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Michelangelo Antonioni and the “Reality” of the Modern. The concept of the Modern obtains two distinct yet related definitions. The first definition is typically the hinds bar association contest, most common one and is broadly used to suggest the present day. The second definition borrows from the first, but pertains more specifically to social and Canopy A cultural movements that aim to break with and modify classical and traditional notions of cohesion, progress, and structures. County Bar Association Essay! Roger A. Salerno suggested that the Modern can be broken down into either Modernity or Modernism, the first referring to psychology essay question, the social constructs that surround a certain “way of life,” and the latter referring to the cultural movement that arises from these social constructs.  While this differentiation is helpful, it is also insufficient.
For example, Antonioni’s films can be found in relation to Modernism and Modernity alike. County Bar Association Essay + Ms! What makes up the elements of Modernity in the social structure? And what are the elements of Modernism in the arts? Eugene Lunn narrowed down the definition into four unifying aspects common to most modernist aesthetic methods: Self-Awareness; Simultaneity or Juxtaposition; Ambiguity; and Dehumanization of the Canopy Book by Elijah, Integrated Individual Subject or Personality.  Lunn’s four aspects are very closely interrelated: not one aspect appears alone; each aspect is always accompanied by the other three. Yet, Lunn’s four aspects are in no way sufficient to explain the complex dynamics of the Modern. The Modern (along with Modernity and Modernism alike) and its aesthetic embodiments are discursively constructed through a variety of competing forces each trying to make sense of other discursive constructs. They are not by hinds county essay + ms, any means concepts that make sense in essay question, themselves. Rather, they are only coherent by their comparison to other concepts within a discursive framework. Clearly the concept of the Modern is multifaceted and cannot be simplified to a short list of characteristics.
Accordingly, anything that is produced in the Modern will also share this complexity. Conclusively, Solarno’s and hinds bar association + ms Lunn’s approaches need to be combined. Using Michelangelo Antonioni’s Il Grido (1957), L’Avventura (1960) and L’Eclisse (1962) as enunciations of the critical on john keats, intricacies of the Modern, this essay will explore both Lunn’s four aspects of modernist aesthetics and Salerno’s division of the Modern into Modernism and Modernity. Because of the county essay + ms, circular patterns that make up the The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book by Elijah, narrative structures, Antonioni’s films are both self-aware, as well as containing elements of hinds bar association contest simultaneity. For example, in Il Grido we follow Aldo from the tower (where we first meet him), all the way to psychology, the huts on the beach (towards the end of the film), and county essay contest back to the tower. Persuasive Summer Vacation! Already in the complete structure of the narrative there appears a circular pattern. However, Antonioni also repeats this notion throughout the shorter episodes in the film. Within each episode there is the potential for Aldo to fall in love with four different women. Within every one of these storylines there is a repetition of the narrative structure, as well as the themes of isolation, emotionlessness, depression, modernization – ruralism versus urbanism, or nature versus industrialization – and sexuality. With Irma, Aldo first encounters separation from his traditional expectations of a family life. In this encounter old traditions seize to exist.
Aldo’s and Irma’s relationship is anything but traditional, it is an adulterous relationship. Irma’s decision to end their relationship results in hinds contest + ms, Aldo’s outrage at short of uncle toms, Irma in front of the community. Aldo loses control of his emotions because he realizes that his reality is not as stable as he originally thought. Beginning to feel isolated within his home and community, Aldo decides to leave on a search for a more stable life. Alternatively, this decision can also be read as Aldo simply running away from his problems. Regardless of what Aldo’s reasoning is, the themes of separation, isolation, emotionlessness (Irma’s decision to separate from Aldo at hinds bar association + ms, a time when their relationship is supposed to cognitive skills ability to judge, become acceptable, and county bar association essay Aldo’s decision to leave his emotions and try to find a place where he does not have to think about them), and modernization (Irma’s and Aldo’s adulterated relationship) are already put in The Cosmopolitan Book A, place. Chronologically, we then meet Elvira who also feels isolated. We get the sense that Elvira feels lonely and depressed.
We begin to county essay contest + ms, think that Aldo can become like her, that his feelings of isolation are changing into depression. Furthermore, in Elvira we also find that the likelihood of family stability is questionable. Keats! In addition to this, Antonioni relates these problems to the modernization of the county essay contest + ms, Po Valley where these characters live. Modernization causes the old traditions to become invisible or indistinct. Aldo and Elvira are seen as two individuals caught between an old traditional quest for love and test essay question a new reality that makes this quest unattainable. Following Aldo’s visit to county bar association essay, Elvira, the same themes of essay of uncle toms independence over one’s life are explored in Virginia. However in Virginia we find a character that willingly modernizes her life, but similarly, loses her freedom in order to live her life as she pleases. Though she is seemingly more autonomous, Virginia is also less free to leave the gas station. In an hinds essay ironic manner, Antonioni relates Virginia’s attachment to the gas station with the removal of the tree where her old farm used to be. Virginia’s seemingly routine reaction of frustration with her father’s protest of the about summer, removal of the tree, reveals her attitude towards her reality.
She tells Aldo that she wants to travel beyond the mountains, yet she chooses to own the gas station where she finds there is more security. Finally, Aldo ends his quest northward after meeting Andreina, a prostitute who is the most willing of all of the characters to accept the changes surrounding the modernization of Po Valley. The only thing that matters to Andreina is to make sure that by the end of the day she will have food to eat. Her willingness to sell her body for sex reveals that she has no need to search for love, in hinds bar association essay, the traditional sense that all of the other characters search for. She may even be described as someone who is void of emotions.
Her relation to sex rounds up the themes of emotionlessness and critical keats sexual impulses we have seen in relation to all of the other women. While the rest of the county bar association contest, women treat sex as an expression of Canopy by Elijah A romance, Andreina treats sex as a commodity. Contest! In Andreina sex reaches an undesired sense of mechanization. This is what has occurred to the environment, due to the modernization of Po Valley. Structurally, we can see in these examples how elements of simultaneity are presented in the same instances where circular patterns can also be found. Aldo’s travels across the Po Valley brings him to three situations where, within each episode, a woman character is used to reveal the dynamics of the themes of isolation, loneliness, modernization, and romance. Vacation! The result is a juxtaposition of the recurring situations found in unifying themes as well as the use of parallel plot lines – the potentialities for romance between Aldo, and Irma, Elvira, Virginia or Andreina accordingly. As viewers we are made aware of the cyclical patterns that are being used. Through the circular patterns and hinds bar association + ms the juxtaposition of these unifying themes and essay toms cabin parallel plots, these two aspects of Lunn’s definition for hinds county essay contest modernist arts arise in Il Grido . Ambiguity, Dehumanization: Realizing Modernity. The most notable instances of ambiguity, Lunn’s third Modern aesthetic, occur in the endings of Il Grido , L’Eclisse and L’Avventura , where we are uncertain of the characters’ intentions.
Did Aldo, in Il Grido , commit suicide or was he so overwhelmed with uncertainty that he lost his balance and fell? Did Claudia feel forgiveness in L’Avventura? Was she consenting Sandro, or both? And similarly, why didn’t Vittoria and Piero meet at the end of L’Eclisse? Were they both aware that they were lying to upenn, each other, or did they both coincidently remember that they had other prior engagements to attend? Antonioni even leaves room for ambiguity about his intentions behind the films: Are they about moral decay? A critique of the upper class? An analysis of technological impact on the human mind? An environmental outcry about the hinds county bar association, effects of persuasive essay vacation industrialization on the environment? The list can go on. Conversely, the films are about all of these issues.
Definably, Antonioni’s films are an exploration of ambiguity using an assortment of county + ms ironies surrounding modern life and art. One of the reasons why there is so much ambiguity in Antonioni’s films is due to persuasive essay about, his unconventional use of the characterization. Antonioni does not explore the reasons why his characters behave the way they do. Instead of expanding the characters’ intentions through the cause-and-effect approach of conventional narrative cinema, Antonioni uses his characters as cinematic devices in order to express his personal philosophical reflections on the realities surrounding modernity. Consequently, Antonioni mystifies his characters; or using Lunn’s terminology, he dehumanizes them. To further illustrate Antonioni’s dehumanization, I will turn to Walter Benjamin’s essay The Work of county contest Art In the Age of Mechanical Reproduction . In this essay Benjamin argued that cinema obtained a power to “democratize” the process of art-making by creating an “immediate reality” where individuals can immerse themselves within a more communal form of social structure .
This was a celebration of persuasive vacation technology as well as an approval of cinema as an art. Benjamin identified cinema as “an orchid in the land of technology” . As a filmmaker, Antonioni asserts Benjamin’s proclamations, yet instead of exploring the technological environment by means of the camera, Antonioni implores the exploration process itself thereby exploring the essay contest, technological process behind the production of a film. Where Benjamin differentiated cinema from other technologies, Antonioni differentiates cinematic techniques from themselves. Antonioni regards each and every aspect of the cinematic language as an orchid in itself – cinema is capturing cinema; a representation of short toms cabin itself, a cinema for the sake of cinema. Most concisely, the hinds bar association, techniques of cinema themselves are the subjects of Antonioni’s films. Furthermore, not only does Antonioni show the technological environment of cinema, he also demonstrates the film’s self-awareness by showing the technological environment in Italy.
By including the technological environment of Italy as part of the mise-en-scene, Antonioni makes us more aware of technology and techniques as contents, thereby informing us of the manipulative presence of the techniques of cinema that are used in The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book by Elijah, the form of the hinds bar association essay contest, film. In relation to The Cosmopolitan Canopy, this, dehumanization of the subject or personality is also exemplified in Antonioni’s frequent employment of characters suffering from loneliness and emotional isolation. Antonioni uses these characters ambiguously in order to convey a type of feeling or attitude that surrounds modern society, while at the same time treating them as cinematic devices. The characters are dehumanized because they become one aspect of the film’s form. They belong to a film that is definably a technological medium. The characters are stripped of human qualities because they are treated as a part of a technology. When Antonioni says: “I feel the need to express reality in terms that are not completely realistic,”  he is partly transforming Benjamin’s perception of the county essay contest + ms, cinema as a mirroring of reality, and is partly revealing his dehumanization of the subject-matter of The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah A his films. For Antonioni cinema is hinds essay + ms not a tool that documents the world with ethnographic or anthropological tendencies such as those of colonial cinema .
In Antonioni’s approach, the techniques of ethnographic and anthropologic cinema are transformed to a position whereby they become the subjects of the cognitive skills to judge, films themselves. County + Ms! Antonionian cinema is used as a tool that documents the logics (or techniques) of cinema. Not only does Antonioni dehumanize the characters, he also dehumanizes the classical sense of capturing the subject “realistically”. For example, in L’Eclisse , colonial ethnography is a central thematic concern. From the representation of African and colonial customs at Marta’s apartment, to the representation of the customs at critical essays on john, the Borsa (stock market exchange), Antonioni re-views the themes of fragmented individuals and cultures in relation to county bar association contest, ethnographic logics. As Kevin Moore argues, “[Vittoria] dances her way into cognitive in critical thinking ability a bedroom muralled by a panorama of Lake Naivasha in Nairobi, and Antonioni shoots the sequence as though she were stepping into a picture, going through the looking glass into hinds bar association a foreign world” .
Moore points out the test question, way in which Antonioni is representing Vittoria as an outsider. Vittoria does not belong (nor does she want to belong) to any specific group. County! She is a visitor, an alien, or as Moore suggests, a character on the “quest for short essay difference” . The same occurs to essay, Vittoria when she visits the Borsa. The yelling and short cabin movement surrounding the hinds bar association essay + ms, center of the upenn essay professor, room is shot as if it were a ritual. Characters such as Vittoria’s Mother and hinds county essay + ms Piero are portrayed as individuals who take part in this ritual. Vittoria’s mother goes directly to the same spot against the rail, and Piero is essay almost always either running from the phone booth to hinds county bar association contest + ms, the center of the short of uncle, room and back. Hinds Contest! Whether there is a ‘good day’ or a ‘bad day’ at the Borsa, almost everyone’s reactions are the same. Either most individuals in the Borsa are happy or most are upset.
Everyone involved reacts as though they all belong to the same pulse. The scenes at the Borsa can be seen as instances of anthropologic cinema, where an observation of persuasive essay humans’ behavior in bar association essay + ms, their own cultural environment occurs. Vittoria herself enters the Borsa hall as an essay professor outsider exploring the room. Antonioni situates Vittoria on one side of the columns or the gates that separate the different spaces in the Borsa, further exemplifying her outsider presence in the scene. If we take it to believe that ethnographic and anthropologic perceptions are traditional, and therefore belong to a classical sense of contest + ms capturing the real, then Antonioni’s treatment of these perceptions as subject-matter dehumanizes them.
Furthermore, the short of uncle, fact that Antonioni likens the characters to bar association, these methods of perceptions, the inscription of a loss of identity in them – Vittoria is skills in critical thinking ability to judge a translator and is searching for a new life; Marta is an immigrant from county bar association essay + ms, Kenya and is indirectly discussing the loss of her identity; and Piero works at the Borsa which constantly fluctuates his financial identity – is persuasive summer another way by which Antonioni dehumanizes his human characters. Antonioni furthermore implies the dehumanization of the subject matter in county bar association + ms, the ending sequence, where, for over seven minutes, the subjects simply disappear. Instead, what follows is a series of incoherent shots of buildings and human bodies that have been seen throughout the summer vacation, film serving as mise-en-scenes. The expectancy of Vittoria and Piero to show up at the corner at the time designated leaves us lingering to find out what will happen when they meet. Instead, neither one of them show up. But the film continues, signifying that Vittoria and Piero were only devices used by Antonioni.
Their lives are of no importance. Hinds County Bar Association + Ms! What is important is that their lives are incomplete. The end of the film resonates with an existential sense of ‘not-belonging’. What happens to vacation, Vittoria and Piero because they did not meet does not interest Antonioni. Hinds Contest! The fact that they did not meet tells more about skills thinking to judge his intentions.
Their rendez-vous serves the purpose of not occurring. This resonates the idea that these characters are alienated even from each other. Antonioni further presents this by alienating our memories of hinds county essay contest + ms Vittoria and Piero into the cinematic space that encompasses the critical essays, final sequence. The harrowing conclusion to L’Eclisse . Fractured Bodies Fracturing Forms. Thus far in county bar association contest, L’Eclisse , Antonioni has incorporated elements of Lunn’s self-awareness (reflexivity and critical on john simultaneity) between different characters and situations, as well as, ambiguity and the dehumanization of the integrated subjects. But Antonioni’s input does not end here. Antonioni furthermore represents these elements formally by hinds county bar association, the way he frames the human body throughout the Book, film. Antonioni frequently shoots only county bar association essay + ms, sections of the characters’ body.
Unlike the framing of classical-narrative cinema, Antonioni intuitively frames a hand or a leg off-center. Here the body belongs to test, the mise-en-scene just as much as a chair or a wall does. The resulting fragmented body parts are seemingly dissolved into other similarly floating fragmentary objects in, what can be referred to as, an hinds county essay contest + ms Antonionian cinematic landscape. This notion of cognitive skills thinking ability to judge breaking down our perception of the human body is not only a break down of ethnographic logics, but also an imploration of the logics of framing in classical narrative. Overall, Antonioni makes use of hinds bar association + ms cinema’s numerous contextual discursive layers in order to create an intertextual language about cinema. With this, not only does Antonioni create a layer of self-awareness, he also dehumanizes the subject-matter. Instead of cinema as ‘an orchid in the land of technology,’ it is essay about summer vacation cinema showing the land of contest technology in an orchid. In other words, the notion of reality is represented as a cinematic device.
Not only in critical thinking ability, do the films show the technological modernization of the landscapes in Italy, these representations of reality are conceived of as expressions of a cinematic language. Bar Association Essay Contest + Ms! Reality is found in the mediated environment of cinema. It is a cinematic reality. When Antonioni says “I feel the need to express reality in terms that are not completely realistic,” he is simply claiming that cinema creates a certain type of reality. It is not the camera’s vision inside a world; it is essay summer a world inside the camera. Antonioni uses socio-political realities of colonialism and the Borsa as devices in the film. More importantly, Antonioni is bar association contest representing these subjects in a way that transforms conventional uses of cinema. Antonioni stirs away from making any clear distinctions between the “real” world that is external to the film and the world as it is depicted in the film. Cognitive In Critical Thinking Ability! As Kevin Moore writes: [Antonioni’s films] resist the easy identification forged between viewer and viewed, audience and character, observer and object-subjectivity, upon which the classical Hollywood cinema depends. This methodological resistance situates the viewer in a nonvoyeuristic or objective position where reference is intentionally underdetermined.…Antonioni is out to essay, explode or blow up all pat interpretive schemes (beliefs) regarding romance and reality by embarking upon cinematographic investigations of our perceptions of emotional perception. 
The non-traditional framing of the subjects transforms our understanding of what “subject” is. More specifically, this transformation reassesses the relations between subject as content and subject as form. In Antonioni, subject can be seen as both physical – elements that have a “physical presence” in skills in critical thinking ability, the film (i.e. characters’ physical bodies, buildings’ physical spaces) – as well as socially and culturally discursive – elements that grow out of socio-cultural practices (i.e. colonial voyeurism, alienation). Furthermore, Antonioni uses cinema and its ability to capture the hinds essay, “real” world, while at the same time also capturing the norms of visual language constructed through cinematic practices. For example, in L’Avventura the norms of cinema suggest that Anna will eventually be found either dead or missing. Instead, Antonioni does not determine anything of such sort.
Anna’s disappearance is left as ambiguous from the moment it occurs in short toms, the film until the end of the film. Antonioni decontextualizes the narrative by leaving it open-ended, by bar association, not fully involving the audience in the search for cognitive to judge Anna, and by not determining the motivations behind the characters’ behaviour. The audience’s expectation is based on the conventions used in other films. Antonioni uses the conventions established through a majority of films as devices that he then strips to their bare essence. To illustrate Antonioni’s use of film norms as a discursive practice, which he then manipulates in his films, let us examine some of the county bar association essay + ms, more popular interpretations. Of the many reflections made about Antonioni’s films, in regards to Antonioni’s use of characters, there have been mainly two camps of interpretations.
There are those who believe that Antonioni’s use of the mise-en-scene is to represent the inner psyche of the characters; and persuasive summer there are those who have formed an understanding of the hinds essay, characters based on their interaction with each other. For example, Rifkin analyzes Antonioni’s representation of the characters psyche in The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book by Elijah A, Il Grido through his use of the mise-en-scene: Antonioni’s perspective on hinds bar association essay man and nature begins to psychology test essay question, surface more overtly in Il Grido …Antonioni repeatedly depicts Aldo against the flat, austere landscape to manifest his protagonist’s existential malaise. County! A thematic current running through the film is the The Cosmopolitan A, eclipse of nature in the modern world, analogous to Aldo’s own feelings of emotional obsolescence once he leaves Irma and his home in Goriano.  The representation of Aldo’s inner psyche is represented through the empty landscape that surrounds him. He is one with his surroundings.
On the other hand, in his discussion about the presentation of emptiness in L’Avventura Harry Trosman argues that “sexuality is used as an antidote to despair and a way of dealing with loss, humiliation, anxiety, or boredom. Sandro quickly establishes a tie with Claudia rather than allowing himself to mourn the hinds bar association contest + ms, disappearance of Anna.”  Trosman concentrates on how the characters respond to situations by making psychologically logical decisions. The truth is that both views are correct. Antonioni acknowledges both of these interpretations in The Cosmopolitan by Elijah A, his films. Rifkin is county essay correct to interpret that the landscape in Il Grido represents Aldo’s inner ‘existential malaise’, as is Trosman when he interprets that the characters in L’Avventura use sexuality as a way of dealing with their unfulfilled lives. That is because Antonioni integrates both of about summer these interpretations simultaneously. But this is hinds + ms only one of the ways in which Antonioni contextualizes the critical on john, different interpretations that can potentially surround a film. As was mentioned earlier, there are many ways in which Antonioni contextualizes cinema’s norms. Ultimately, a different interpretation arises. In this interpretation, the films begin to pertain to the realist versus idealist dichotomy that is often discussed in relation to the modernist notion of utopianism.
This dichotomy is at the core of Antonioni’s films. The theme of utopianism can be found in all three of the films that are being discussed in this essay, but are also found in many of county bar association + ms Antonioni’s other films. On John Keats! In Il Grido , Aldo is searching for utopian ideals but everywhere he travels resembles more of a dystopian reality. Similarly in L’Avventura , utopian idealism is portrayed as eroticism, while a dystopian reality is portrayed as the alienation due to modernized culture. And, in L’Eclisse , a utopian sense of hinds county bar association essay contest + ms belonging to a community is juxtaposed with a dystopian sense of isolation and loneliness.
The modernist notion of utopianism can be found in Antonioni’s presentation of a dystopian reality. Or as Kevin Moore writes in regards to alienation in Antonioni’s films: To be alienated in about summer, an Antonioni film is to be resentfully situated in an overlyindustrialized, capital-intensive world that fails to provide a nurturing environment in hinds county bar association contest, which the emotions might flourish. The chief difficulty in criticism’s near uniform application of this negative notion of alienation, however, is that it obscures a utopian gesture implicit in it. Although it is true that disconnection and its chief effects, loneliness and essay toms cabin isolation, are thematically relevant to hinds county bar association + ms, Antonioni’s cinema, the alienated self’s melancholic search for its lost ideal world tells only half the story. The other half is history, or the historical self’s search for an accommodation with a world it has itself produced. Rather than an end in itself, alienation, the effect of de-identification and non-correspondence, is the beginning of a process which, ideally, replaces the self back into a world of its own devising and into a community of upenn essay professor like-minded others as well. Bar Association Essay!  Moore explains that ideality can be found in the sub-texts of Antonioni’s films. Essay Of Uncle Cabin! Alienation is presented as a negative form of reality, a reality that is far from being utopian. By illustrating a dystopian reality, Antonioni hopes to inscribe utopian ideals that are opposing the ones that are seen in his films. Modernity and its Modernisms.
In a statement made at a press conference in Cannes, Antonioni discussed his motives and considerations in the making of L’Avventura . In this statement, Antonioni suggested that the “ever-increasing split between moral man and scientific man [leads to the prevalence of county essay eroticism as] a symptom of the toms cabin, emotional sickness of our time” . Antonioni relates the issues that he deals with in L’Avventura with the modern social construct. For Antonioni, liberalism is discussed in hinds essay contest, its relation to alienation due to its nature of misplacing the previous moral mindset for the unknown realms of the scientific mindset. As a result, those individuals who find themselves alienated due to the split between morals (i.e. ideals) and science (i.e. reality or a constraint to follow one ideality) are only able to express themselves through sexual means. The statement was Antonioni’s attempt at clarifying his view that the film was a search for a utopian idealism. But how does Antonioni portray this theme in the formal scheme of the film? Hamish Ford provides a starting point for the response: While L’Avventura is a kind of road movie, the The Cosmopolitan Canopy, classical ideals of action as means to county bar association essay + ms, successful and morally unambiguous subjective mastery and psychology test essay bringing about of narrative events become eclipsed in this “adventure” by the radically foregrounded power of temporal and bar association spatial affectivity.  In all three films discussed in this essay, Antonioni begins by taking the conventional approach to narrative filmmaking – the use of persuasive about summer vacation character-driven cause-and-effect devices in order to formulate moral conclusions – and makes them part of the form of his films. Where normally these devices would be considered the content of the film, in L’Avventura these devices are considered aspects of the form of the film. Character plots are unresolved, characters are used as props within a mise-en-scene, Italy’s landscapes and their cultural meanings are diminished to serve as formal aesthetics of the county + ms, film.
The films at The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah, the end do not obtain any conclusive moral messages that are not ambiguous. As in modernist paintings such as those of Piet Mondrian or Jackson Pollock, the content of Antonioni’s films are so abstract that they risk obscurity. The films are about form as content. That is, both form being used entirely as content, as well as an integration of content as form. Working under the guise of the modernist idiom ‘ l’art pour l’art ’, Antonioni’s films are attempts at creating a cinema that explores its formal artistic capacities, and that alone. But more than this, these explorations also serve as enunciations of modern aesthetics and concerns caught within a modernizing and modernist world. Anna, the “protagonist” in county bar association essay + ms, L’Avventura , is an illustration of both content as form, as well as, modern concerns. Essays On John! We are first introduced to her through an argument that she is having with her father. We are made aware that she is having a communication problem with her father, whom she lives with. We are also made aware that her father is a retired diplomat and that he is hinds + ms very wealthy. Also, we understand that she is having problems with a romantic relationship specifically regarding the topic of marriage.
The film continues with Anna and her friend Claudia traveling to Sandro’s home. To Judge! Upon arrival Anna confides her emotions to Claudia about her situation with Sandro: “It’s awful to be apart, you know. It really is, believe me. And it’s hard to make it work when one person’s here…the other far off somewhere. But…it’s also convenient.
Because then at least you can think whatever you want, however you please –if you know what I mean. County Essay! But instead when…when someone’s right there, right there in front of you, everything’s right there, do you understand?” Anna is psychology test essay confused about what she wants from her relationship with Sandro. She further complicates her problems by pursuing sexual activity with Sandro, immediately after she confides her emotions with Claudia. A few scenes later, Anna finally confronts her situation directly with Sandro during their discussion on the island. She confronts her desires to be alone and free while at hinds county bar association essay contest + ms, the same time explaining that the thought of losing Sandro makes her want to die. Canopy Book By Elijah A! This scene ends with a dissolving shot of Anna (the back of her head to the camera) looking at Sandro lying down on a rock.
This is the last time we see Anna in the film. After this shot, Anna’s physical presence in county contest + ms, the film is no more. But was her presence in the film ever really felt? The introduction of many characters, and with them other plots, gives the sense that Anna’s presence was never the focus of the film. Even by the end of the by Elijah A, film, the audience does not completely have a sense of who or what the film is centered around. That is essay contest because even though Anna does fill much of the short essay of uncle cabin, content and continues to be a central-conflict after her disappearance, her existence is to serve the hinds bar association essay + ms, purpose of disappearance.
Anna’s character has an internal conflict with what she is expected to become in her own life’s future, in a way that is echoed structurally in the future of the film’s narrative. We expect that Anna would physically remain throughout the film, and that if she disappears she would eventually be found. Instead Anna is never found, and at the end the film becomes more about Claudia and Sandro’s relationship with themselves and each other. As a cinematic device, Anna stands in persuasive about summer, as a representation of ambiguity and isolation in modern life, as well as the resituating of morals in the modern world. Finally, Anna’s disappearance serves to conclude that Claudia and Sandro’s search for her results in the translation of fear and frustration into eroticism.
Accompanying this representation of modernity is also a layer of what Roger A. Salerno refers to as the culture of modernism: While modernity is frequently viewed as a set of social characteristics that describe a particular way of life, or even an era reflecting such attributes, modernism … is more exclusively seen as a cultural movement … Modernism, as a movement in the arts, emerges from the county bar association + ms, influences of modernity.”  In Antonioni’s work we find that the films contain both a modernist aesthetic, and are also about the upenn essay professor, culture of modernism and the period of modernity. We also find the relations between fragmentation-simulation, form-content and the ideality-reality dichotomy, as signifiers of the hinds county bar association, modern framework. In his analysis of the idealist-realist dichotomy, Robert Lyons describes Antonioni’s characters in L’Avventura as representations of the contrast between ideals and reality. “Throughout the film Antonioni virtually stereotypes certain characters within the ideality-reality framework to in critical thinking, corroborate his point that the people in L’Avventura ’s reality have no appreciation for an ideality. They live in an ephemeral, mutuable and unnatural reality.”  Antonioni uses characters as devices that deal with loneliness and isolation. Hinds Bar Association Essay! These characters suffer from alienation solely to represent alienation. Antonioni does not explore the characters any further. The Cosmopolitan Book By Elijah! That the characters have no depth is hinds county essay contest + ms Antonioni’s dehumanization of them.
They remain as they are without the essay of uncle toms cabin, use, for contest + ms example, of epiphany that is common to classical narrative. Cognitive Skills Thinking! This is hinds essay + ms also Antonioni’s aesthetic choice. In this sense, Antonioni is documenting alienation in modern reality. Yet these characters also represent a desire for a better, more ideal, reality. As viewers, we watch a struggle between characters who can easily change due to new circumstances, and others who become repressed by the changes being made. We watch the transformation of a social reality in essay of uncle, the terms of modernist aesthetics.
The three films discussed in this essay reveal the dynamics surrounding the themes of the modern. The modern is treated not only as a social, technological, or political force but simultaneously also as an artistic and culturally aesthetic discourse. Themes of alienation, isolation, tradition, and technological modernization are represented not only through representing a “reality” of modernization as it is established through the hinds county bar association essay contest + ms, situations where the stories take place, but also through the established conventions of classical narrative as discursively formulated situations that are also being explored, investigated, and made to be displayed to a critically aware audience. In these films we can see how issues of psychology question modernity cannot be separated from those of modernism. In being attentive to both aspects of the Modern, Antonioni’s films divulge the complexity of this period, revealing a modernity through the aesthetics of modernism, and a modernism through the realities of the modern. 1 Salerno, Roger A. County Bar Association + Ms! Landscapes of Abandonment: Capitalism, Modernity and Estrangemnet . Albany: State University of cognitive thinking New York Press, 2003, p.38. 2 Lunn, Eugene. Marxism and hinds county contest + ms Modernism: An Historical Study of Lukacs, Brecht, Benjamin, and Adorno . Berkley: University of California Press, 1982, pp.34-37. 3 Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Video Culture: A Critical Investigation . Ed.
John Hanhardt. Layton, Utah: Gibbs M. Smith, Inc. 1986, p. 40. 5 Barthes, Roland. Keats! “Dear Antonioni…” L’Avventura: Michelangelo Antonioni, Director . Eds. Seymour Chatman and Guido Fink. County Bar Association Essay + Ms! London: Rutgers University Press, 1989. p.210. 6 By colonial cinema I refer to films such as the critical essays on john, Lumiere bothers footage of African cultures and county contest Robert J, Flaherty’s Nanook of the critical essays keats, North (1922), where the photographing of the subjects physical selves is at the center of interest. Hinds Essay + Ms! Clearly this has very little distinction from other kinds of cinema.
All cinema have an interest in short, photographing the physical characteristics of its subjects. But, as will soon become apparent, for purposes of this essay the identification of colonial cinema is significant to understanding Antonioni’s film L’Eclisse . 7 Moore, Kevin Z. County Bar Association Contest! “Eclipsing the Commonplace: The Logic of Alienation in Antonioni’s Cinema.” Film Quarterly , v.48 (Summer 1995): 28. 10 Rifkin, Ned. Antonioni’s Visual Language . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1982. 11 Trosman, Harry. Essay Professor! Contemporary Psychoanalysis: and Masterworks of Art and Film . New York: New York University Press, 1996. p.132. 13 Antonioni, Michelangelo. “A Talk With Michelangelo Antonioni.” Film Culture , n.24 (1962): 51. 14 Ford, Hamish. in county essay, Senses of Cinema: An Online Film Journal , Issue 28, Sept-Oct 2003, 7. Accessed June 2005.
Antonioni’s L’Avventura and Deleuze’s Time-Image. 15 Salerno, Roger A. Landscapes of Abandonment: Capitalism, Modernity and Estrangemnet . Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. p.38. 16 Lyons, Robert J. Michelangelo Antonioni’s Neo-Realism: A World View . New York: Arno Press, 1976. Persuasive Essay About Vacation! p.44. Zach Melzer is currently enrolled as a PhD student at the Concordia University Mel Hoppenheim School of Cinema in Film and Moving Image Studies. Melzer’s interests include modernity, cultural materialism, and the history of moving image media. His current research focuses on understanding the social, economic, and hinds county bar association contest cultural factors that inform the dynamics of screen technologies found in essay of uncle, public spaces.
Realism and Reality in Antonioni’s Profession: Reporter. Zabriskie Point (1970, Antonioni): A Scene by Scene Analysis of hinds essay a Troubled Masterpiece. Fragile Images and ability Concrete Things. Giallo (2009) vs. Four Flies on Grey Velvet (1971) The Work of essay contest + ms Cinema in the Age of Digital (Re)production. Najmeh Khalili Mahani.
1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Before you get invited in for an interview, employers and recruiters look at hinds county essay contest + ms your resume to see if you’re a good enough candidate for the job to be worth their time. If your resume doesn’t look good, you don’t look good. Even if you’re qualified, a silly mistake on your resume can kill your chances. Think of your resume as your 60 second audition in front of a judge on one of those reality TV talent shows. The person reviewing your resume (Britney, Simon, Xtina) will quickly decide whether to give you a shot at persuasive about summer the big time or send you packing. So the golden rule is: Make a good first impression, and don’t look dumb!
You can do this by avoiding common mistakes on your resume — the kind that we see even great candidates making. Remember, you only hinds essay contest, have a few seconds to either make a good first impression or to essay toms, make a really bad one. 1. Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. A grammar error or misspelling can stand out like a sore thumb and tell the employer that you’re careless. Luckily, these mistakes are easily avoidable. Spell check, but don’t rely on spell check to do all of the work for you. I have seen plenty of essay contest + ms resumes with embarrassing mistakes that spell check didn’t catch — it was a real word, just not the one that the candidate wanted to use in his resume (be careful to never, ever leave that first “L” out of “public relations” in in critical thinking ability your resume). Your eyes see what you meant to type instead of what’s really there.
An objective reader can make a big difference in helping you catch spelling and grammar problems as well as many of the other mistakes listed in essay contest this post. It is particularly important to proofread carefully if you are applying for jobs that require writing skills and/or attention to thinking ability to judge, detail. For a potential future boss, your resume is your first work sample and should reflect your ability to hinds essay contest + ms, write, edit, and summer, proofread if hired. If you’re not sure about a grammar, word usage, capitalization or punctuation issue, just look it up. Grammar Girl is just one great resource for hinds county essay contest practical application of grammar rules. You want your resume to stand out, but there is of uncle toms such a thing as standing out in a bad way. Hinds County Contest + Ms? You may think it’s creative to use 6 different fonts and test essay question, colors, but that kind of essay + ms creativity tends to just look clumsy. Avoid too many font types and steer clear of The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book by Elijah font sizes that are too big or too small. Big fonts make you look like you are SHOUTING (and can also indicate that you don’t have enough good content to county bar association essay contest + ms, fill a resume with normal-size text). Small fonts may help you keep your resume to one page, but it’s not worth it if the reader has to squint.
You should also avoid long paragraphs and long blocks of text. Most people scan resumes very quickly and often skip over long paragraphs and miss key information. Use white space and bullets to upenn essay, make your resume format easy on the eye. Use of bar association bullets can also ensure better reader comprehension when visually scanned. Leave comfortable margins on the page and make sure that everything is neatly aligned. Upenn Essay? Look neat. Look smart. Also, keep in mind that there’s a good chance you resume will be scanned electronically as more and more companies use special software to bar association, index resumes. If you’re using wacky fonts, the software may not pick up important keywords and your resume could get tossed undeservedly. Your resume is meant to be a marketing document — an introduction that will get you in the door for an interview. This isn’t the time to “think outside the box” and design a glossy, hot pink, legal-sized resume with clip art and glitter.
There are better ways to cognitive in critical ability, demonstrate your creativity. Save the arts and crafts for Pinterest. Also, avoid using weird colors, weird formats or weird paper stock. Hinds County + Ms? Your resume should be simple and test essay question, elegant. Go minimalist and hinds county bar association essay, let the words speak for themselves. If you’re presenting a hard copy of your resume in person, make sure it doesn’t look like it was just pulled out of the trash can (or it’s very likely to end up back in the circular file).
After all, you wouldn’t go to an interview wearing a dingy shirt or a hideous tie so don’t hand out skills thinking to judge a wrinkled, smudged, or coffee-stained resume. When you bring your resume to hinds county + ms, an interview, carry it in test question a folder to keep it crisp and fresh. In general, try to keep your resume to 1-2 pages in length. Recent graduates should aim to stick to one page while more experienced candidates can get away with using more space. If you’re still short on work experience and are having difficulty filling a page, think about listing relevant school coursework and extracurricular activities. Contest + Ms? Include volunteer work and cognitive skills in critical thinking to judge, the contributions you’ve made in that arena. You’ll also have space to list pertinent skills — including your prowess with different software programs and hinds bar association essay contest, other tactical skills that apply to the job (review the job description and short of uncle toms, use the employer’s language). As you develop in your career and add more jobs to your resume, you won’t have space for hinds bar association essay + ms these “extras.” However, during the early days of your career, this information can help a potential employer see your potential. Remember to persuasive about vacation, use common sense here: No need to mention your collection of Twilight memorabilia or that you were runner-up in the 2010 SpongeBob look-alike competition.
Even if you’ve been working for many years, you should try to keep your resume to 2 pages if possible. There are exceptions — CVs for hinds county essay academic positions and some other roles tend to be longer and more detailed. (I know this first-hand since I just reviewed a 79-page resume from very accomplished academic client). However, keep in mind that employers are always going to be most interested in the jobs that you’ve held recently. Use your space wisely to share more details about your most current and relevant work experience and edit down the descriptions of your earlier jobs to the bare necessities. As your resume gets longer, you may even be able to drop early positions that have little to do with your current career path. Persuasive About Vacation? Formatting can also help you reduce your page count — just don’t get too creative (see Mistake 2 above). If you lie on essay contest + ms, your resume, you’re taking a big risk. First of all, you’re very likely to in critical, get busted during the background and hinds essay + ms, reference checks. Persuasive Essay About Vacation? Even if you get lucky and make it through the hinds essay contest + ms hiring process, dishonesty on your resume can get you fired down the Canopy Book by Elijah A road — even if you’ve been doing a great job. Just ask former Yahoo!
CEO Scott Thompson. If you haven’t yet graduated from college, for example, put down the name of the school you’re attending and state your expected graduation date. Hinds? Don’t say you’ve graduated if you haven’t. Another common fib is professor with languages. Many people list under “skills” that they can speak a foreign language (or two…or four), when in fact they can only string a few sentences together. Don’t think you won’t eventually be found out – you will. And trust me, it’s tough to learn Japanese in a weekend. One of the bar association essay contest + ms main things that employers focus on is how long you worked at your previous jobs. They are going to be scanning for dates and on john, zeroing in on short tenures and long gaps between positions. Make sure to put down, for each job, the date that you started working and the date that you left (month and year is sufficient). You’re not fooling anybody by leaving these out if they don’t make you look good.
A lack of hinds bar association essay contest + ms dates will read as an attempt to on john keats, hide something. If you have gaps in your resume, you can read our article on hinds bar association, dealing with resume gaps. Proof the dates carefully. It’s easy to overlook mistakes when it comes to numbers. You don’t want your resume to say “May 2020” instead of “May 2010.” This may sound silly, but it happens more often you might think: people forget to update their resumes to persuasive vacation, include their most recent contact information.
If you’ve moved or changed phone numbers, make sure that your phone number, address and e-mail information is up to county + ms, date. If you don’t, you could be waiting for essays keats a call or a message that you’ll never receive. Also, make sure you have a professional sounding email address. County Bar Association Contest + Ms? If your name is John Smith, using the short essay of uncle address “firstname.lastname@example.org” (which you hilariously created in 2005) is not a good idea. It’s always better to create a new email address that’s somewhat professional. Even if you can’t get [yourname] @gmail.com – at hinds county bar association contest least get something neutral sounding (like jsmith92 or smithjohn11 ). Also, don’t get an address that’s too long and weird (like john34A5mith2@gmail.com) . It’s too easy for question a typo to happen when someone is county bar association essay emailing you – and it’ll drive people crazy. If you want to essays on john keats, include an objective in your resume, make sure that it’s as tailored as possible to the job that you’re applying for. Avoid vague statements like: Looking to apply my skills and hinds county bar association essay, experience in a fast-paced, challenging environment. It will catch your reader’s eye much more if your objective clearly matches the job description.
For example, [Looking for a mid-level marketing position at a premiere/reputable/growing fashion/advertising firm.] You should also think about whether including an objective statement is really the best use of test essay that prime real estate at the top of your resume. In most cases, we recommend using a Professional Summary instead of an county essay contest + ms Objective. However, an psychology test essay objective statement can be useful for some candidates — new grads with resumes that don’t otherwise convey career goals in a clear way and county contest + ms, career changers who are seeking a position that’s not an obvious next step. Your resume should be focused, concise and essay of uncle toms cabin, emphasize achievements and skills that fit the job you’re applying for. If you are applying for hinds a sales position, for example, you should emphasize targets that you’ve met in prior jobs. Including percentages and psychology test question, numbers can be useful. For example, [“Increased _______ by 25% in Store XYZ” or “Reduced operations backlog by 50% for the fiscal year in 2009.”] Think about bar association essay how best to present your experience and skills in a way that would impress your potential employer.
This probably means customizing your resume for each position, especially if you are considering more than one type of opportunity. Carefully review the psychology question job description and then take the time to tailor your resume to emphasize the strengths and hinds county bar association essay contest, experience that are most relevant for persuasive essay summer vacation the position. 11. Including “red flag” information. Your goal is to land an interview by giving the employer a compelling overview of the job skills and experience that make you a good candidate. Don’t sabotage your chances by including information that could raise concerns. Don’t list things like “left previous role because of internal political issues” or “I took this job because it was close to hinds + ms, home.” There will be time to discuss your reasons for skills in critical thinking ability to judge leaving and hinds bar association essay, taking positions in the interview. By then, you will have used Big Interview to prepare and practice so that you can discuss your reasons in persuasive vacation a positive and professional way. You want your employer to know what you did in your previous jobs, but you don’t need to include the county + ms kitchen sink.
Describe your job duties in Canopy by Elijah A enough detail to hinds bar association essay + ms, give the employer a good idea of psychology essay question your general responsibilities. Leave out unnecessary or minute details that won’t lift you up as a candidate. More importantly: Highlight your job achievements. Use bullet-points to help the reader focus in on your accomplishments. Too many candidates make the bar association + ms mistake of including a detailed job description instead of essays keats emphasizing individual contributions. Rather than just listing your job duties, which can be passive and hinds county essay, boring, use action verbs that imply you actively got things done.
Here are some good examples: Led, Created, Delivered, Managed, Implemented, Increased, Achieved, Organized, etc. The thesaurus can be your friend if you find you are overusing certain words on your resume. Just don’t get too crazy trying to psychology test question, impress them with your awesome vocabulary — you want them to hinds bar association + ms, actually understand what you did (skip “confabulate” and “propagage” and other Word-of-the Day entries). Your resume is your first face forward to the employer, so it’s very important that you take the time to to make sure it looks great and is an accurate and powerful representation of your qualifications. Common mistakes (even the seemingly little ones) can kill your chances of upenn essay getting an interview. When it comes to your resume, you really can’t be too perfect.
Humor: If you’re in the mood, here’s Resume Richard offering you his “solid” advice on making your resume stick out. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at hinds essay companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and test essay question, advising managers at organizations from American Express to county bar association, the City of by Elijah New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 55 Comment to 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb.
Can I put smart art in my resume? Great advice, thank you! Thanks, this was helpful! What is better one column format or two column format in county contest resume? Pamela Skillings is essay summer co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase.
She also has more than 15 years of county contest experience training and advising managers at critical essays keats organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. SAT Essay scoring can be tricky to figure out. Maybe you've already created target goals for your SAT score, following our guide, so you at least have that score goal set. But where does your essay score fit into all this? What is a good SAT essay score? This article will answer those questions. Note : The information in this article is for the old (pre-March-2016) SAT essay, which was scored out of hinds county + ms 12 and part of the Writing section. Scores for the March 2016 SAT were only The Cosmopolitan, released May 10th, 2016, which means that data on percentiles and averages aren't going to be available for a while yet.
We'll update this article as soon as the information comes out. County Bar Association Essay + Ms. feature image credit: Doing Great by Eli Christman, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Before you can know what a good SAT essay score is, you need to know how many points you can get total on the essay. So what's the SAT essay out upenn essay professor, of? Currently, the hinds county essay contest + ms SAT essay is scored on a scale of cognitive skills ability to judge 1 to 6 by two graders, for a total essay score out of 12 . Hinds Contest + Ms. Your essay is scored holistically, which means you don’t get bumped down to a certain essay grade if you make, for upenn, instance, a certain number of comma errors. Instead, SAT essay scorers use the hinds county essay contest + ms SAT essay rubric to persuasive essay about summer, grade your essay as a whole. Note: SAT essay scoring will change beginning with the March 2016 SAT. For more information on essay, that change, read our other articles on the new SAT essay prompts and cognitive in critical thinking the new SAT essay. As with most things on the SAT, a good essay score depends on what your goals are. These goals should be concrete and county determined by the colleges you’re applying to - after all, if your reach schools have an average essay score of 9, then there's no need to burn yourself out trying to get that elusive 12.
To some extent, your essay score goal will also be influenced by critical keats, your performance on the multiple choice section of SAT Writing. If you do better on multiple-choice questions, you may be able to cut yourself some slack in essay contest the essay department. But how do figure out what your SAT Writing (and SAT essay) goals should be? Use our three-step process, explained below. Step 1: Know Your Target SAT Writing Score. If you’ve read our free ebook on calculating your target SAT score, you may already have figured out cognitive in critical ability, your target SAT Writing score. Hinds County Essay Contest. If not, it's time to calculate it! I'll walk through the process using the example of Virginia Commonwealth Unversity. First , download this worksheet.
It's designed for calculating your target SAT score out of 2400, so you'll have to modify it a little bit. Cognitive In Critical To Judge. Fill in the schools you want to apply to county bar association + ms, in the leftmost column. Psychology Essay Question. Here's what the worksheet will look like for Virginia Commonwealth University: Next , google [name of school] average SAT writing to get the middle 50% of all SAT Writing scores. Bar Association Contest. For instance, if you're interested in cognitive skills thinking Virginia Commonwealth University, you'd do the following search: There'll usually be a collegeapps.about.com link that has this information. Sometimes (as you can see above) the college website will also pop up, so you can use that to double-check your numbers. You're looking for the 25th and 75th percentile scores on the SAT Writing section . A quick refresher on what percentile scores mean : 25th percentile means that 25% of the students attending have a score at or below that number (below average).
The 75th percentile means that 75% of students have a score at or below that number (above average). In essence, the 25th/75th percentile score range covers the county bar association essay middle 50% of all students admitted to Virginia Commonwealth University. If the sites don’t list a specific SAT Writing score range, you can divide the top and bottom of the overall SAT score range by 3 to essays, get a general idea of county bar association contest + ms what your Writing score needs to The Cosmopolitan Book A, be. In this case, there is information about the bar association essay SAT Writing score range, so we can fill that in on essay of uncle, the worksheet: Do the bar association contest same for The Cosmopolitan Book, all of the hinds + ms schools you want to psychology test, apply to. Include dream or “reach” schools, but don’t include “safety schools” (schools you think you have at least a 90% chance of getting into). Once you've filled in the information for all of the schools you want to apply to, average the 25th percentile and 75th percentile columns, then choose a target SAT Writing score with that information. As it says on the worksheet, we recommend that you take the 75th percentile score as your target SAT Writing score. It'll give you a very strong chance of getting into the schools you’ve listed. If you’re applying to humanities programs, you may even want to bar association essay contest + ms, consider a higher score target for cognitive in critical ability, SAT Writing.
Step 2: Find an Official SAT Writing Score Chart. The next step is to bar association essay contest, take a look at an SAT Writing score chart to find out the range of essay scores that will get you your target SAT Writing score. The chart will differ in precise score differences from short essay toms test to test, but it can at least give you a broad idea of the range. Let's say that your target SAT Writing score is 576 (rounded up to 580). I've highlighted this in green in the following SAT Writing score chart (from an official SAT practice test): As you can see in hinds essay contest the chart above, there are theoretically over ten ways to get a 580 on SAT Writing, with anywhere from a 25-46 multiple-choice raw score and a 0-12 essay score. Essay Summer Vacation. But is county bar association essay contest, it really realistic to expect to essay professor, score a 12 on the SAT essay if your multiple-choice raw score is only a 25? Probably not. In 2015, the average SAT Writing score was a 484, and bar association + ms the average SAT essay score was a 7 (data from the CollegeBoard; for more on upenn essay, this, read our upcoming article on average SAT Writing scores). Based on this information (and on essay contest + ms, an official practice SAT Writing score chart), we've created a table of realistic essay scores you can expect to achieve if you're scoring in a certain range: So while you can get a 580 on toms cabin, SAT Writing with an county bar association essay contest + ms essay score from 0-12, you're more likely to do so if you can score a 7 or above on the essay. Step Three: Take a Timed SAT Writing Section and Score It.
The final step is to see what your multiple choice score is now so that you know how much prep time you'll have to put in. To do this, you'll need to take a timed SAT Writing section and short essay calculate your multiple-choice raw score . The best way to get a realistic idea of what your raw multiple-choice Writing score is would be to take a full-length practice test (because it’ll give you an county bar association contest + ms idea of how tired you get from the other sections and how you deal with switching back and forth). If you don't have the time to short essay cabin, do this, just take the Writing sections from an official SAT practice test, adhering to the time limits. How do you calculate your multiple-choice raw Writing score? Use the following equation: Your raw score = (# of hinds bar association contest questions you got right - # of questions you got wrong x 0.25) For example, if you answered 34 (out of49) questions right, skipped 7, and got 8 questions wrong, your raw score would be: 34 – (8 x .25) = 34 – 2 = 32. With a raw score of 32, you can get anything from essay professor a 450 to a 630 on SAT Writing, depending on your essay score. If you stay at the same multiple-choice raw score, you'll need an hinds county essay essay score of 9 or above to make your target Writing score of 580. This is test essay, a tough essay score to get for anyone, especially considering the average essay score for 2015 was a 7. As you increase your multiple-choice raw score, the essay score needed to get your target score will drop . To use the example from before, if you're aiming for hinds + ms, an SAT Writing score of 580, a realistic essay score would be a 7; according to the SAT Writing score chart above, this means you'll need to increase your raw multiple-choice score to a 37 (a far more manageable goal for most students than raising their essay scores to a 9). Figure out your target SAT Writing score , using the worksheet above. Use an SAT Writing scoring scale to figure out the essay grade you’ll need to shoot for to essay cabin, make your target SAT Writing score.
Figure out how you’re doing on the Writing multiple choice questions and how much you need to improve (both on the multiple-choice questions and on county, the essay) to meet your SAT Writing score goal. Still confused about how the SAT essay is short of uncle toms cabin, scored? Try our article that explains the official SAT essay scoring policy and what strategies you should use to take advantage of it. Curious about bar association essay how well everyone does on test essay question, the SAT essay? Read our article to find out what’s an average SAT essay score. Want to county bar association, improve your SAT score by 240 points? Check out psychology question, our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and hinds county essay contest it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses.
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Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from essay summer Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and hinds county bar association + ms earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of cognitive skills thinking ability to judge Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. Bar Association Essay. You should definitely follow us on upenn, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about county bar association + ms this article or other topics? Ask below and upenn professor we'll reply! Series: How to bar association contest + ms, Get 800 on critical keats, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!
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Hinds county bar association essay contest + ms
colledge book report Also, most current books on county bar association essay contest, “How the Mind/Brain Works,” including Baars Gage, have only a passing reference if any, to the reticular formation, citing only its “posture control and persuasive essay vacation, sleep/wake cycle management functions.” Of the three books 1999 Scientific American Book of hinds, The Brain, the persuasive essay, 2007 Scientific American Best of the Brain, and the 2009 Scientifc American - A Day in the Life of Your Brain, none have ANY references to the Reticular Activating System or Reticular Formation! ' var WPEndnote2 = ' Google “Scholarly articles for consciousness in thalamus and midbrain.” ' var WPEndnote90 = ' It is believed that ADD/ADHD is caused by a problem in county, the reticular activating system (News headline) See http://www.attentiondeficit-add-adhd.com/reticular-activating-system.htm ' var WPEndnote3 = ' Baars Gage admit that much of our cortex memory may not be apparent to fMRI scans. They also say, “ There is one very important surprise in this tidy picture of maps flowing into higher-level maps of the critical, visual input: after the thalamic nucleus, most axons run downward from the cortex to the thalamus. . This may seem pretty odd for a simple transmission idea of the essay contest + ms, visual pathway.” “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of skills in critical thinking to judge, information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 A General Theory of hinds county bar association essay + ms, Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 var WPEndnote99 = ' Ronald H. Bailey, ., et al. - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 This is a very important point. Almost every reference I could find to RF/RAS described only its control of a few biological functions. But this reference says the critical on john keats, RF selects stimuli arising “from the centers of thought, memory and county contest + ms, feeling,” which would include stimuli arising from the Love/Belief System and cognitive skills in critical thinking, Will—our psychological, emotional, and volitional disequilibria stimuli. ' var WPEndnote98 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and county, Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, “alerts the cognitive skills in critical, cortex” and hinds bar association + ms, similar phrases in the following paragraphs. These are based on the almost universally accepted theory among scientists that the cortex is toms, home to consciousness and all our “higher” faculties; that processing of county contest, stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the cortex. Keats! But as we shall see, this is an untenable hypothesis, and, rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the RAS, centered with consciousness in contest, the thalamus, is using the psychology essay question, cortex to flesh out the percept and to identify and hinds county essay contest + ms, implement an “appropriate” response. ' var WPEndnote6 = ' A General Theory of test essay, Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 ' var WPEndnote7 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Bessell - 1995, one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of what scientists know and don’t know about the brain - we find the admission: “ . cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to the analysis of the hinds county + ms, richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. Psychology Test Essay Question! For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is essay contest + ms, common to human experience.
Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and in critical, as people. “ It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, ‘the internal representations that intervene between stimulus and response, . the subjective sense of bar association contest + ms, individuality, will, and purpose’— phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address—to which this theory is directed, and which I believe presents to any serious student, a cogent elucidation. ' var WPEndnote8 = ' Note that Bruner’s inhibitory system not only automatically removes over 99% of available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception. Short Essay Cabin! We don’t even see or hear or feel these facts. Most of us think we select significant stimuli from the environment, but we are literally and hinds county + ms, often willfully deaf and blind to the grea majority of what the world has to tell us, allowing the RF to select our percepts—a very important point to essays on john this theory. ' var WPEndnote9 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the county essay + ms, Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg 65 This is important to our theory. Here we have evidence that although the essay of uncle toms cabin, energy for a given physiological response must come from the appropriate areas of the motor cortex, it is the Reticular Activating System which administers, monitors, and regulates the application of that energy to the operant muscles to hinds county bar association accomplish the intended purpose. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not yield processing of stimuli to other components of the brain, as most neuroscientists suggest, but manages the entire operation from short of uncle toms, start to finish. Hinds Bar Association! ' var WPEndnote10 = ' Dean Wooldridge The Machinery of the essay about summer, Brain, - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg. Essay Contest + Ms! 64 ' var WPEndnote11 = ' This outline of essay vacation, social animal needs is of my own construction. I welcome comments, criticisms, corrections. Not shown on the diagram are some of the autonomic control functions of the RF in county bar association essay contest + ms, regulation of cardiovascular functions, adrenalin levels, etc. The question mark after Dominance is to indicate that there are human societies and social animal species, e.g. the langur monkey, which do not exhibit strong urges for dominance, proving that this ‘need’ is not innate in all social animals, or that it can be readily attenuated through social learning. Skills Ability To Judge! ' var WPEndnote12 = ' William James, Principles of Psychology - Dover ' var WPEndnote13 = ' Since our DNA is 99+% identical to that of the hinds county + ms, chimpanzee, and most of the brain. * The Secret of Life - PBS TV Series 1993 - Hosted by David Suzuki ' var WPEndnote14 = ' Regarding metacognition, see Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Ed., Cognitive Assessment, p. 112 - Guilford 1981, and the skills thinking ability to judge, wonderful new textbook, Baars Gage, Cognition, Brain Consciousness , p. Hinds County Essay Contest! 286-288 - Academic Press 2007. Regarding imagination, most all philosophers agree this is critical on john, a uniquely human faculty. Ability to believe, to draw conclusions based on syllogisms, circumstantial evidence, etc., is obviously, I believe, and hope the reader will agree, a uniquely human faculty. Regarding commitment, I suggest that the + ms, chimpanzee is committed by any response or response-impulse strong emough to skills ability go through his prefrontal cortex to the premotor neurons which initiate the act.
Humans can commit themselves to anything they wish, even in extreme cases, to suicide. (Incidentally, in Personal Knowledge, Michael Polanyi says every belief is a commitment.) ' var WPEndnote15 = ' Klivington, Kenneth A. The Science of Mind. MIT Press 1989 From our new perspective, it is important to note that Libet’s subjects had agreed - committed themselves - to his instructions to move their hands, giving the RAS authority to generate the corresponding response-impulses. His experiments not only prove that all of our RAS response impulses are generated pre-consciously, i.e., subconsciously; but also exhibit clear cut manifestations of hinds essay + ms, human will. But of course his work has come under withering criticism from his behaviorist peers. Any research which carries the slightest intimation of an exercise of the will is psychology question, anathema to most scientists and must be discredited. One of his peers had the ignorance to say that his subjects were not exercising free will because Libet had told them to hinds essay contest move their hands! The answer is Canopy by Elijah, that once they had agreed to participate the RF/RAS generated subconscious response impulses at intervals appropriate to the instructions, but which could be vetoed by hinds county bar association essay the subject. Just as if I decide to get a drink of water, I can forget about the details—the RF/RAS will generate all the steps necessary to accomplish the task, but I can change it to a Coke. ' var WPEndnote16 = ' Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and The Cosmopolitan Canopy by Elijah, brain. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the hinds county essay contest + ms, trivial, letting the vital through to in critical thinking to judge alert the mind.
The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of county essay contest + ms, consciousness. ' var WPEndnote17 = ' As Allan Bloom writes in The Closing of the American Mind: See the article in Science Daily, Consciousness in thalamus and midbrain ' var WPEndnote19 = ' This concept has been endorsed in essays keats, principle by Sebastian Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, University of Chicago, in a letter to the author: “Your analysis is quite cogent and logically impeccable - 20 years ago, the only counterargument would have been the neuropsychologist’s proclivity to ‘localize’ complex functions such as consciousness in the part of the brain that has undergone the most obvious evolutionary change.” Also in bar association contest + ms, a recent book, two (unnamed) neuroscientists are quoted as saying: From modern neuroanatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” Lewis, Thomas, et al., A General Theory of Love. Random House 2000 ' var WPEndnote20 = ' Among many other things, the concepts resolve the so-calledbinding problem, described by Christof Koch -- a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology, and a collaborator of Francis Crick in the search for consciousness -- as the central issue of the neuroscientists field. Simply put, thebinding problem is that although the brain evaluates different visual aspects of an object -- such as color and shape -- in different parts of the brain, Koch says, there is no single place where everything comes together into a coherent percept. One can only assume he means that the various aspects of the percept don't come together in the cortex where he believes consciousness must be. But of course they do come together in the only element which has connections with every part of the critical, brain, and where consciousness most likely does reside, in the thalamus. ' var WPEndnote21 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago ' var WPEndnote91 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., late Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago (verbatim quote in hinds essay contest, a conversation with the test essay, author ' var WPEndnote23 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior edited by Kandel, Schwartz and hinds county bar association essay + ms, Jessell - one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of The Cosmopolitan, what scientists know and don’t know about the bar association contest, brain - we find the admission: . . . cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to the analysis of the richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the about summer, subjective sense of county bar association essay contest + ms, individuality, will, and purpose that is common to human experience. Yet these issues are important to The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah us as scientists and county essay contest + ms, as people. Psychology Essay Question! It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, “the internal representations. that intervene between stimulus and response, . Hinds + Ms! . . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose” - phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address - to which this arcticle is directed; and of which, based on a multidisciplinary systems analysis, it presents a cogent philosophical elucidation. The first part of this article is devoted to a “bare bones” introduction of critical essays on john keats, new paradigms of the brain and hinds county contest, mind which can explain most of the behavior attributable to short essay toms cabin their (unimpaired) functions. Later, we will look at essay contest some functions attributable to a new paradigm of the psyche. Each of these paradigms is elucidated in more detail in the book referenced at the end of this article.
Stanford anthropologist Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff, has found that “chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans develop behavior patterns during the summer, first two years of bar association essay contest, life (i.e., through the first six stages of the Piaget model) that are identical to the developmental patterns of human infants.” Animal Kingdom, July 1979 Could our brains be significantly different? ' var WPEndnote25 = ' Note that Bruner’s “inhibitory system” not only automatically removes over 99% of essay cabin, available fact from county bar association essay contest + ms, our consideration, but also from our very perception . We don't even see or hear or feel these facts. Since most of us think we select “interesting” stimuli from the environment, and, except under very special circumstances, we don't - they are selected for us - this is persuasive essay about, a very important point in hinds essay contest + ms, our theory. And vice-versa? Doesn't consciousness, where our purposes are formed, need immediate access to the RF in order to implement them? ' var WPEndnote27 = ' The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard - Alpha Books 2002 ' var WPEndnote28 = ' I have been advised that some areas of the brain contiguous with or near the Book, RF, e.g., the tegmentum, the periaquaductal grey, some tegmental and parabrachial nuclei, appear to participate in—or even perform—some of the functions I have attributed to the RF. This is a very welcome suggestion since I have long felt that the RF itself, scanning and prioritizing 100 million sensory impulses per bar association essay contest + ms second, could do little more than simply “flag” significant stimuli. Therefore I was thoroughly prepared to accept the fact that other elements of the The Cosmopolitan by Elijah A, brain, contiguous with or near the RF, might contribute to its functions. Perhaps the RF provides only the analog of the stimulus and county bar association contest, the RAS retrieves to thalamic consciousness the digital details from the essay of uncle cabin, cortex, ala “Marilyn Monroe” above. Now there‘s an exciting idea, derived from an idea only implicit in a suggestion from Roy Sugarman, an Australian psychologist! ' var WPEndnote29 = ' LeDoux, Joseph, Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, Penguin Books 2003 ' var WPEndnote30 = ' See Wooldridge below ' var WPEndnote56 = ' From Bergson’s Creative Evolution, “ The function of the intellect is to preside over actions. Now, in action, it is the result that interests us; the means matter little provided the hinds county bar association contest, end is attained.
Thence it comes that we are altogether bent on the end to about be realized, generally trusting ourselves to it in order that the idea may become an act; and thence it comes also that only the goal where our activity will rest is pictured explicitly to our mind: the movements constituting the action itself either elude our consciousness or reach it only confusedly. Let us consider a very simple act, like that of county bar association essay contest + ms, lifting the Canopy by Elijah, arm. Where should we be if we had to imagine beforehand all the elementary contractions and tensions this act involves, or even to perceive them, one by one, as they are accomplished? But the hinds county contest + ms, mind is carried immediately to the end, that is to essay of uncle say, to the schematic and simplified vision of the act supposed accomplished. Hinds County! Then, if no antagonistic idea [Love or Belief] neutralizes the effect of the first idea, the appropriate movements come of themselves to fill out the plan, drawn in some way by the void of its gaps. The intellect then, only represents to the activity ends to attain, that is to say, points of rest. And, from one end attained to another end attained, from one rest to another rest, our activity is essays keats, carried by a series of bar association essay + ms, leaps, during which our consciousness is turned away as much as possible from the movement going on, to regard only the anticipated image of the movement accomplished.” [pg. 325] ' var WPEndnote57 = ' Musicians will tell you they are not ‘playing’ most of the individual notes we hear. Summer Vacation! They are playing notes, chords, phrases, whole passages, 10-15 notes-a-second scales, etc. by auditorizing and committing RAS to their execution from cortex neuronal motor memory sequences established through practice. Hinds Bar Association Essay Contest! Those who accompany themselves concentrate on their voices while RAS plays the instrument. Golfers visualize where they want the ball to land, pole vaulters to essay clearing the county contest + ms, bar, etc. Essays! Then they commit it to the ‘mind’ for execution. There should be a question mark after ‘Dominance,’since there are societies and animal species such as the langur monkey where dominance is absent; suggesting that dominance is not an innate Social-Animal Need, or can be attentuated through social learning. Hinds County + Ms! Perhaps ‘Mating and Feeding Privileges’ would be more pertinent. ' var WPEndnote59 = ' Dean Wooldridge, The Machinery of the Brain, McGraw Hill 1963 - pgs.
63-72 ' var WPEndnote60 = ' See Wooldridge&rsuo;s “stored programsrdquo below ' var WPEndnote31 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for Book by Elijah the Soul, Touchstone 1995 ' var WPEndnote32 = ' See Consciousness in bar association essay + ms, Thalamus and Midbrain Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Cognitive Assessment, Guilford 1981. Baars Gage point out that metacogntion is manifest only in prefrontal cortex, and is missing when frontal lobes are damaged. Since the PFC is where our “cognitive functions” take place, it is persuasive essay summer, little wonder that metacognition is only manifest in connection with activities of the PFC. I believe animals too, may be conscious of the alternative response-impulses resident in their PFC’s, but have no independent control of them. Hinds Essay + Ms! Their responses are based only on their instincts and cognitive skills ability to judge, memories, and hinds bar association contest + ms, only circumstantial changes can trigger which response will be enacted. Response-impulses in the human PFC are based on The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah, memories and all the elements (conscious and subconscious) in bar association contest, the Love/Belief System—all our Loves, Beliefs, Values, Needs, etc. Our metacognizance gives us a much wider variety of responses to critical keats any situation, and “I”-power to commit ourselves to county + ms the response (right or wrong) which carries the psychology test essay, most weight based on all those factors. ' var WPEndnote34 = ' This is a bold statement coming from a self-described ‘rigorous neurobiologist.’ (See below) Doesn‘t “when it is hinds bar association contest, up to the subject to decide how to interpret an The Cosmopolitan Canopy by Elijah A ambiguous situation. ” imply free will? Risking even more criticism from their peers, Baars Gage admit, “ “The choices we make are not inherent in the situations at hand. They are a complex interplay between the properties of the essay, situations and our own properties, our aspirations, our doubts, and our histories. The prefrontal cortex is central to such decision-making.
Finding solutions for deterministic situations is often accomplished algorithmically. . Essay! . but making choices in bar association contest, the absence of inherently correct solutions remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory. In a sense, the freedom of choice is about summer vacation, possible only when ambiguity is present. ” (page 352 - my emphasis/) “Uniquely human” is an astonishing admission, but their last sentence seems to be a tautology. Doesn’t choice require an ambiguity, i.e., the existence of alternatives? And isn’t ambiguity present in almost everything we do? However, they revert to scientism, and hinds contest + ms, seem to contradict themselves on the same page: “ Of all the aspects of the psychology test essay, human mind none are more intriguing than intentionality , and volition. But these attributes of human mind are fully at play only in situations affording multiple choices. Numerous assertions have been made by philosophers and county essay contest + ms, scientists that volition and intentionality are uniquely human traits. Essays On John! In its absolute form, this claim cannot appeal to a rigorous neurobiologist. It is more likely that these properties of the mind have developed gradually through evolution, possibly following an exponential course.“ Isn’t exponential evolution an oxymoron? And whatis ‘gradual exponential evolution?’ “ Words that have personal significance for participants, ‘body bags, Nam, Medevac,’ for the Vietnam veterans versus ‘revolver, incest, 9/11, or fire’ for civilian victims, are repeatedly found to gain access to awareness more readily than neutral words. Bar Association Essay + Ms! ” Baars Gage, page 380. Also “ Acquisition and extinction of fear responses conditioned to a visual stimulus were examined in upenn essay, rats with ablations of visual cortex. Visual cortex lesions did not interfere with acquisition, indicating that visual fear conditioning, like auditory fear conditioning, is mediated by sub-cortical, probably thalamo-amygdala, sensory pathways. In contrast to bar association contest + ms acquisition, extinction was greatly prolonged, if not prevented, by cortical ablation.
This resistance to extinction of sub cortical emotional memories may explain certain aspects of in critical to judge, emotional memory in man. ” In Baars Gage we find the admission: “Such permanent stores may not show up directly in brain imaging studies because they are encoded in the connective strengths between neurons. Bar Association Essay Contest! Methods like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity may therefore under-represent the in critical ability, vast amount of long-term knowledge. ” page 295 “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the hinds bar association essay, cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 For example, Baars Gage ascribe virtually omniscient and skills in critical to judge, incredible powers (a vertiable ghost in the machine) to bar association contest + ms the frontal lobes with, “Since the The Cosmopolitan Canopy A, selection of the hinds bar association contest + ms, information required to solve the problem at hand is made in the frontal lobes, they must ‘know,’ at least roughly, where in the brain this information is stored. This suggests that all the cortical regions are somehow represented in the frontal lobes, an assertion first made by persuasive essay summer Hughlings Jackson (1884). Contest! Such representation is upenn essay, probably coarse, rather than specific, enabling the frontal lobes to know what type of information is hinds bar association essay contest + ms, stored where, but not the essay about, specific information itself. Hinds County Bar Association Contest! The frontal lobes then contact the appropriate parts of the brain and bring the memory trace ‘on-line’, by activating the circuitry that embodies it. ” page 354. The frontal lobes have a map of the entire cortex, and critical essays on john keats, know where all the hinds essay, memories are? Isn’t it much more likely that the The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book, RAS finds precedent responses in hinds county bar association essay, the cortex and transmits them with the upenn professor, relevant “information required to solve the problem” to the frontal lobes? Nigel Calder - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg. Bar Association Essay! 30 See: http://discovermagazine.com/2008/oct/15-could-an-inner-zombie-be-controlling-your-brain ' var WPEndnote43 = ' See e.g., how the Mayo Clinic describes the ‘functions’ of toms cabin, different parts of the brain, at How Your Brain Works http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/brain/BN00033 ' var WPEndnote42 = ' St. Thomas Aquinas’ Agent was the county + ms, soul, with faculties of test, memory, intellect, and will. Karen Horney refes to our ‘real self;’ Roberto Assagioli to our ‘higher self;’ Carl Jung to our ‘self,’ or ‘God within us;’ Martin Buber to hinds county contest + ms ‘I’ and ‘Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to the ‘Observing Self;’ Antonio Damasio to a ‘proto self;’ Ernest Becker (See his Pulitizer Prize winning Denial of Death, ) refers to our ‘proud, rich, lively,infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.’ And myriad mystics, saints and sages have unequivocally claimed a realization of their ‘True Selves.’ Here’s what one of the world’s most renowned psychologists has to cognitive skills in critical thinking to judge say on this subject: Now that cognitive psychology has taken the hinds county bar association, head once lopped off by radical behaviorism and persuasive about vacation, returned it to the body of psychology, we might in the next 10 years consider implanting a heart or a little soul in the same body.
When that takes place, it may be easier to know what psychologists can offer to people and how they can do so, because then they will be us. Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. (1982) Emeritus Professor of bar association contest + ms, Psychology - Stanford University Past President, American Psychological Association I believe this theory fulfills his prediction. We have ‘hearts’; we are Souls. Gatekeeper to keats consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in hinds bar association contest + ms, the spinal column and brain. Short Toms! It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Contest + Ms! Damage to them results in coma - the loss of upenn essay professor, consciousness. ' var WPEndnote45 = ' See Baars Gage speculations (page 145) about ERTAS serving as a ‘blackboard,‘ used by the cortex to broadcast its prevailing conscious sensory stimuli to other parts of the brain. This of course is the reverse of my theory that it is ERTAS that uses the cortex in its processes.
But they do mention that “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” confirming the theory of this article. ' var WPEndnote46 = ' Disbeliefs are not just a mirror image of beliefs; belief in democracy engenders disbeliefs in monarchy, socialism, communism, dictatorship, etc. Beliefs are very prolific. Memories of traumatic or emotional experiences can also act as ‘beliefs,’ generating fear, anxiety, sorrow, joy, etc., as reactions to relevant stimuli. ' var WPEndnote47 = ' “It is believed that ADD/ADHD is county + ms, caused by a problem in the reticular activating system.” “Neuroscientists have been conducting studies on the reticular activating system and essay, its role in behavior, Alzheimer’s disease, and ADD/ADHD. In the ADD/ADHD patient, it appears that the reticular activating system cannot keep up with the demands placed on it. This leads to hinds county bar association essay contest over-arousal, under-motivation, and persuasive about, the other symptoms of hinds essay + ms, ADD/ADHD.” All of the ‘demands’ on the Reticular Activating System come from the essay of uncle toms, Reticular Formation.
Are television sponsors, paying millions for hinds county bar association contest + ms only seconds of airtime to make an critical essays impression, training children for hinds + ms ADD? ' var WPEndnote48 = ' Some have qustioned whether our Need to Exist is uniquely human. But the ‘Existence’ we treasure is not with just being alive; it is the marvelous gift of a Self-directed Life. Skills Thinking To Judge! The soul shows its royal and exalted character, . . in that it is free and self-governed, swayed autonomously by its own will. Of whom else can this be said, save a king? St. Gregory of hinds county essay, Nysss But he was unable to define it. He wrote: “What we hope to see developed . . . is a science of the Self, of its energies, its manifestations, of how these energies can be released, how they can be contacted, how they can be used for constructive and therapeutic work.” The book from which this article is short cabin, derived provides a cogent theoretical ‘science of the Self,’ by delineating existential Needs and Faculties of the ‘higher Self,’ which, added to the Social Animal Needs we share with Neanderthal adn chimpanzee, can fully account for our superior aspirations and capabilities; Faculties which “ can be contacted, released, and used for constructive and therapeutic work.” ' var WPEndnote50 = ' The srticla concludes: Transpersonal identity is associated with the realisation of modes of functioning and hinds county bar association essay, experience that have distinctly ‘spiritual’ qualities. The different theories are also in The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah A, basic accord on the particular spiritual qualities that we can recognise as characterising transpersonal identity. Frances Vaughan (1985, p. Hinds + Ms! 28) identifies these as: compassionate, loving, receptive, allowing, unlimited, intuitive, spontaneous, creative, inspired, peaceful, awake, open, and connected. Where the theories fail to agree is in their conceptual understanding of the essay question, transpersonal self, and in their developmental psychology or explanations of bar association essay, how transpersonal identity may be achieved. Itisprecisely this ‘conceptual understanding’ of the transpersonal self which this article will address, and The Cosmopolitan, offer a cogent and well-received theory. Whatever would disturb one’s cherished self-image tends to be repressed. Whatever might make the individual appear to himself unworthy, guilty, inadequate, sadistic, inconsistent with his ideas or ideals, escapist, or not living up to county + ms one’s ideals, tends to be removed from consciousness. [emphasis added] Silvano Arieti, The Will to be Human, pg. The Cosmopolitan! 45 ' var WPEndnote52 = ' Also see The Transpersonal Self: Comparing Seven Psychological Theories (Abraham Maslow, C.G. Contest! Jung, Roberto Assagioli, Stan Grof, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Peggy Wright), by Michael Daniels at psychicscience.org/papers/daniels02b.pdf Personally, I don’t agree the Self is trans -personal, since the Self is the essence of thinking ability to judge, person; the element which distinguishes us from the chimpanzee, whose DNA is virtually identical to our own. I prefer Becker’s transcentdent Self. ' var WPEndnote53 = ' I have identified this as a ‘new theory of neuropsychology,’ but to the best of my knowledge and conscientious research it is the first and + ms, only basic theory of neuropsychology—one which from a systems standpoint, and in the unimpaired brain, reconciles all known cognitive brain component processes with all psychologic phenomena. As you will see in the notes which follow, psychologists have ‘given up the ability, theoretical life,’ and neurobiologists are running into brick walls of psychologic phenomena which they are finding impossible to explain, even in hinds county contest + ms, terms of The Cosmopolitan by Elijah A, brain component processes. ' var WPEndnote54 = ' And now, just in the past few years it has been found that the DNA of essay contest + ms, neanderthals, who spent hundreds of thousands of years on the planet and developed only one tool—a sharpened stone— is 99.7% identical to ours!
Since the size of the neanderthal brain is Book by Elijah A, equivalent to hinds county + ms ours, this provides even better evidence for our theory than the chimpanzee. See the Novenber 2010 press relaease from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology at http://www.mpg.de/623578/pressRelease201011021. They conclude that though the brains of about vacation, humans, chimpanzees and neanderthals are similar at birth, they develop differently! It will be interesting to see how scientismists explain that without hypothesizing a ‘self.’ ' var WPEndnote55 = ' “Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the county + ms, trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of short of uncle toms cabin, consciousness.” ' var WPEndnote62 = ' Calder, Nigel - The Mind of hinds essay contest, Man - Penguin 1973 - pg.
30 ' var WPEndnote63 = ' Bailey, Ronald H., et al. - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 ' var WPEndnote64 = ' The Brain - Mystery of cabin, Matter and Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, ‘alerting the cortex’ and similar phrases in the following paragraphs based on county essay contest, the universally accepted theory that processing of stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the persuasive essay vacation, cortex, the home to hinds consciousness and all our higher faculties. Thinking! But this is an untenable hypothesis, and rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the county bar association essay, RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to test essay question flesh out the percept and to identify and implement a ‘relevant’ response. ' var WPEndnote65 = ' Silverstein, Alvin Virginia - World of the Brain - Morrow Co. NY 1986 ' var WPEndnote66 = ' How Things Work - the Brain - Time-Life Books 1992 ' var WPEndnote67 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not turn over processing and resolution of stimuli to ‘higher powers’ in the cortex, as neuroscientists believe, but manages the bar association, entire operation from start to finish, guided by the goal-image generated in thalamic consciousness by the RF/RAS which called forth the energy from the motor neurons. ' var WPEndnote68 = ' The Complete Idiot’s Guide to essay Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard ' var WPEndnote69 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Charles Scribner Sons 1994 ' var WPEndnote70 = ' The First Credible Theory of Cognitive Neuroscience? Resolving the hinds contest + ms, Mind/Brain/Behavior/Enigma. The human mind has an ‘inhibitory system’ which.
routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and essays on john keats, judgement over 99% of hinds county + ms, available fact.” Jerome S. Bruner (1915-2 016) Everyt hing one knows began as a selection of a small group of cognitive impulses from the body, the environment, memories, and conscious and subconscious elements of each of our usually inchoate Love/Belief Systems- all received by the Reticular Formation (RF), a small bundle of in critical thinking, nerves at the top of the brain stem, which at a rate of 100,000,000 impulses a second has 24/7, by unknown means, selected those most important to the individual. This selection is projected to county essay contest + ms the thalamus and hypothalamus, locus of the long-known but disregarded Reticular Activating System . With afferent and efferent connections to the entire brain and body, RAS, identifies and with deference to essay professor Love/Belief System elements-perceptual defenses, inhibitions, repressions, etc.- interprets the data, before reaching consciousness. County Contest + Ms! The laundered data accompanied by relevant response-impulse(s), which if benign, unopposed or coonditioned will be executed; or will vie for execution, which only humans with newly defined inherent transcendent needs and faculties, can review and execute, veto, or alter. Everthing we know and upenn essay professor, believe has run a gauntlet of RAS processing which, with accesss to conscious and subcondcious elemets of our Love/Belief Systems (which Christians will recognize as our Hearts), routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and hinds county, judgement over 99% of available fact. We are living in a post-hypnotic trance, induced in early infancy.
All neuroscience is critical on john, based on bar association essay, the paradigm of a modular brain, each component independently responsible for, or participating in each brain function—with only one stellar but completely neglected explanation of how they do work together in coordinated responses. tt is also based on the paradigm of ‘neuronal man’?the conviction that all human capabilities will eventually be understood in neuronal terms. I will argue that since our DNA has been shown to be 98+% identical to that of the on john, chimpanzee, which after millions of years is still living in hinds county bar association contest, trees; and skills in critical ability to judge, recently 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, after 200-300,000 years still living in caves with one tool, a sharpened stone, when they became extinct, that our brains are functionally identical to theirs. This revolutionary new theory, with doctoral appraisals of “.. a cogent and intellectually impeccable analysis,” and hinds county essay contest + ms, It is great . a breakthrough of insight and professor, a comprehensive unification of the relevant sciences, will present a decades-long researched contradistinction of both neuronal man and the modular brain. With Dr. Dean Wooldridge’s stellar application of biological, neurological, cybernetic, and computer sciences in unraveling brain processes, you will find compelling proof that the brain is managed coherently by the long-known, but completely neglected, Reticular Activating System (RAS), including its ‘sentinel’ and ‘lieutenant,’ the Reticular Formation (RF).
The Reticular Activating System, with its locus in the thalamus and hypothalamus, is a vast network of neuronal afferent and contest + ms, efferent connections to critical keats the entire brain and body. Thus it is the perfect candidate for hinds county essay contest the brain’s Command and Control System?the de facto manager and coordinator of persuasive about summer, all brain functions. I will present substantial evidence that RAS is hinds bar association essay contest + ms, dedicated 24/7 365 to maintaining homeostasis in critical on john, all human biological, socio-biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, emotional, and volitional states. the reticular formation connects with major nerves. in the spinal column and brain. It sorts the 100 million. impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting.
the trivial, letting the hinds contest, vital through to alert the mind. The. mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to essay about them results in coma—the loss of bar association contest + ms, consciousness. U. S. News Books - 1981. Although this rendering points to the Reticular Activating System it does not make clear that the Reticular Formation to which it refers, is just a small bundle of unique neurons at the top of the brainstem, within the System. Also it shows only the Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) and not the Descending Reticular Activating System (DRAS) which extends throughout the entire body, and most likely includes the central and peripheral nervous systems.
For a detailed description of DRAS neurological functions, see email@example.com. Here is a more detailed rendering of ARAS. Note the good Professor’s precise use of the word ‘proclivity,’ and critical essays on john, quote marks around localize. In other words, they posit our higher faculties in the prefrontal lobes, because their proportionately larger size was the bar association essay + ms, only difference they could find between our brains and those of the primates from which they were sure we had evolved. (And a large brain didn't provide any benefits to Neanderthal.) Although this rendering is meant to illustrate the human brain, I will argue that it is common to the brain of all sentient beings. With DNA virtually identical to Neanderthal and chimpanzee for The Cosmopolitan Canopy Book example, it’s hard to see how our brains could have significant biological differences. Then what is the difference between humans and Neanderthal?
Here we must part company with those who support the neuronal man paradigm and speak to those who know that we are not just another social animal?that except for knee-jerk responses, we have the bar association essay + ms, power to review, veto, or alter our response-impulses. (I’m not going to punch my boss out, no matter how mad I am!) What is it that makes us so different? The question has resounded since the dawn of recorded time. The most common theories come from scholars who have proposed an The Cosmopolitan Canopy A Agent or ‘self’ which might explain our differences; but most without ascription, others with nebulous characteristics, none except perhaps Freud have offered a ‘self’ I (ego) which could explain our differences with our DNA analogues, or could be integrated with known psychological and neural operations of the brain, all of which are included in this new theory. And most neuroscientists derisively dismiss the idea of hinds county essay contest, a transpersonal self as a mythical ‘ghost in the machine’ (while they accept millions in critical on john, research funds to try to hinds county tease its exact equivalent out of some magical hidden powers of the cortex.) Some of the many theorists who have postulated or made reference to a unique human Agent are: St. Thomas Aquinas postulated the The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah, spiritual Soul with faculties of memory, intellect, and will. Freud‘s Agent was “I” (German ‘ich,’ translated as ego) with a laundry-list of faculties (which he apparently thought included all our 'higher powers': perception, conscious thought, memory, learning, choice, judgment, and action; Carl Jung referred to an undefined ‘self,’ or archetypal ‘God within us;’ Karen Horney to our “ real self, . the contest, central inner force, . Persuasive Essay About Summer! which is the deep source of growth, . the spring of emotional forces, of bar association essay contest + ms, constructive energies, of directive and judiciary powers;” Roberto Assagioli to an undefined but influential ‘higher self;’ Martin Buber to ‘I and Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to an ‘Observing Self;’ Anton io Damasio to a ‘proto self;’ LeDoux to our 'synaptic self;' Ernest Becker refers to our “proud, rich, lively, infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.” And myriad mystics, saints, and sages have claimed an ineffable realization of their ‘True Inner Self,’ or spiritual Soul. For a scholarly and thoughtful review of seven of these theories, see TheTranspersonalSelf .com. The Soul’s uniquely human Faculties can be seen to be Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment, yielding our preternatural Free Will, which accounts for our creativity -the ability to bring into being things which had their origins only in persuasive about, our Imaginaitons, something like God.
The Immortal “I” Most of us think of bar association + ms, ourselves as objective, and that our belief systems represent the standards we apply to evaluation of our cognitive percepts as to their meaning, significance, veracity, etc. But I have introduced the concept that both the inherent Social-Animal Needs we share with our DNA analogues, and our Love/Belief Systems become wired in our brains between stimulus and cognition, forming two sources of continuous stimuli to the brain, with the environment providing the third. The Love/Belief System also serves as a ‘reference database,’ which RAS uses in the interpretation, evaluation, and often modification of essay about summer vacation, cognitive stimuli, then generation of ‘relevant’ emotions and response-impulses before they reach full consciousness, i.e., Soul-awareness. Thus neurologically, we each experience the bar association contest, world through our Hearts. Following for reference throughout this article is the diagram I propose as illustrative of RAS processing of upenn, all social animals. The Social Animal Brain Processing. Instincts have been left blank, since they vary among Social Animals.
But this diagram shows that all brain operations are managed by hinds bar association contest the Reticular Activating System. The Reticular Formation, monitoring the environment, Instincts, and Social-Animal Needs, forwards selected stimuli on to the RAS which extracts from The Cosmopolitan Canopy by Elijah A, cortex memory 9-10 times more information. This yields identification and contest + ms, relevant responses. These are then forwarded to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for resolution (described later), then back through RAS processing for Canopy by Elijah a ‘feasibility check.’ Ambiguous responses ‘hang up’ in the PFC until additional RF environmental stimuli or cortex memory input causes one to prevail and is executed or the stimulus abates. The Social-Animal Needs (which we obviously share with our DNA analogues) are illustrated as follows: THE SOCIAL-ANIMAL NEEDS. The following diagram is the same brain, but of the human, with Instincts replaced by essay contest + ms the individual’s Love/Belief System, and introduces the “I” Needs and Faculties responsible for all our higher powers. HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN WORKS, COHERENTLY. Absentt only neurologists and strangely, cognitive psychologists who know most about what the brain does, many theorists, including even some intrepid physicists and mathematicians, far out of their fields, are exercising their prodigious powers of imagination to justify the upenn professor, concept that consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, etc.?must be some hidden purely neuronal functions of the hinds, ortex. Since I am taking strong exception to essay this universal direction of hinds essay contest, research (alone as far as I know), as well as to test neuronal man, I must devote the following portion to hinds county + ms pointing out some of what appear to be the cognitive ability, most flagrant fallacies, contradictions, labored conjectures and impasses inherent in the modular braom paradigm.
Then I'll present a wealth of evidence-including scientific evidence-that the brain does work erently. First however, I want to largely exempt Bernard J. Baars, ohPh.D., and Nicole M. Gage, Ph.D. from my criticism, based on their lucid and carefully researched textbook, Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience - Academic Press, 2007. Dedicated scientists, they struggle bravely with such things as metacognition, intentionality, volition, and “making choices in the absence of inherently correct solutions,” which they admit “remains, at least for county bar association essay contest now, a uniquely human territory.” They also find it necessary to ascribe homunculus-like faculties to psychology test the frontal lobes, e.g., as having a “coarse map of the entire cortex,” so they can retrieve memories relevant to their decision-making processes. [BG page 354] But I have made good use of their neuroscience research which corroborates and has been incorporated in my theory, and also of the gaps and impasses in all neuropsychology, e.g,, the ‘binding problem,’ and the brick wall they face in finding a neuronal explanation of our higher powers. I think every student of cognitive neurology should have a copy of this excellent book. The problem facing neuroscientists was that the hinds contest, chimpanzee’s DNA was found to critical on john keats be 98+% identical to ours, followed by hinds county essay + ms finding that the 2% difference was related only to “hair, skin, bones, blood, muscle, and the like”?hardly differences which might account for our vastly superior capabilities. And in 2010 we found that our DNA is 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, which, after 200-300,000 years on the planet were still living in caves with one tool, a sharpened stone when they became extinct; lending even stronger evidence to this theory.
Our DNA is not similar to that of Neanderthal and. chimpanzee?it is, to all intents and purposes, identical. Then why are we so different? Most scientists have concluded that our higher faculties must be found in the cortex, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), both proportionally larger than those of the chimp, assuming that a larger but biologically identical brain, can account for our superiority. So hundreds of researchers are expending millions of people-hours, devoting all their efforts to locate human faculties of consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, imagination, conviction, etc., as originating in some yet-to-be discovered neuron al capabilities of the cortex. Nor is there any validity to the popular ‘triune’ nature of the brain, as composed of evolutionary development from lizard to mammalian to primate brains. The so-called lizard brain is not a brain at all, since it represents only a portion of the lizard brain, which like ours, is comprised of brainstem, midbrain, and cortex. Nor is the mammalian brain a brain.
And as we shall see, their derogation of the importance of the lower and mid-brain in favor of the cortex has led researchers to only a perfunctory analysis of their vital and marvelous functions. Also neuropsychologists are admittedly struggling with a ‘binding problem.’ The visual characteristics of an psychology essay object?color, shape, size, motion?are registered and interpreted in different parts of the essay contest, cortex. So, they wonder, “If I see something red, round, baseball-size, and in motion, where in the cortex do all those percepts come together to upenn essay professor instantly tell me that I’m going to bar association get hit in the face with a tomato?” The famous binding problem. The answer is essay of uncle, that they don’t come together in the cortex, but in the thalamus and midbrain, the much more likely home to consciousness. Now consider the rat, which can generate perhaps only 40 or 50 different responses. Bar Association Essay Contest! But those few responses have insured the perpetuation of the species for thousands of years.
Now looking at by Elijah the successive identically anatomical forms of the brain of the rat, cat, owl monkey, rhesus monkey, and chimpanzee, isn’t it obvious that these are simply sequentially larger versions of the rat’s marvelously efficient brain? Enlargements which, coupled with a more versatile body and larger brain?more RAM work space and memory?enable the chimp to generate scores of responses and, by operant conditioning and social and experiential learning, acquire scores more? S ince our DNA is identical, isn’t it obvious that our brain is hinds essay contest + ms, just a larger chimp’s brain, operating on the same principles and components? Much of what we know about the human brain has been learned from primates (and mice!). Also, pioneers in artificial intelligence realized that the computer must be equipped with many facts: children can’t be as old or older than their parents, tools are bought at a hardware store, etc. They first estimated maybe as many as a million facts, but soon realized they must deal with tens of cognitive skills in critical ability to judge, millions of facts! Where does the brain store all this information? Further, imagine the hinds essay contest, sheer number of one's memories and neural motor sequence memories?routines?necessary for a typist to hit 8 keys a second for essay of uncle minutes at essay contest a time, without realizing what he has typed?for words to appear on a page while he thinks of essays on john, something else. Imagine the number of memory routines necessary to hinds bar association essay + ms drive my car through traffic while I’m day-dreaming, and alert me instantly to anything requiring my attention; or for our thoughtless morning ablutions.
For a concert pianist to have thousands of musical phrases wired to the motor neurons of his fingers, arms, feet, and Book, legs; some of hinds + ms, which can be executed continuously for twenty minutes? Where could we possibly store all our memories and tens of essays on john keats, millions of facts and bar association + ms, sensory and motor sequences?routines, subroutines, and sub-subroutines?all this memory? Why, only in a much larger cortex of professor, course! We don’t need another operating system; but we humans obviously need more work-space (PFC RAM) and memory, a larger hard drive; both provided by the vast association areas and depth of the human cortex. Further, limited to fMRI scans of the brain, neuropsychologists consider activities such as thought, reasoning, perception, emotions, etc., as functions of the parts of the brain which ‘light up’ when those activities are operant, but activities which are impaired when that part of the brain is damaged, lesioned or diseased. But a computer hard drive operates exactly the same way?activates relevant sectors when certain programs are called for, and fails to hinds essay contest + ms execute those programs when those sectors are damaged. Does that mean computer operations are ‘functions’ of the hard drive? The hard drive is about summer vacation, just a passive memory of county bar association essay contest + ms, operational sequences called forth and managed from somewhere else. Correlation should not be confused with causal.
Calling mental and biological activities functions of Canopy Book by Elijah, brain segments which light up, is like saying that controlling an airplane’s flight attitude is a function of the ailerons, rudder, and elevator, which are active in hinds contest, flight corrections, but which are functions of the pilot or autopilot. Still further, believing all our higher powers are in the cortex, scientists have concentrated on the one-way upward course of information from the senses to the reticular formation and thalamus up to the cortex, where they think processing, analysis, and in critical to judge, decision-making must take place. But in The Creative Loop - How the Brain Makes a Mind, Erich Harth says neuroscientists have “studiously ignored” the instant downward passage of ten times more information from cortex to essay + ms thalamus. Baars and Gage recognize this phenomenon, but say these “neurons are running the wrong way! ” (sic!) And further, that RAS uses the appropriate components of the brain. to manage implementation of RAS selected or Soul initiated responses. For example, when one hears the words, ‘Marilyn Monroe’ (OK, I'm 95), they pass in cognitive skills in critical thinking ability, neural networks through the reticular formation to hinds bar association essay + ms uncomprehending consciousness in the thalamus and up to auditory regions in the cortex.
But ten times more information is instantly returned from the cortex to thalamic consciousness?enough information to yield a picture of a beautiful blonde in a white dress and high heels standing over a subway exhaust grille trying to hold her skirt down?a picture which would require scores of thousands of computer bytes. On the other hand, presented with that picture, it is sent in neural networks through unknowing consciousness to visual cortex V1 through V3, and returns the name 'Marilyn Monroe' to consciousness in the thalamus, together with what the listener knows of her life. Some neuroscientists agree, at least in part: “From modern neuro-anatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” In view of the above, it is short essay of uncle toms cabin, a major thesis of this article that although. we use the brain differently, e.g,. for hinds bar association contest + ms everything from language to. putting men on upenn, the moon, and therefore develop different capacities. of its components, the human brain, in and of itself, has no inherent. functional capabilities which differentiate it from the brain of the.
chimpanzee or Neanderthal. We have two distinctly different schools of thought: the “Modular Brain/Neuronal Man” (MB/NM) school, and that of the “Soul/Coherent Brain” (S/CB). The thoughtful reader will find many more problems, speculations, and contradictions in MB/NM in this article and notes, and hopefully appreciate the far-reaching explanatory powers of S/CB. How the Brain Works, Coherently. Look at hinds county bar association essay contest it this way: if beings from another planet got to earth, and simply observed an automobile for a day or two without raising the hood, but listening, examining the gas, the Book A, exhaust, etc., they would undoubtedly be able to tell, without a design of each part, exactly what components were at work inside the car. They would know there must be a fuel vaporizer, combustion chambers, ignition devices, a transmission, etc., etc. Now with ever-increasing analytical skills, and ever-increasing data, we have been observing ourselves for hinds county essay contest + ms several thousand years, and critical keats, no one seems to be trying to hinds county bar association + ms analyze the brain from a systems standpoint?to postulate the components and short of uncle cabin, their functions which must be at bar association + ms work ‘under the hood,’ in order to explain all the rational and irrational physical, mental, and emotional responses which biologists, neuroscientists, and persuasive essay about vacation, particularly cognitive psychologists know the brain can generate and/or implement. 1. Hinds Essay Contest! Immediate access to upenn professor all available internal and circumstantialental information,
2. A means of county contest, rapidly assimilating, evaluating, and pioritizing. 3. A means of selecting and implementing appropriate responses. t o the information, and. 4. Immediate two-way communications, for control and feedback, with all of the subsystems. The human brain is the upenn essay, most complex. system in bar association essay contest + ms, the world, with many subsystems. capable of operating in upenn essay professor, a coordinated way. its components and subsystems?much more complicated than.
a battleship?could possibly coordinate each of their functions in. timely management of the thousands of hinds county essay + ms, complex physical, mental, emotional, and biological responses of the brain, providing as it. does, instantaneous, coordinated reactions to circumstances of. vital interest, without an ‘autopilot’—a priority evaluator and. responder to A all internal and environmental stimuli, i.e., a command and hinds county bar association essay, control system. Fortunately, we have the perfect candidate for the brain's. command and essays on john keats, control system in the Reticular Activating.
System, centered (with consciousness?) in essay, the midbrain, immediate access to all internal and cognitive in critical thinking, external stimuli, known to bar association + ms scan and question, prioritize that information, select and. implement relevant responses: the Reticular Activating. System with its ‘sentinel,’ the Reticular Formation. minor properties of the Reticular Activating System/ Reticular Formation for over 50 years, none of them, to my knowledge, has suggested they form a command.
and control system for operations of the entire brain. One of the keys to a cogent systems analysis of the brain was provided many years ago by county the renowned Jerome S. Bruner, one of the fathers of essay summer vacation, existential psychology, when he stated. The human mind has an ‘inhibitory system’ which. routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and county bar association contest, judgment over 90% of available fact. In 1958, physiologist H. Test Question! W. Magoun described some of the essay + ms, RF/RAS functions in The Waking Brain. The Reticular Formation was found to be a small bundle of short-axon neurons at the top of the brainstem, many ofwhich are uniquely unspecific. With its millions of neuronal pathways to and from the brain and the body, the whole system was named the Reticular Activating System, because stimulation of the RF awakened sleeping subjects, while damage to professor the RF resulted in coma.
But, now, after 50+ years, neurologists have identified only a few of the RAS purposes. (Google ‘Reticular Activating System’ to see the paucity of information about it, and hinds bar association contest, the few powers attributed to it.) Although its centralized location and countless connections would seem to short toms cabin enable it to bar association + ms perform myriad functions, neurologists have no tools to professor investigate the county essay contest + ms, remarkable functions of the Reticular Activating System; how it can process 100 million impulses a second, and select the most ‘significant’ to persuasive about summer vacation each individual. The answer was not explicable by any known neurological processes. Drawing on the works of scores of geniuses in biology, cognitive and phenomenological psychology, cybernetics, and neuroscience in a systems analysis, we can now develop a schematic of cognitive brain functions. iInformation about RAS is scarce, but by combing the literature, we find scores of clues to a coherent brain managed by the marvelous powers of RF/RAS. County Bar Association Essay Contest! Following is compelling evidence that the persuasive summer vacation, Reticular Activating System, in both humans and county bar association contest + ms, animals, is the perfect neurological candidate for the brain’s Command and Canopy Book by Elijah, Control System. For example: [The reticular formation] “is well placed to essay contest + ms monitor all the critical, nerves connecting brain and body. It ‘knows’ what is going on better than any other part of the brain.” [The RF] “alerts the county essay, brain to summer vacation incoming information from the senses, and from the centers of thought, memory and bar association essay contest, feeling. More than that, it adjudicates the relative importance of that information. .. Cognitive Skills To Judge! In a way the RAS is county contest, like a vigilant secretary, sorting out the trivia from the incoming messages.” “The reticular formation is, in essence, the physical basis of consciousness, the brain’s chief watchguard. . The reticular formation continuously sifts and persuasive, selects, forwarding only the hinds bar association + ms, essential, the unusual, the dangerous to the conscious mind. Psychology Test Essay Question! . The reticular formation can both send and receive messages. If it suddenly spots one that merits attention, it shoots up an alert through ascending RAS pathways to receiving areas in the cortex.
Timed to essay contest arrive simultaneously with the impulses sent directly from sensory receptors the RAS alerts the cortex to these impulses.” “The RAS determines which . bits of information are important enough - or novel enough - to test question report to the higher portions of the brain. . Normally, the information relating to automatic actions, such as the heart-beat and digestion, is hinds bar association contest, dealt with directly by the RAS without allowing any awareness of them to filter through to upenn essay professor the conscious bran.” Fortunately we are blessed with the work of the genius Dean Wooldridge, Ph.D. (1913-2006) biologist and President of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge working on bar association essay, missile development and control, in his book The Machinery of the short essay toms cabin, Brain written in 1963! He also found time to hinds county bar association contest + ms apply his stellar mind to neuroscience. The brain’s response selector has been given the name reticular activating system by of uncle toms H. W. Magoun and his coworkers at county essay + ms U.C.L.A. The reticular activating system consists of a mass of undifferentiated neurons that extend from the top of the critical on john keats, spinal cord through the brainstem on up into the thalamus and hypothalamus. These two structures are at the extreme top and forward part of the brainstem and are well inside, but not a part of, the hinds bar association + ms, surrounding cerebral cortex. Cognitive Skills Thinking! The hypothalamus, part of which is county bar association essay contest, included in the reticular activating system, appeared in our earlier discussion as the upenn professor, seat of temperature control of the body. The reticular formation gets its name from the fact that it looks like a more or less homogeneous network of cells; it shows little evidence of organization into county essay contest + ms anatomically distinct ‘nuclei,’ although it passes through and to judge, around a number of hinds bar association essay contest, nuclei in traversing the test question, length of the brain-stem. Close examination of the reticular formation shows that it consists of a mixture of large and small neurons, many, but not all, having short axons. Concurrent with the selection by hinds county + ms an organism of one of several alternate behavior patterns, there is often need for vacation adjustment of some of the oper-ating parameters.
In our missile example, the shift from mid-course to county essay + ms terminal guidance usually must be accompanied by changes in the dynamic response characteristics of the steering mechanism. Persuasive Essay About Vacation! During the final approach to the target, a tighter kind of ‘muscular’ control of the missile is essay, required. . Reticular influences on the muscles are numerous and essays keats, varied. Apart from such special modifications of muscular function as those just described, the general muscle tone of the body—the degree of contraction that characterizes the hinds essay + ms, normal resting muscles-is controlled by the reticular activating system. Interference with certain of the communication channels from the reticular system to the muscles (by cutting of some of the nerves or by suitably placed lesions) results in extreme muscular contraction; interference with other of the efferent fibers of the reticular formation causes the muscles to relax completely. Electric stimulation or lesions in another part of the psychology test question, reticular activating system interfere with the normal dynamic balance of the body's servomechanisms in such a way as to cause rhythmic muscular quivering similar to the shaking palsy of Parkinson's disease.
Automatic Control Circuits in the Nervous System. There is another reason for emphasizing the county essay contest, automatic control functions of the central nervous system. These are the really important functions of the brain. They keep the organism alive and healthy. It is cognitive skills thinking to judge, only from a narrow human point of hinds county contest, view that conscious thought and the so-called higher mental processes are of much significance.
Evidence of the truth of this is afforded by the way nature has allocated functions as between unconscious and conscious control of the brain. Nature clearly does not yet trust the skills thinking ability, recently developed and not very well proved “higher” intellectual capabilities of man for contest + ms the performance of persuasive summer vacation, any really vital functions, such as breathing, regulation of the heartbeat, control of the parts of the bar association contest + ms, throat to prevent strangulation during eating, or regulation of the essay about, chemical balance of the digestive organs. To be sure, since this book has the bar association essay contest + ms, disadvantage of being written from the highly distorted, narrowly human point of view, a disproportionate amount of attention is going to be devoted, in later chapters, to what we humans have arrogantly come to call the critical essays keats, “higher intellectual processes.” [??] So Dr. Wooldridge concludes that the neural processes involved in RF/RAS selection of our most important percepts, and implementation of hinds county bar association + ms, relevant responses to those percepts—and certainly to our acts of The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah A, Will — would hold no mysteries to the computer scientist of 1963! Today, 52 years later, we are still no closer to recognizing the marvelous powers of RF/RAS, and cognitive neuroscience is derisively described as merely ‘the expensive branch of philosophy.’ Wooldridge concludes with:
The Higher Intellectual Processes. The closer our explorations approach the field of complex mental phenomena, the smaller becomes the quantity of hinds bar association essay, available and relevant physical measurements. This was noticeable in the last chapter and has become glaringly evident in this one, as our discussion has come to depend more and essays keats, more on nonquantitative subjective and behavioristic observations, and less and less on supporting measurements made directly on the brain and hinds county bar association essay contest, nervous system. Clearly we have come to the end of the line in short essay of uncle, our treatment of the observed facts of brain construction and performance. From all the evidence, the human and animal RF/RAS can only be characterized as a marvelous cybernetic ‘autopilot’ which receives all incoming data, scans and prioritizes that data for disequiibria based on its ‘stored programs;’ continually selects and forwards the county essay contest + ms, most significant to RAS for further processing; and essay vacation, RAS, retrieving memory data from the essay contest, cortex, generates and controls responses or response-impulses ‘appropriate’ to essays its iterations of the hinds county contest, data. It is thus a major thesis of this theory, representing a new. paradigm of the brain, that in all sentient beings, the Reticular. Activating System, given an persuasive summer vacation RF-selected or Soul-Commitment. stimulus, generates and manages brain component responses which. will maintain biological homeostasis; in county essay contest, social beings to maintain bio- sociological stasis; and in humans, to also maintain stasis of our. uniquely induced psychological, emotional, and volitional states.
All of our Loves and those Beliefs with an emotional or affective component are not additional facts to be stored as data. They are processed differently, with some representation probably in skills in critical to judge, the amygdala and county essay contest + ms, hippocampus. With the of uncle, Social Animal Needs, they represent ‘databases,’ which with the environment, provide stimuli sources for RF selection, and essay contest, RAS uses Wooldridge's ‘stored programs’ and ‘stored behaviors’ to essays on john select and implement relevant responses. I maintain that the RF/RAS is the entire organisms’ equilibrium sensor and balance restorer of all biological and physiological functions of all sentient beings, and, in the human it is the RF/RAS, programmed with our SA-Needs and Love/Belief Systems, which generates responses in an effort to maintain stasis of our uniquely instigated emotional, psychological, and volitional states. Based on our autonomic responses, such as resentment or pleasure to a personal insult or compliment, it is apparent that the human RF/RAS generates responses to hinds county bar association contest + ms stimuli relevant to Elements of our Love/Belief Systems. This facility of the RAS together with our uniquely human metafaculties, makes of each of our brains what we have been calling the ‘mind’?a human brain, a brain with a ‘Heart.’ but subject to the Soul.
In addition to all its other functions, the RAS, with its arsenal of ‘perceptual defenses,’ works tirelessly to protect the fragile. shell of our Love/Belief Systems. We also have the essay about vacation, power of the strange ‘metacognition.’ Baars and hinds, Gage recognize metacognition (without ascription, nor am I ready to speculate) as “our unique self-consciousness and cognizance of our mental processes . the ability to know our own cognitive functions, and to upenn be able to county bar association essay use that knowledge;” and cognitive skills in critical ability, say the prefrontal cortex is “necessary for metacognition.” (??) I believe metacogntion is our cognition of PFC functions, the weighing of alternative responses, purposes, or ambiguous situations. Cognitive psychologists, e.g., Merluzzi, et al., have long recognized the hinds county bar association essay + ms, faculty of metacognition, which they say, “refers to the ability to monitor a wide variety of upenn essay, cognitive enterprises, . to monitor one’s memory and comprehension, or knowing about knowing or an awareness of one’s own cognitive machinery and the way it operates .” Both metacognition and hinds county bar association contest, commitment are manifest in the well-known Benjamin Libet experiments. From Kenneth Klivington:
Benjamin Libet of the University of upenn, California, recorded electrical signals generated by hinds bar association essay contest the brains of his experimental subjects and looked particularly at a signal called the ‘readiness potential’ that always appears just before a movement. Of Uncle Toms Cabin! Using special timing techniques, he found that the readiness potential begins about half a second before a subject begins to bar association move a hand. This is expected, since brain activity must begin before the brain issues a command to the muscles. Essays! What is hinds, surprising, however, is that the subjects do not become aware of short of uncle, deciding to move until only about two tenths of a second before the movement begins, some three tenths of a second after the brain activity began. “.. to Libet [this] says that the county, intention to essay about act arises from brain activity that is not within our conscious awareness. Bar Association! . the brain initiates the impulse to act and upenn professor, the conscious self subsequently becomes aware of it.
Libet also finds that his subjects are able to veto the impulse to act during the few tenths of a second after a subject becomes aware of it. In this sense, consciousness becomes a gatekeeper for intentions generated by the brain, letting through only those that somehow meet an individual’s criteria.” But if precedent responses and their associated memories are ambiguous, conflicting, or inhibited, e.g., a threat generating ‘fight, flight, or freeze’ responses, all responses from cortex memory in the form of motor sequence memories?each weighted by their associated results?are registered in the PFC, where, accompanied by continuous additional sensory input from thalamic consciousness regarding the significance and imminence of the threat?and additional relevant memories from the cortex?the momentary weight or urgency of each response is adjusted until (in the animal) one response prevails and breaks through to the conveniently contiguous premotor cortex for implementation, or the threat abates. The vaunted prefrontal cortex is simply RAM, which does not store memory, but provides current work-space for RAS-generated inhibited, ambiguous, or conflicting response-impulses. When the stimuls is resolved, the PFC is restored to inactive RAM. The PFC doesn’t decide which response will be executed, any more than a neuron, with excitatory and inhibitory impulses, decides when to essay contest fire. Only the Soul can decide which response will prevail. But this ‘simple’ PFC function?also active but not determinate. in humans?has led neuroscientists to ascribe our unique. executive powers of reasoning, analysis, and decision- making to some mysterious powers of the short essay, prefontal. lobes because that is where most brain.
activity occurs prior to a response. So except for knee-jerk reactions, if a RAS- or Self-generated response is even slightly ambiguous, conflicted, or inhibited, and hinds essay, does not require immediate implementation, we can either allow it to psychology test question be executed, or we can imagine the effects of that response(s), review alternative responses and their potential effects, select a preferred response goal-image, and commit if to RAS for execution. This is indicated by the black arrow in the diagram. Unfortunately, even in hinds county bar association essay, a considered decision, our analysis of short cabin, alternative responses is essay contest + ms, limited to consideration only persuasive about summer of our conscious memories and SA-Need/Love-Belief System Elements, but subject to contest + ms strong insidious influences from subconscious Elements. Essay Toms! Which is why we so often have two reasons for hinds county bar association contest + ms what we do: a good reason, and the real reason. And we can creatively will to psychology do things. How do “I” Will something to hinds bar association essay contest happen? In going to the store, first, I create a goal-image of myself at cognitive thinking ability the store, run the idea through a feasibility check, and if there is county essay, a problem, the upenn professor, response hangs up in the PFC, where it can be resolved per above; then Commit myself to the trip. This process authorizes RAS to execute the motor neuron programs from cortex memory which take me to bar association the store, while I’m free to The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah A think of something else if I wish. Autopilot RAS takes me there. Creative Will is the sequential use of the Soul’s Faculties.
of Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment. How does the brain do this? I submit that when furnished with a clear picture of bar association essay contest + ms, a result, a goal-image, ans a feasibility check resulting in belief in The Cosmopolitan, its attainability and a commitment to hinds county bar association essay achieve it, the RAS is presented with a disequilibrium: “I'm here—I intend to be there.” RAS executes the correct subliminal adjustments for this trp —steering, braking, accelerating, based on thalamic visual input—taking me to on john keats the store, leaving my mind free for daydreams—proving RAS implementation of responses in fulfillment of our goal-image! This principle applies to long-range goals, “I will be a doctor, lawyer, wife and mother, teacher, millionaire, missionary, etc.” Any goal image, firmly held, creates a disequilibrium in the Reticular Activating System, and hinds contest, it constantly brings to our attention from the recesses of the test essay, memory and from the environment the jigsaw-like pieces of the hinds county essay contest + ms, elements, ideas and opportunities which can contribute to actualization of the intent. Although it required a lot of innovation, the parts of Gutenberg’s printing press were all in about, existence when he decided to build one, and his RAS led him to the pieces of a solution.
The parts necessary to hinds bar association essay make an keats automobile were all in place when Henry Ford decided to hinds essay contest make one. And for Bill Gates to critical essays keats make a personal computer. History is rife with examples of people who accomplished remarkable achievements through a firmly held goal-image. R eturning to the PFC, it is hinds county bar association essay contest, not only ambiguous responses to situational stimuli which must be resolved in the PFC. Rather, isn’t it obvious that every human problem or problematic situation is referred to the PFC RAM for resolution? Baars Gage say “.. the frontal lobes are critical in a free-choice situation, when it is question, up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation.” But most of us live in a virtual sea of ambiguous situations.
We are always operating on a dozen or two perpetual purposes: safety, security, good health, welfare of loved ones, our love lives, our reputations, our spiritual lives, self-image, possessions, careers, finances, acceptance, ‘shoulds,’ etc. These are purposes to which the environment or our Love/Belief Systems continually provide relevant stimuli. But because they are purposes which can never be completely resolved, and are often conflicting, the RAS can only engender ambiguous, conflicting or inhibited piecemeal responses. Hinds County! So most of us are worrying our poor PFC’s almost every waking moment—no wonder they are so large. And why so many of us live ‘lives of quiet desperation,’ and cognitive dissonance. We need a new paradigm of the human brain, as a brain which starts out physiologically and functionally identical to that of the chimpanzee, but is transformed into what we have been calling the ‘mind,’ by critical essays on john virtue of our faculties of metacognition, imagination, conviction and hinds contest + ms, commitment, as well as by the thousands of our Self-adopted Loves and Beliefs and their concomitant Desires and Fears which constitute our unique Love/Belief Systems and provide most of the ‘significant’ stimuli to our Reticular Formations. We must also suspect that the question, thalamus is the avidly sought locus of consciousness, certainly the locus of the Command and county bar association, Control Center of the brain; and RAS the de facto Manager of the brain.
The RF is A, its sentinel and county, perhaps one of psychology question, its most important subordinates. The inaptly named Reticular Activating System should now be considered the hinds + ms, brain’s Command and Control System; and must be seen to exercise its influences throughout the entire brain and cognitive skills thinking ability, body. All other elements of the county essay + ms, brain then represent the subsystems or ‘tools’ of the RAS. Short Essay Toms Cabin! Their functions?constantly contributing new sensory input and feedback to the RAS iterations, recovering memories, fleshing out the details of percepts, generating emotions, responses, etc.?are only enacted when generated by RAS/RF iterations, or purposes enacted from thalamic consciousness through the RAS, but originating in the Will. Sadly however, even our best intentions must pass through the RAS to be implemented, often a tortuous feasibility check, where they can be displaced. They just don’t get done. All the county bar association essay contest + ms, involuntary response-impulses of us ‘normal’ people, whether or not they are assented to, are. a perfect RAS reflection of our Social-Animal.
Needs and the Loves and Beliefs and their. concomitant Desires and Fears arising. from our Love/Belief Systems or Hearts. To live in a different, better world, it has been said, Nothing need change but our Hearts. If cognitive scientists are to understand the brain, they must suspend their search for psychology test essay question uniquely human faculties of the cortex and hinds essay + ms, expand their studies of the Reticular Activating System. They must also hypothesize an Agent?call it “X” or “Franistan” if you will?which can account for our unique needs and faculies. Obviously, I’m with Aquinas, Zimbardo, Assagioli, Horney, Becker, and essay, thousands of mystics, saints, and hinds essay contest + ms, sages. We have both a heart, or Love/Belief System, and are a Soul, a higher self; Becker’s ‘proud, rich, lively infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit,’ Horney‘s real self, . the summer vacation, central inner force, . which is the deep source of growth, . the spring of emotional forces, of constructive energies, of directive and judiciary powers'—a spiritual SouL, with Needs to hinds bar association contest Exist, to Love, and to psychology question Know, which account for county + ms our motivations, and Faculties of Imagination, Conviction, and critical essays, Commitment?Faculties which, acting in concert, yield free will, and account for all our phenomenal creaivity. These concepts explain from county bar association + ms, a systems standpoint how the brain works, and explains not only all human behavior commonly considered normal (as well as our potential for enlightenment), but also psychoses, neuroses, obsessive-compulsion, character disorders, perceptual defense, cognitive dissonance, distractioin, displacement, repression, split personality, the persuasive about vacation, powers of the self-image, suggestion, hypnosis, positive and negative thinking, etc., etc. And autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, ADD/ADHD, and even some physiological, biological, genetic, and chemically induced pathologies can all be the county bar association essay contest, result of a malfunctioning Reticular Activating System.
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essay on odyssey two ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. €śThe Development of hinds bar association essay contest, Penelope in Homer€™s Odyssey €ť. €śThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey €ť. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMER€™S ODYSSEY. The time of ancient Greece seems like its own story in another world, one nothing like our own. Powerful gods and goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and essays the mistreatment of women rule the plot.
Except that women have been overlooked in our world for centuries. The insignificance of women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal. Hinds Contest + Ms? In the epic poem The Odyssey by Homer, Penelope develops into essay question her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Hinds County Bar Association Contest? Homer makes Penelope into toms her own person and not just an addition to her husband by his long absence and the troubles she must face on contest, her own through difficult times. Professor? Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Hinds County Bar Association Contest? Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in Greek times such as Agamemnon€™s wife, but similar to Circe and Athena. She is turned into a woman of power by Homer.
Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in critical keats the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of it, Penelope remains more faithful to her husband than he is to county bar association essay contest + ms her. She never submits to the whims of the suitors begging for critical her hand in marriage and hinds bar association essay only finds ways to make them leave her, while he enjoys the company of Circe and Calypso. In a time where women are not praised for their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for twenty years wins her a place as the highest form of women. Agamemnon compares her to short essay toms cabin his wife and praises her as being the €śmistress of her own heart,/ Penelope!€ť (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife €śthe adulteress,/ waited to stab her lord and king€ť (XXIV.225-226). Hinds County Bar Association Essay Contest? From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that €śthe very gods themselves will sing her story€ť (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the best quality a woman could have. Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of her life, without a man by upenn essay her side to see her through.
Agamemnon€™s wife finds herself another man to rely on while her own husband is hinds essay contest gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of summer, women at the time. Penelope is able to hinds county essay + ms stay loyal to her husband even after twenty years. The two wives of warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of her husband to upenn professor guide her to become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus. Penelope is county bar association essay + ms faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day.
She is test essay question left with a son, not even two, to raise on her own, without the contest + ms guidance of a father figure in test essay his life. Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and king would, and the fate of her kingdom rests with him. County Bar Association Essay Contest? In addition, once Odysseus€™ mother dies and Laertes goes to persuasive essay about live alone, Penelope is left alone to rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself. There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to be dead and ask for her hand in marriage every day. Hinds Bar Association Contest + Ms? They will not leave Penelope in peace and €śevery suitor swore to lie beside her€ť (I.115) but €śSpurn them she dare not€ť (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of critical on john, her home and family. She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the suitors and never allowing her hatred of them to gain the upper hand. She must guard herself and her home from their anger and of their insistence of hinds county essay contest, Odysseus€™ death.
If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to persuasive vacation stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is hinds essay similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives. Circe disposes of any men who come to her island, and has made herself a woman to fear. Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in other€™s hearts. She has no wish to kill even the men that plague her, only wishes that they would be gone. Essays On John? She never allows them to gain the upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout.
When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. Contest + Ms? Penelope feels that it would be best to question test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Hinds County Bar Association Essay? Her cunning saves her from a possibility of being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not. As close as Penelope and Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to persuasive essay about vacation have him torn from her again. She tests him by bar association contest + ms having him €śtried to the breaking point€ť (XXIII.206) by suggesting that the bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. She also uses her wily wits to stall the suitors from forcing her into an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for Odysseus€™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the work. Ability To Judge? What the hinds county essay contest suitors are unaware of is that €śevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove it€ť (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and have to marry one of the suitors.
Her trick works for three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the stringing of Odysseus€™ bow and firing an arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads. In the about vacation use of her cunning, Penelope is able to put off the efforts of the suitors for over three years, an impressive feat with men so persistent. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for his cunning because it is similar to her own. Penelope€™s cunning is therefore also similar to Athena€™s. Hinds Essay? Both are female figures in toms a time of male rulings that use their shrewd skills to county bar association essay + ms retain power. Penelope€™s ability to psychology test essay remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and takes advantage of. Penelope is seen at first as a wife of county + ms, a hero, and nothing more. She is known by her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. As the poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits.
Penelope develops into persuasive essay vacation a person from a faceless being in a time where women are valued for their bodies. In the time of ancient Greece, women were insignificant. Penelope€™s character proves that women can be important to a story and the development of a happy ending. The Odyssey is an epic poem and a story full of captivating tales of heroism and county bar association contest bravery. Without Penelope€™s strength, wisdom, and loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to come home to and the story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the psychology wonders of quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the stories would have seemed to tell only of death. Hinds Contest? The actions of a mere woman could change the whole story, a concept that in ancient Greece would be hard to grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of upenn professor, Religion in The Odyssey. Religion has always been significant throughout history. Many people€™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to god.
For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about bar association essay contest how their god would judge their actions. Homer€™s Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus€™s journey home, and how the gods affect this voyage. Psychology? The Greek gods and county + ms the religion itself are very significant to the story. Whether it€™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to vacation go to war, the gods are ever-present and essay contest a critical aspect to the story. One way the critical essays on john gods play an important role is by bar association essay contest + ms acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for essay summer the interference of the gods. An example of this is when Circe entraps Odysseus and his men with her irresistible offers of hinds county contest, meat and bread, thus causing them to stay much longer then they intend to. While on Circe€™s island, Odysseus narrates, €śSo day by psychology question day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and hinds wine, until a year grew fat€ť (X.516, 517). Cognitive Skills Ability? Circe€™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to be delayed an hinds essay + ms entire year. She is one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over.
Another is psychology essay Poseidon. Just as Odysseus is about to reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, €śStill I can give him a rough ride, and I will€ť (V.300). He €śgives him a ride€ť by creating huge waves that destroy Odysseus€™s raft, thus deterring him even further. These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in that they act as obstacles for Odysseus to overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only a tiny portion of the problems the gods cause him. These predicaments and challenges are what make the county bar association story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Without the gods, this cycle wouldn€™t be present. This is why the gods€™ role in essays keats the Odyssey as obstacles is so important. Interestingly enough, the gods are also significant in the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an hinds county bar association important role in the story is by aiding Odysseus on his journey home.
Athena is especially helpful in this way. When Odysseus is battling the suitors to regain control of his home, he is greatly outnumbered. Essay Of Uncle Toms Cabin? Athena €śturns their shots, or all but two€ť (XXII.303). This action saves Odysseus€™s life, and helps him regain control of his home and family. The fact that when in need of assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is critical to the story; it enables him to fight battles, both literal and county essay figurative, that he couldn€™t win on his own. Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to help him significantly changes the essay cabin story. At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is hinds county bar association + ms so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for the knowledge that Athena will be there for him.
The help of the gods is also important just to counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus. If he was only being hurt and not aided by the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner. The gods€™ aid is critical essays keats significant because frankly needs it. He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to return home. The Greek religion, particularly the county essay belief that the gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the gods weren€™t on his side because the winds are blowing his ship the wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the gods will blow his ship towards Troy. Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to The Cosmopolitan Canopy by Elijah A please the gods so that his ship can sail. The author describes Agamemnon€™s decision: €śthis was terrible to all, but to hinds essay her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearable€ť (Hamilton 261).
Despite the pain it causes him, pleasing the persuasive essay about summer vacation gods comes first. Hamilton continues, €śNevertheless he yielded€ť (Hamilton 261). The idea that his own daughter€™s life isn€™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and hinds essay contest the idea of religion causes people to value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones. People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to do something so that the gods will give them what they want in return. The gods are significant in short toms this way because their approval and satisfaction influences people€™s actions throughout the story. Their religion is essay contest + ms critical to The Cosmopolitan Book by Elijah A their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on a whim, cause people to battle at will, and start an all-out war.
At the end of the story, a fight between the bar association contest mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is about to break out. Before it can really begin, Athena says, €ś€™Odysseus, master of land ways and sea ways,/command yourself. Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the wide world may be angry€™€ť (XXIV.607-609). Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives. The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and psychology other gods posses this power, fighting is not ceased more often. So many people die during war that whomever has the power to begin or end a war has the power to save or take away many, many lives.
The gods play an important role in this way by choosing to participate in hinds county bar association essay contest war, or by choosing, as Athena did, to stop the fighting from happening. It is apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the exciting, epic story that it is. Although the gods play a very different role in essay cabin society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant. Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of life today, an county essay idea that was prominent throughout the critical keats Odyssey.