in which she lived?
Since the beginning of the college essays, novel, Thomas Hardy, the author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the perfectionism essay, only one of the creative, white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the gcse english, adjectives ‘fine’ and ‘handsome’ the author suggests that Tess is not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is creative a charming girl having all the necessary physique resources for essay, making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and saving her poor existence. She also seems to be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. College Essays! It is the first novel in which the author describes so deeply the essays keats, feminine beauty, he is entirely focused on all the creative college, femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to look at her is offered again and again to one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). On John Keats! Blindly, they pass right by Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for creative, help from her father in an essay slavery, law. College! To them, she is invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing.
She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the application essay, least human.’ The mixture between red and essays, white (Tess is an essay about wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to be the author’s way of saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the college essays, other girls, is the critical essays keats, author’s warning signal and his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. He stops to dance with the women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to creative, be his dance partner observing her too late. This initial event isn’t just an artifice of writing is also the author’s first sign that Tess and essays, Angel aren’t meant to be together. Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the creative, prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the appearances. And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction. Critical Essays On John Keats! Tess’s fate is decided by the men in her life.
The first male who has a great word to say about college essays her destiny is Tess’s father. After he discovers that is the jfk assassination essay, descendant of an ancient and creative essays, noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. And this is the beginning of sparknotes, a terrible life for college essays, Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in de montaigne sparknotes, meeting Mrs. D’Urbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against nature’ conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the creative, Victorian theme of about, social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. With the importance attached to class in the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in which the creative college essays, concept of class has already been established to form the perfectionism, individual relations of conflict and contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is significant since this background connects him to the rich d’Urbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her. Essays! It was a luxuriance of aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of a woman than she really was. She had inherited the feature from her mother without the quality it denoted.
It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is fascinated by her ravishing beauty and ‘As the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. Siue Application! This shows that Tess is being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by her. College! He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.’ Angel is also fascinated by Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about essays it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated. Creative College Essays! Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the bernardo's gcse english coursework, earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is creative a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and not because of it. The character sees, in general, the metaphysical aspect of the things and values the jfk assassination, ideal aspect of every action, event, and college essays, person.
His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the English translation for the French word ‘Clair’ and perfectionism essay, defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the mystical face of the humanity. The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to ‘heat’ and this opposition is college shown in jfk assassination essay, narrator’s confession of Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to creative, the imaginative and ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about jfk assassination essay his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the essays, helpmate of an agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to a degree, chaste as a vestal and in gcse, personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Creative College Essays! Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and perfectionism, his brothers, he is categorical and intransigent. When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only failing: ‘In the name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to the case! You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to creative college, lie down and die.’ ‘You are very good. But it strikes me that there is a want of jfk assassination essay, harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. She is college essays just a country girl, with little education, living in of michel, the domestic sphere with her parents and brothers.
Tess lives happily on her native heath and suffers a real shock when is forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by the heroine as a curse and not as a gift from God. Men in Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and college essays, can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to jfk assassination essay, be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the college essays, perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. The character is gcse narcissistic, individualistic and essays, heartless. Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of a sad infancy. Essays On John! The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of creative college essays, Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty.
He does the wrong and shifts it onto the victim. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the critical essays keats, sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and creative college, the idea of jfk assassination, male supriority. The heroine is college just an about slavery innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the essays, pure belief that human beings are kind and can’t hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in an essay, love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind.
It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for creative college, her family and perfectionism, respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to creative essays, claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to critical on john, survive. It can be said that the creative college, heroine is like an angel for her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces. An Essay! Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Since the very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to earn money. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in this appellative because the libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Tess is barely answerable for creative college, her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the obsession the man gets for the young girl will destroy her life. Her ‘dumb and vacant fidelity’ to Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Tess’s sensitivity is slavery obviously the result of emotions and college, not of judging.
Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of loving and understanding the human beings. With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by application God. She is creative college a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to add to of michel de montaigne sparknotes, his collection. He is not in love with the poor girl, he is attracted by her appearance and creative college, is the object of his powerful sexually desire. Essays Of Michel! ‘The wicked inhabitant of the d’Urbervilles hall, the permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and creative college, the fresh strawberries. Jfk Assassination Essay! He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into the Tess’s mouth and presses the college, roses onto her breasts.
The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and is the an essay about, reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is creative college essays a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity. The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to critical keats, die. Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the heroine is the creative, only culpable and has to pay for siue application, her mistakes. Essays! She can’t live any more in a patriarchal society which only accepts man’s mistakes and condamns women to keats, have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is doomed to tragedy. She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. ‘Tess’s story, to some extent, reflects the rigidity of convention, the harshness of social law and the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the highest tragedy’, which is creative college essays defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Tess is essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness?
A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her. After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in her face. He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the inconsistency of human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of creative, spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on sparknotes, the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to man and woman in the Victorian age.
The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. College Essays! For example, when Tess is watching the peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later. Because she is raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to become his mistress. Tess’ final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Tess can’t keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says. Bibliography Chapter Two.
1. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Essay! Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. College! Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of siue application essay, a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and college, Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 6. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No.
4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the slavery, D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced? Is Angel an ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. The various overwritings and textual layerings in the manuscript testify to the indecision and lack of single-minded vision in the author. Creative College! Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only essays on john keats of Tess’s sexuality but also of the college essays, controversial issues of essays de montaigne sparknotes, illegitimacy and private baptism.’ Tess is a complex character who has an evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and college, becomes an perfectionism essay example of adaptation.
Tess is the object of creative, Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes. He uses all the methods to seduce the siue essay, innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to manipulate people around him he succeds to make the poor and college, ignorant Tess feel unsure about what’s wrong and what’s right. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. Bernardo's English! Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. Creative Essays! And the girl succeeds to perfectionism essay, achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to creative essays, our sense of about, order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in that fatal night and her life will be different from now on. ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on the gallows.
Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the tree. It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to abuse her. And the fragile girl was unable to defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and college essays, disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to on john, convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the tree was just the expression of creative, that love. ‘This is a question of fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. Siue Application! The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of physical force is used to get a woman to agree to have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to unwanted sexual activity because of a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to college essays, end the relationship or to find someone else to of michel sparknotes, satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the college essays, way they felt about essays keats her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the creative essays, woman’s sexuality . . . Jfk Assassination! making the woman feel guilty; . . . College! calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to sparknotes, do bodily self-harm.’ Although the young Tess is dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the attention she didn’t require.
She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money. She wants to fall in creative, love with a real gentleman who is able to be patient, to conquer her, in perfectionism essay, time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and creative college, value her. But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an answer to siue application, his proposal to treat her as a lover. She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Creative Essays! Is that a flirt, an unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is not aware of them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. Application! He doesn’t know what to believe about the poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in love with the creative essays, ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache?
The weather conditions work against Tess. The fatal night is a foggy one. Bernardo's Gcse English! Alec loses his way in such circumstances and creative college essays, the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is sleeping, there, in the wood. Is Tess less rational because she is sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and can drop the bernardo's gcse english, sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. ‘Hardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is ‘still alive’ and ‘of the female sex.’ Alec puts himself into essays the position of the perfectionism, wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to creative essays, catch Tess and essays of michel, seize his power over her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Creative College! Alec with Tess on the same horse passes through the Chase. Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the perfectionism, finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ The meaning of this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the creative college essays, fate.
Some people are born to suffer, the critical essays keats, universe has strange plans for them. They can fight against creative college the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory. Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the way destiny functions: ‘ It was to bernardo's english, be!’ but he rejects the idea that children are punished for the mistakes of their ancestors ‘ is creative college scorned by average human nature’. When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to marry her, the heroine is offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of perfectionism, her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to change her fate and has to face the social rejection. She is essays seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for breaking society’s rules and religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of perfectionism, harmony with the actual world, not she. Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. College Essays! Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord.
She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of essay, society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on essays, a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of gcse english coursework, Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an creative essays accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in coursework, synchronism with the essays, nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection. Hardy associates the social law with convention and focuses on the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive.
According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. An Essay About! She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to be pure. College! But, is Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to bernardo's coursework, these natural laws, the man, as an alpha male, made everything possible to preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid. Besides the social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice. Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to demoralize.
But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the First. Hardy gives clues about the imminent encounter using symbols and symbolic events: the creative essays, colors red and white, the essay, virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and the death of Prince. This is the author’s way of preparing the reader for the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. There was no answer.
The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at college, his feet, which represented the siue, white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike. College! D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in de montaigne, a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the agression upon essays, Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess.
The heroine is asleep and doesn’t give an answer to Alec’s accost. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. The physical contact is at perfectionism, first kind and caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers’ and this affirmation is creative college followed with the siue essay, statement that the heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the creative college essays, narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of a retribution lurking in the present catastrophe’ , and the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of bernardo's coursework, Alec assault. To an alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the essays, idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the jfk assassination essay, passage that describe Tess’ sleep and her lack of verbal response- the passage, in short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of a woman by creative force, and against siue her will.’ Mews’ Digest of English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is without her consent.’ And also the law specifies that: ‘If the woman is asleep, when the college essays, connection takes place, she is bernardo's english incapable of consent, and although no violence is essays used, the pisoner may be convicted of rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to his address, the essay, reader can say that Tess is college not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the essays on john, tree. Creative College Essays! She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is asleep and jfk assassination essay, the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and essays, receives no answer to his accost. Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of signification at the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the idea that Tess is raped and slavery, not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost.
This sleep is crucial for essays, the poor girl because does not allow her to critical, return to her former condition and college, brings her to a new stage- the essays of michel, girl is obliged to start a new chapter in her poor existence. With the beginning of Phase the Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of essays, Alec’s desire, she is an accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the seduction rather than the sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in a letter written in 1891 to an essay slavery, thank Thomas Macquoid for his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to the seduction (but not the rape) of Tess in the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for creative, the sake of the slavery, Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes. Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true reading of Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an artifice of writing used by the author to maintain his readers’ curiosity about Tess’ sexuality and creative college essays, purity. Essays On John Keats! In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and deserves everything that happened to her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the first of these events- the creative essays, assault upon Tess in Phase the First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of perfectionism, consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and creative college, her will cannot be known- is an essay slavery beyond question in the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is creative essays a dishonest character, he knows how to manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in gcse coursework, you’ . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of creative college essays, leaving the of michel de montaigne, wood, he makes ‘a sort of couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry.
He also tells the creative, girl that he has bought a new horse for application, her father and her siblings have now toys to play with. Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and goes to find the creative, way. What can the reader notice now is the fact that the entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and translate the fact that Tess is absorbed into the natural environment. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and the unseen. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the application, reader can find important clues about the seduction and not the rape of Tess. College! The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by Alec and that the coursework, tragic event was a moment of vulnerability. And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship. She accuses Alec for creative college essays, seducing her and not for essays, an sexual assault. Writing about Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from creative, Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is sexual assaulted or seduced. Essays De Montaigne! But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for him now.
She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. College Essays! That was all. Siue Application! Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to her, and even for her name’s sake she scarcely wished to marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the creative college essays, reader can draw the conclusion that for a little period of time the essays de montaigne, girl was superficially attracted to Alec and sexually stirred by him. College! She never ‘wholly’ loved the man and this is siue application a strong reason to believe that the essays, heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and an essay about slavery, blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for his cruelty? When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about this law and wrote this scene under the influence of such law. To conform Hardy’s intentions to Victorian law on creative essays, rape, Davis argues that what the author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by seduction.
Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the bernardo's coursework, tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. She had risen at five o’clock every morning of that week, had been on foot the whole of each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to creative, Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the way home, and had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against creative college him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms. The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the horse, withdrew his feet from the stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to essay, support her. This immediately put her on creative essays, the defensive, and with one of an essay slavery, those sudden impulses of college, reprisal to which she was liable she gave him a little push from essays on john, her. Creative! In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the master of tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for him.
He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for love, he wants to take Tess’ virginity. ‘He settled the matter by bernardo's gcse clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and creative college essays, Tess expressed no further negative. Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by slavery the short journey from Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and that they were no longer on college, hard road, but in a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and not to be awaked. Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and jfk assassination, practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to creative college, receive; why so often the bernardo's english, coarse appropriates the essays, finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and an essay about, discredited wherever she goes. When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and essays, indirect attacked. Essays Of Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes! In the church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at last observing her they whispered to each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to church anymore. Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and her child is the real proof of that sin.
She is really unhappy in her village and thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and all that appertained thereto was to essays, annihilate it; and to do that she would have to essays of michel de montaigne, get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to leave her house and to try to creative, start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. She is hunted everywhere. Essays Of Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes! Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite, Forgot me quite!
I would that I could shrink from sight, And no more see the sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to stand and creative college essays, tell.
When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience. The love story lived with Angel, the love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the perfectionism, facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and essays, self-determined. Critical On John! She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the natural laws. ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on creative essays, virginity and the church insists on critical keats, the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to college, live free in essays, a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of college, confessing Angel his past because she is a woman with experience and knows that in a society dominated by men, in bernardo's coursework, a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is ‘just the creative essays, same’ as his’. She will not use sex to win Angel over during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is characterized by lack of bernardo's gcse, competence or honesty taken to extreme. She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in mind her own moral values and not the creative essays, society’s. Angel confesses to Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and after listening with great attention the girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. Bernardo's English! ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. Creative Essays! ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again.
Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste. Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about essays her brow, and ‘ ring the delicate skin underneath. According to creative, Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out essay, Tess’s words. After the college essays, statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the siue application, same!’ Saying these words she tries to convince herself and creative college, the man she is in siue application, love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by him because their situation is ‘just the same’. The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his. Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self!
If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and creative, speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. Critical Keats! I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’? Angel has annihilated the creative, image of woman he was in love with- ”the woman I have been loving is perfectionism essay not you’ . Tess is scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and creative essays, shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Significantly, the fallen woman is rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by the seducer but by the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by her past but by the man she is critical keats married to. Even though her sin is still alive in her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the man who raped her and away from the creative essays, family that did not succeed to gcse english, understand her sorrow and to college essays, cure her wounds.
In a men’s world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in a lie and decides to tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is coursework punished because she is a woman in a men’s society and is married to a man caught in Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being’.she is simply what man decrees’.she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her. She is the incidental, the unessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three.
1. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 2. College Essays! Danielova, M., ‘The concept of of michel de montaigne sparknotes, purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of creative college essays, Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Of Michel Sparknotes! Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and the law, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Essays! Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by essay Juliet Grindle and college, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Perfectionism! Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed.
Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 7. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and creative, New York, 2006. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to an essay about slavery, Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans.
H. N. Essays! Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and Tess of D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877. Critical Essays Keats! Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view. Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the life of the heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of creative college, any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Bernardo's Gcse Coursework! Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of her life would only be of local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in creative college, her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for the men she lives with, because the siue application, most important problems in any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for a society which is dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations.
The question regarding the creative essays, women’s position in society was initially formulated in the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the english coursework, Russian elite after the creative college, translation of Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in perfectionism essay, 1869. The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about women’s condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of college essays, reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by men and which needs a change. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the essays, novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the idea of creative college, oppressed women were influenced by the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the man they want to love and to be happy with. Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Jfk Assassination! Petersburg who lives a life full of bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and she is in creative college, love with a young officer. About Slavery! This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for his exile from the society she belongs to and will bring her death.
Even though Tess of D’Urbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is college sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out essay, there is a big world and she has to creative college essays, be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of her- the both heroines are guided by the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and on john, be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is essays poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of beauty and perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for critical keats, children. Anna is very elegant and is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in love with her. Her life with a cold and passionless government official taught her to play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. College Essays! She is also a good hostess and an essay about slavery, plays all these roles with style and refinement. The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the creative college, fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain.
And if the an essay, woman is married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in order to prove to himself that he has the real qualities to college, win, he is better than the husband and he can really understand the critical essays on john keats, heroine’s needs for love and creative college essays, support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the essay, perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and college essays, obeys entirely her husband because he is always right. Anna has an ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on her own terms. ‘All the girls in the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the usual human feelings and were very ordinary girls; while the other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and was superior to all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in order to explain the essay, great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century. The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in college, traditions like servitude, and perfectionism, autocratic government, while the creative, West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of farming. His peasants refuse to implement the new technology having the jfk assassination, strong belief that the traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in creative college, the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of social class in England and in the same time the complication of defining class in the Victorian England.
A proof for bernardo's gcse english, this affirmation is offered by the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in creative college, the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and jfk assassination essay, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by college essays the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the critical keats, government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an creative educated and sophisticated man who is capable to forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the critical essays keats, chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the creative college, young officer. What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to choose the complicated way and not the of michel de montaigne sparknotes, simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is essays not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of live and she wants to love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and mother.
She craves for a life of ardent emotion and noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is characterized by critical essays formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of creative, his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of bernardo's gcse english coursework, his life- a life without grand passion and essays, excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. An Essay Slavery! There’s a big age gap between the two characters and also different ways of living and seeing the life and life’s values. Anna craves for sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is college happy with the monotonous work and family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way’ is the first line of the Tolstoy’s novel and an essay, reveals the fact that the novel is concerned with the happiness, is a declaration for the need of happiness. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and college, renounced to her comfortable and siue application, respectful life? Why is a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for creative college, the real love and for fervent feelings and when they will meet the love they will be capable of leaving everything for that noble feeling.
Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and emotion. Critical! Anna is ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and college essays, she will be seen as a sinful women. But that’s the de montaigne, essence: a woman, who has the courage to love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is what defines a heroine. Creative College! Tess of D’Urberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is just an innocent peasant girl who is of michel convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is considered by creative college the Victorian society as a decadent human being and bernardo's, convicted to the social rejection. ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at college essays, war with God, only about slavery with Society. Creative Essays! Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon them and all the while by their own souls they were right. Siue Essay! And the creative college essays, judgement of essay, men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the judgement of Ethernal God. Essays! Lev Tolstoy chose to analyze the “woman question” enclosed in a comparison: He puts in opposition Anna’s search for sense in life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for his epoch: He converted Anna in application essay, an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to creative essays, be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification.
Tolstoy’s belief that true love and essays de montaigne, happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the heroine’s drama. Anna finds for creative college, a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in Vronsky’s arms but her lack of autonomy and social rejection brought by a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow. Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not. Essay! He also highlights the idea that lots of woman had relationships outside the college essays, marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for application, her actions similar to their own.
The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to college, learn and to work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in the house’ and also for their husbands and nothing more. If the woman lost her virginity and honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of shame and sorrow. Essays! If the husband was unfaithful, the society won’t blame him for the sexual behaviour. R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the train’ highlighting the power of the society which can determine the destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about essays her character is significant and striking, and this applied as well to her love.
She cannot limit herself as another character in the book, Princess Betsy, does, to an undercover affair. Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to kill her. After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is also ready to renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and also between herself and the domestic sphere.
After the social rejection also the position of mother is bernardo's gcse english coursework soon denied her, and later she is not enough concerned in developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of her life. Even her outfits limit the character. She wears only black clothing expressing the fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the love story of her life. Tess of D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by her family to creative, improve their economic position and reputation. Siue Application! She grows in a small village being protected from the influence of an creative essays aristocratic society with decadent values. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to love and to be loved. She is not interested in siue application, having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. But the society is cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead. Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is essays blamed by a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to admit that her marriage is perfectionism a formal one and she is not happy.
She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is college very happy. Her guilty is that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in critical keats, a society in which the creative essays, relationships outside a marriage are accepted and formal alliances are protected. Tess of D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and defend herself against a world dominated by siue application men and she had the creative, courage to tell Angel that she was raped and he had a little baby. Perfectionism! She did not want to marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the college, hypocrisy dominated in the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to renounce to his social status and professional position for finding the about, real love.
His involvement in his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to college, protect the weak people. But the Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames. An Essay! His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and college, not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an essay exceptional man who could make her very happy and creative essays, could offer her a completely rescue and a burial into application a seductive passion. The heroine is very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is limited and he is just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of her first relationship. Essays! ‘Anna had been preparing herself for this meeting, had thought what she would say to him, but she did not succeed in perfectionism essay, saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to Anna seems to decrease in later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the true situation because he finds out about this wane of devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the fear that the man she loves and for whom she has sacrificed her marriage and creative, her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in love with the an essay about, heroine. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is still fascinated by creative college her beauty and personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for application, this situation.
Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and college essays, her whims but for Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love. The reader cannot decide is right in essays de montaigne sparknotes, this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to bring together Tess and Angel and also to creative, determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy.
The love the critical essays, both characters feel for each other is genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply. She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the novel the creative college essays, reader can clearly see that Angel is in love with the image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. She is compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the gcse, ideal of feminine beauty and creative essays, perfection in order to an essay about, be loved by creative Angel. And Tess is not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to love and to be loved. In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is willing to accept woman as an equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an of michel de montaigne ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and essays, can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and an essay about slavery, forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and also failed in being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin.
His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to only after the college, longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of D’Urbervilles is raped, the scene is surrounded by mist and the reader does not exactly knows what to think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and enveloped them. Application Essay! It seemed to hold the moonlight in suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at which the creative essays, lane to critical on john, Trantridge branched from the college, highway, and that her conductor had not taken the essay, Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of essays, a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of essay, first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the haze on the mountains in Switzerland. That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . Creative Essays! . . Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at critical essays on john keats, the ball and creative, “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities.
Tess of D’Urbervilles is an jfk assassination innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an aristocratic men and to be part of the creative essays, aristocratic society. Anna is essay also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely. Tess’s downfall is caused by her lack of college essays, education in what concern such a complicated subject for the society she lives in- sexual relationships and it can be said that her trust in men is determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Of Michel! Anna, on contrary, is unable to read her novel on her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to live herself.
If she read how the heroine of the college essays, novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”. When she discovers, it is to of michel de montaigne sparknotes, make an instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of happiness … and essays, Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and that she was ashamed for the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and forget Anna’s infidelity. Perfectionism! The heroine is not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is it you want of me”?I want you not to essays, meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the servants can reproach you…not to see him. That’s not much, I think. And in return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. That’s all I have to say to you. Now it’s time for me to critical on john keats, go. I’m not dining at essays, home.’ He got up and moved towards the door. Essay! Anna got up too.
Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in love with, a man who harmed her. ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in my face. I am ready to pay to college, the uttermost farthing. You know you need not work in the fields or the dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, you, and college, I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on doing that, and I won’t.’
Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and gcse, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 3. Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and college, the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993. 5. About Slavery! Nabocov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981.
6. Creative Essays! R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. Essays Of Michel De Montaigne! Tolstoy, L. College! ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in essays of michel de montaigne, the domestic sphere, the creative, family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and essays of michel de montaigne sparknotes, politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. Creative College Essays! The Victorian women were seen as being pure and essays, perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of essays, slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV’.
Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of jfk assassination, Chicago Press. 4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and the law’, Legal Presences in creative college essays, Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya.
7. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in perfectionism essay, Philology’, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Essays! Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991. 9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of about, Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in essays, Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.
13. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in perfectionism, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the creative college, D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Essays On John! Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.
16. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Lotman, I. ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 18.
Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novel’The theory and interpretation of creative essays, narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993. 19. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ‘Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist’, London: Macmillan, 1994.
21. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ‘Women and Sexuality in application, the novels of Thomas Hardy,’ Routledge London and New York, 2006. 23. Morgan, R., ‘Student companion to Thomas Hardy’, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 24. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the creative, hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. Nabokov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26.
R. G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Rogers, Katharine, ‘The Centennial Review’, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans.
H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of about slavery, social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf. 31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of college essays, Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays of michel sparknotes, essays:
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columbia essay By Michael O’Toole. In his essay On Cannibals, Montaigne continually asserts that what is natural is synonymous with what is good, and that Nature herself ought to creative college essays be the light by which human action is siue essay, guided. It is not surprising, then, that he presents a highly idealized characterization of the natives of the New World. He perceives these cannibals, as he calls them, to be men who live in the way Nature intends them to live, unadorned and unfettered by modern civilization. Essays! Montaigne goes so far as to claim to have found in these cannibals the jfk assassination, golden age, spoken of so often by philosophers and poets as merely an unattainable dream.
He boldly asserts that in the character of these people, all of the true, most useful, and natural virtues and properties are alive and vigorous. The characterization of Ariel and Caliban in essays, The Tempest is significant in relation to Montaigne’s essay, which was one of Shakespeare's main inspirations for the work. In On Cannibals and in The Tempest , both Montaigne and Shakespeare explore the relationship between human nature and modern civilization. Montaigne’s idealization of the cannibals contrasts sharply with Shakespeare’s unsympathetic portrayal of the brutish Caliban, whose name thinly veils the influence of Montaigne’s essay. Whereas Montaigne’s cannibals are praised as wild fruits, produced by nature in her ordinary way and application without any artificiality, Shakespeare’s cannibal appears to be as pathetic, crass, and vulgar as any individual can possibly be portrayed. This seems to imply that Shakespeare’s portrayal of creative essays Caliban is a direct attack against the form of wistful idealizing of Nature that Montaigne is so fond of. Yet the complexity of of michel sparknotes The Tempest lies in its essential ambiguity. This ambiguity stems from the juxtaposition of the brutish and pathetic character of creative essays Caliban with the sprightly and sympathetic character of Ariel. Both Caliban and Ariel are natives of the island, and hence can be thought of in terms of Montaigne’s cannibals. By analyzing the characterization of these two characters in relation to Prospero, one comes closer to determining how The Tempest as a work of art responds to and challenges Montaigne’s essay. Lying at the root of Shakespeare’s response to Montaigne is a differing conception of human nature and the extent to which modern civilization suppresses it.
Ariel and Caliban can both be viewed as the colonized subjects of gcse english coursework Prospero, and the differing attitudes of these subjects towards their master is indicative of the differing ways in which human nature responds to modern civilization. Creative! Both Ariel and Caliban are individuals undoubtedly oppressed by Prospero, yet each develops a different relationship to their master based on their natural character as well as their prior circumstances. The scenes of The Tempest are structured so as to emphasize the differing characterizations of Ariel and Caliban in their relationship to Prospero. Throughout the work, interactions between Ariel and essay Prospero come directly before or directly after interactions between Caliban and Prospero. The contrasting nature of essays these interactions occurring dramatically portrays the contrast between the attitudes of these central characters. The first appearance of Ariel immediately establishes his character as that of a submissive, deferential subject. His language is that of a slave who binds himself to his master without question:
To answer thy best pleasure; be’t to essay fly, To swim, to dive into the fire, to creative ride. On the curled clouds. To thy strong bidding task. Ariel and all his quality.--(I, ii, 189-93) Ariel’s self-effacing willingness to serve Prospero contrasts strongly with Caliban’s attitude of about sardonic rebelliousness exhibited in the same scene. Whereas Ariel greets Prospero with an affirmation of his greatness, Caliban greets him with a curse: With raven’s feather from unwholesome fen. Drop on you both!
A south-west blow on creative college ye. And blister you all o’er!--(I, ii, 321-24) Caliban’s apparent hatred for Prospero is evident in much of his speech, which consists predominantly of curses similar to this one. In these initial encounters, the contrasting aspects of Ariel and Caliban’s separate relationships with Prospero are emphasized. Ariel is portrayed as a submissive servant, while Caliban is characterized as rebellious and spiteful. Caliban's first speech emphasizes the conflict that arises from an essay, his lack of gratitude towards his master. Prospero, having drawn Caliban away from college, his savagery and towards modernity, believes that Caliban owes him a debt of jfk assassination essay gratitude. Creative! In fact, Caliban did at first love Prospero, but it was autonomy that Caliban professed to want, not slavery.
When he is subjugated, Caliban thus rejects everything that he has inherited from Prospero, including language. Caliban essentially feels betrayed, and this is evident in essays de montaigne sparknotes, the tone that is used to address Prospero in his first speech: Which thou tak’st from me. When thou cam’st first, Thou strok’st me and made much of me. . and then I loved thee. Cursed be I that did so. For I am all the subjects that you have, Which first was mine own king; and here you sty me.
In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me. The rest o’th’island--(I, ii, 331-44) Unlike Ariel, Caliban has no future promise of freedom that will justify an creative college, attitude of deference. His rebellious attitude is a reaction to his feeling that he is being unjustly used and subjugated. It is Prospero’s art which controls both Ariel and bernardo's english Caliban, binding them to his authority as their master. Prospero's magic art can be seen to stem from his connection to modern civilization. One can see how he utilizes his art, akin to modern technology, in order to suppress and subjugate. He is creative essays, portrayed as a colonizer who exploits the innocence of his subjects to his own advantage.
Prospero uses his power over gcse Caliban in a malicious, vengeful manner. He influences Caliban by intimidating him with threats of bodily discomforts and annoyances. Caliban dramatically emphasizes the extent of this power when explaining why he does not simply run away: It would control my dam’s god, Setebos, And make a vassal of creative college essays him.--(I, ii, 372-74) Prospero’s relationship towards Ariel is of a quite different nature than his relationship towards Caliban. Whereas Prospero uses his magic in english coursework, order to subjugate Caliban, he uses it in order to free Ariel from the curse of Sycorax.
The submissive attitude of Ariel in his relationship with Prospero stems from the debt that this engenders in college essays, him towards his master. When Ariel becomes so bold as to ask Prospero when he is to be set free from his authority, Prospero has only to remind him of this debt and bernardo's coursework Ariel’s submissive attitude is restored: Let me remember thee what thou hast promised, Which is not yet performed me . Prospero: If thou more murmur’st, I will rend an oak. And peg thee in his knotty entrails till. Thou hast howled away twelve winters. Ariel: Pardon, master. I will be correspondent to creative command. And do my spriting gently.--(I, ii, 242-45; 294-98) Ariel is content to serve his master only to the extent to which it ensures his future release.
In a sense, he is repaying the gcse english, debt he owes to Prospero by willingly subjugating himself to him. Creative! Caliban is jfk assassination, quite different from Ariel in this respect, for Caliban feels no debt towards Prospero. College! Whereas Ariel has a motive for his remaining submissive to Prospero, Caliban lacks any such motive. Lacking any feeling of debt in his relationship to Prospero, Caliban thus develops the rebellious and accusatory attitude that characterizes him through much of the work. One of the most significant differences in character that separates Ariel from Caliban is the essay, way in which each uses language. Whereas Caliban communicates almost entirely by means of vulgar curses and complaints, Ariel communicates through poetry and song. Each character’s different approach to language is indicative of their different attitudes and modes of thinking. Ariel’s language is ordered and stylistic. Creative Essays! It betrays a mind at ease with his environment, a mind in which creativity and wit have sufficient room to develop. Caliban’s language, on the other hand, is the product of a mind surely in essays on john, a state of creative college general discomfort and ill ease.
Caliban, unlike Ariel, is not of the mind to produce anything remotely similar to poetry or song. Caliban has entirely rejected language itself: Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid you. For learning me your language!--(I, ii, 363-65) This is significant in that by rejecting language, Caliban is rejecting knowledge itself. With knowledge comes a realization of one’s inadequacy, and Caliban prefers to remain in that more primitive state of coursework blissful ignorance. This is not surprising, for Prospero has given Caliban the tools of communication and self-knowledge, but has failed to give him the freedom and self-responsibility with which it is necessary to creative college essays enjoy them. When contrasting Caliban’s speeches with those of Ariel, the difference is significant. Ariel’s songs are filled with alliteration, assonance, rhyme and meter:
And then take hands. Curtsied when you have and kissed, The wild waves whist, Foot it featly here and there; And, sweet sprites, the critical essays on john keats, burden bear.--(I, ii, 375-80) This is language suitable to a sprite with little care, almost absurdly childish in its nursery rhyme character. College! Ariel's language here is pleasant and musical, clearly the product of a clever mind, yet it possesses none of the insight and import that is perfectionism, characteristic of similar characters in creative college, other Shakespeare works, such as The Fool in King Lear . It is not until the second half of The Tempest that one can accurately make any judgements on the characters of Ariel and Caliban.
Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Trinculo adds insight into perfectionism essay his character and his attitude. Creative Essays! Likewise, Ariel’s enchanting of nearly everyone on the island is significant in defining this character’s role in the work. It is possible to view Caliban in the first half of the work as a slave who is rebelling against jfk assassination essay his oppressive master. This characterization is accurate, evidenced by the extent to which Caliban’s language expresses his resentment and unwillingness to serve Prospero. Yet when Caliban encounters Stephano and Trinculo with their celestial liquor, he willingly subjugates himself to creative college essays them. Caliban does not ask them for his freedom, as would be expected. Essays! Rather, he begs them to college essays be his master, even his god. Essays! Caliban thus shows himself to be incapable of college autonomy.
In his relationship to slavery Stephano, Caliban is even more pathetic than in his relationship to creative college Prospero, for he abandons his rebellious attitude for one of hero-worship and grovelling. By putting himself in willing slavery to Stephano, who is no more than a drunkard and a buffoon, Caliban shows himself to be truly in a pathetic state. Perfectionism Essay! The vicious curses that he had constantly sent to his old master Prospero are replaced by requests to lick the shoe of his new master. College Essays! A drunk Caliban even attempts a poetic song for the first time, and makes a fool of himself by stumbling over his name: Nor fetch in essay, firing. Nor scrape trenchering, nor wash dish. ‘Ban, ‘Ban, Ca — Caliban. Has a new master: get a new man.--(II, ii, 175-80) He joyously hails his new situation as Freedom, high day, unaware that he is simply stepping into another set of chains, this time those of liquor. Caliban becomes a more sympathetic character in the second half of the work. College Essays! His weakness is made more apparent, and the ease by which he is manipulated shows him to be a victim of his circumstances, possessing a nature weakened by subjugation and oppression.
Although the characterization of Caliban shows him to be a more pathetic character as the play progresses, the characterization of Ariel displays quite the opposite. Ariel occupies the most important role of the play during the last two acts. Critical Essays On John Keats! It is Prospero who conceives the ideas for enchanting the essays, shipwrecked Italians, but he can only gcse english carry them out with the creative essays, aid of Ariel. In the same way that Ariel is about, dependent upon creative essays Prospero for his freedom, Prospero is dependent upon gcse english Ariel for the fulfillment of his plans. Thus Ariel’s character is college essays, expanded beyond that of the content servant or willing slave.
His role as executor of Prospero’s strategies makes him essential to Prospero’s success. This entails a significant reversal in roles. Ariel becomes the one in an essay about slavery, control, for it is his power of creative college enchantment upon which Prospero is dependent. Tied into perfectionism this reversal of roles is an increased confidence and authority in Ariel’s language. In his speech to Alonso, Antonio and Sebastian in Act III, Ariel condemns these three in the same type of authoritarian language which had previously been reserved only to Prospero: Are ministers of Fate. The elements, Of whom your swords are tempered, may as well. Wound the loud winds, or with bemocked-at stabs.
Kill the still-closing waters, as diminish. One dowle that’s in my plume. My fellow ministers. Are like invulnerable.--(III, iii, 60-66) Ariel’s use of language as a means of intimidation is quite different from his sprightly poems and songs of the first two acts. Essays! His changing use of language is evidence of perfectionism a changing attitude. As Ariel comes closer to college essays his freedom, his demeanor becomes more confident and less submissive. He is becoming more independent, and thus more strong in character.
Where the second half of the work shows a Caliban increasingly destitute and siue pathetic, it shows an creative essays, Ariel increasingly self-assertive and autonomous. The conclusion of The Tempest shows Prospero regaining his dukedom, Ariel finding his freedom, and Caliban resigning himself once again to the authority of Prospero. Although it seems at first to be a pleasant state of affairs, a closer look reveals it to be quite the of michel de montaigne, opposite. Prospero is surely unfit to be a duke, as his overbearing and oppressive nature throughout the play attests to. And although Caliban’s assertion that he will seek for grace from Prospero indicates that he will be a more willing servant, this can hardly be considered a better state of affairs for him.
It seems as if Ariel, in winning his freedom, is the only one of these characters whose state is college essays, truly better than it was at the opening of the play. Siue! This is significant in that among these characters, the college essays, distinguishing characteristic of Ariel is that he is not human. He is therefore unrestricted by human nature, and human nature in this play is decidedly not portrayed as a liberating force. Especially in de montaigne sparknotes, the relationship between Prospero and Caliban, one sees the creative college, destructive force that exerts itself when a human being takes it upon himself to control another. Jfk Assassination! Shakespeare's word play in creative college essays, naming his characters emphasizes this idea. Siue! In the same way that Caliban’s name can be rearranged as Canibal, the letters in Prospero's name can be rearranged to spell out Oppresor. This can hardly be seen as coincidence, for college essays, in the relationship between the two, one is able to discern that Prospero wields his intelligence and modernity as oppressive forces. Montaigne exalts the cannibals for having maintained a civilization so natural and unartificial, but Shakespeare asserts that when exposed to modern civilization, the cannibals become no different than the Europeans. The moderns employ their magic powers – intelligence, technology, and liquor – to subjugate and oppress the cannibals. Yet the cannibals willingly allow themselves to be captivated and entrapped by the spell of modernity.
Whereas Montaigne praises the cannibals and places blame on modern Europeans, Shakespeare asserts that neither the cannibals nor the essays of michel, Europeans deserve praise – save for a few rare individuals, they are both equally pathetic.